Who Shall Survive - J. L. Moreno M.D. - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2024)

WHO SHALL SURVIVE? Foundations of Sociometry, Group Psychotherapy and Sociodrama


J. L . MORENO, M .D .

Beacon House Inc . Beacon, N . Y . 1978

Copyright 1953, by Beacon House Inc . Beacon, N. Y. Library of Congress Catalog Card No . 53-7284 THIRD EDITION 1978

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FOREWORD TO THE THIRD EDITION Since this book first appeared in 1934, sociometry has been through many stages in rapid development . It has been identified not only with the rigorous application of research techniques to specific problems in human behavior ; it has also grown along the lines of social healing, diagnosis and therapy . Simultaneously, sociometry has come forth with a theory of human behavior-on one hand, as a system of propositions rather solidly grounded in research findings, and on the other hand through its speculative considerations, it has aimed at capturing the imaginative mind . It is fair to say that the all-important foundations of sociometry have, by now, been built . This basis is one which consists of thousands and thousands of investigations, generally limited to various types of groups and small communities . The findings from small groups may not be always directly transferable to larger and different types of groupings . This we think to be the next level of inquiry for sociometry . Sociometry, we believe, is now ready to push the search for knowledge onto a new level, using to the utmost benefit all that has, thus far, been established . In these efforts new hypotheses are called for . New instruments of research will emerge making the testing of such hypotheses possible . The theories will have to be revised in the light of new discoveries . We strongly believe that this new referent of sociometry is cross-cultural . We also are convinced that sociometry is ready to tackle-step by step-some of the new problems . And above all, our move toward international sociometry is motivated by the state of affairs of our world, a situation about which behavioral scientists must help acquire knowledge if they are to discharge their universal responsibility to science, to humanity, to their nations, and to themselves . This edition is a call for integration of the behavioral and therapeutic sciences . It starts from the premise that it is both desirable and necessary to develop systematic theory which embodies in it the best elements of speculation, research and therapy and which does so in a truly universal manner . Secondly, we believe that sociometric and sociatric approaches to commonly human and scientific problems hold one of the major

WHO SHALL SURVIVE? keys toward such an integration . Among the sociatric approaches, particular attention will be given to group psychotherapy, psychodrama, sociodrama and ethnodrama . - - Thirdly, we are dedicated to the internationalism of science-not only in word but also in action . The building of intercultural bridges, in our opinion, presupposes the growth of a body of knowledge which is multi-cultural and inter-cultural in character .




• •• Origin of Sociometr Genesis of Psychodrama . . . xvi Genesis of Group Psychotherapy -------------- ------------------------ xxviii The Passing of the Psychoanalytic System xciii Two Secessions : Group Therapy and Group Dynamics xcvii The Rapprochements . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cvi FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION °- cix


The Problem of Natural Selection Within the Framework of Sociometry





DOCTRINE OF SPONTANEITY-CREATIVITY . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . 39 FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY --------------------------------------- ------- - 48 SOCIOMETRY IN RELATION TO OTHER SOCIAL SCIENCES 54 Sociometry and Psychology 55 • Sociometry and Sociology 55 Sociometry and Anthropology . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . --- 56


Sociometry and Economics --------------------------------------------------------- - 58

ONTOLOGY OF SOCIOMETRIC THEORY 59 THE STATUS OF SCIENCE AND THE HIERARCHY OF THE SCIENCES 63 64 THEORY OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS THE THEORY OF THE ATOM IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES 69 SOCIOMETRIC FRAMES OF REFERENCE 70 Sociometrically Oriented Experimental Method 71 Science of Action . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 7 3 Theory of Roles . . . . ° . ..--- ------. . 75 The Social Trichotomy . . . . . .---- . . . . 79 SOCIOMETRSC METHODS AND TECHNIQUES AS FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY 81 Psychodrama ---- 87 Sociodrama 89 Role Test and Roleplaying . 89 Group Psychotherapy THE SOCIOMETRIC TEST ----------------------------------------- - ---- 92 The Sociogram . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 95 Sociometric Criteria . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . 96

Sociometric Orientations




A. Observational and Interpretative 100 B . The Sociometrist as Participant Observer 101 C . Direct Sociometric Methods 101 Construction of the Sociometric Test 105 Directions for Sociometric Testing 106

THE SOCIOMETRIST ---- . . . . . . .---- ----------... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. .. . . . . . ... . . . . THE DJAT.RCPrC CHARA(TrER OF SOCIOMETRY THE SOCIOMETRIC CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CHANGE .- . . .° . . . . . .... . . . . SOCIOPSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND SOCIATRY THE SocIOMETRIC EXPERIMENT

107 110

115 118 120



Sociometric Test of Baby Groups . . . . ... . 127 Sociometric Test of a Public School 129 Public School, First Test 131 Analysis ----- . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 132 Public School, Second Test °-- . ...- .--- .... ...-. 132 Sociometric Test of a High School for Boys, The Riverdale School . .. . 134


Spontaneous Interaction Diagrams - . . . . .. .. 140 Acquaintance Diagram 141 Sociograms 141 Sociomatrix ---- ------------ ---- -------- .... ° . . . ..... . . . .. .. . . . . .... 142 °°.. . 142 Role Diagram Space and Movement Diagram (Locogram) 142 SOCIOMETRIC SURVEY OF MOTIVATIONS ----------------- 175 PERIODS OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT

Pre-Socialized Period First Socialized Period - Cleavages in Groups Concept of Age


207 ------------------------ 207 . . . . .. . . . 209 212 213



External Structure of a Community 219 Sociometric Test of Home Groups ... . . . . . .. .. .. 222 Limits of Emotional Interest --- . . .-.-------- . . .- . . .. .- . . .. . . 224 225 Sociodynamic Effect . . . . . .. . . 227 Location of Choices Attractions, Repulsions and Indifferences - . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 228 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Sociometric Classification Dimensions of Research and the Validity of Findings 240


Types of Group Organization


CONTENTS Quantitative Analysis of Group Organization Structural Analysis of Group Organization . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Reading of Sociograms Typical Structures in Groups, I Typical Structures in Groups, II . Forms of Isolation Organization of Social Atom Organization of Work Groups .- ... . .-- . Home and Work Groups Differentiated



249 255 257 258 259 262

The Emotional Expansiveness of Man 283 Emotional Expansiveness and Social Contacts 285 Test of Emotional Expansiveness . . . 285 287 Acquaintance Test Analysis ---------------------------------------- ------------------- - - ----- 288 Social Atom ° 291 Tele --------- - . . .. 311 Empathy and Tele 318 Extension of Tele Theory, Its Position within the Sociometric Sys325 tem


Categories of Motivations . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . Validity of Motivations . . . . . ... . . . .... . . . . .... . . . .


Spontaneity State and Social Interaction . .--. . 333 Spontaneity, Anxiety and the Moment 336 Function of the Spontaneity Test ------------------------------------------------ 337 The Warming Up Process ... .-----.. . .° 337 Dimensions of Interaction Within a Small Group 340 A . Sociometric Test ----- . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . .... . . . . . . . 341 B . Motivations for Choices and Rejections 344 C . Spontaneity Test ---- 347 D . Situation Test and Role Playing Test 348 E . Records of Situation and Role Playing Test ------. 350 The Socioemotional Matrix of a Small Group 363 The Situational Matrix of a Small Group 365 The Role Matrix of a Small Group 373 375 SOCIOPSYCHOPATHOLOOY OF GROUP STRUCTURE Sociatry and Sociosis . .- ---------------------------------- ------------------- 379 CONDUCT

Organization and Conduct The Psychological Home . A Runaway Pair ------ ---------------------------------- Race The Beginning of the Research -----Four Months Later Four Weeks Later Predisposing Causes ---- -------------------------------------------------- - - . Precipitating Causes . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Final Phase Racial Quotient

380 384 398 400 402 403 404 406 406 407


WHO SHALL SURVIVE? 410 Sex The "Crush" --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Interpretation . . . . .... . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . 414


Psychological and Sociometric Geography, Maps I, II, III and IV . . . . Map I Map II Map III Map IV .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sociometric Speculations Survey of Psychological Currents Sexual Currents ... . . . . . . . . . Racial Currents Social Currents . ° . . . .--Networks .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Proofs that Networks Exist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Causes and Organization of Networks . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Technique of Determining Networks .. . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . Function of Networks Law of Social Gravitation


416 416 417 419 420 421 431 436 436 437 438 440 441 446 448 449 450

I Quantitative Analysis of Sociograms -------- . . . . .-- .- . .---- 452 II Structural Analysis of Sociograms 453 III Clues for Group Psychotherapy, Psychodrama, Roleplaying and 453 Sociodrama - 453 IV Sociometric Indices V Sociometric Group Cohesion .. . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 454 VI Statistical Foundations of Sociometry 455 BOOK IV


THE ASSIGNMENT MYTH . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . SOCIOMETRY OF INITIAL CONSTRUCTION

The Sociometric Family . Parent Test Technique Method . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Application of the Test Interpretation

459 462 463 464 466 469 470 470 471 472 473 475

Family Test . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . Method . . . . . . . ... . . . ... .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . Application of the Family Test Classification . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization of Cottage Groups . . Verbatim Record of Parent and Family Tests Psychological Currents ----------------------------------------------------------497 Entrance Test-Roleplaying Assignment --------------------------------------- - 497



Analysis . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . ... . . . . .... . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . 499 Parent and Family Test in Open Communities 500


Sociometric Analysis . . . .. . . . . . . . Individual Treatment Group Psychotherapy --- Roleplaying and Roletraining Methods of Construction and Reconstruction of Groups Transfer of Members of Homegroups and Workgroups Case of Anna GU, An Example . . . ... . . . . . .. . . Acquaintance Test Sociometric Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cottage Organization . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . Parent Test .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spontaneity Test and Roleplaying Assignment . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Workgroup, Before and After Sociometric Regrouping Before Regrouping -- After Regrouping Total Effect of Sociometric Reconstruction Upon the Entire Community Discussion of Sociometric Reconstruction Methods Summary and Conclusions . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .


Dimensions of Society

501 501 503 503 505 505

508 511 512 513 526 528

PSYCHODRAMA, SOCIODRAMA AND ,SPONTANEITY TRAINING -- 531 SPONTANEITY THEORY OF LEARNING .°- .-- . .- . . .-- . . . .- . . ..- . . . .--- . . . . .---- . . .- 538

The Operation 540 Methods of Learning 542 The Vehicle-The Stage of Spontaneity Versus the Psychoanalytic Couch 543 Autonomy and the Learner . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 Catharsis of Integration and the Aim of Learning --- 545 BOOK V SOCIOMETRIC PLANNING OF SOCIETY

551 Spontaneous and Guided Migration 555 Attractions and Repulsions Between Germans and Jews, a Case Study of the Racial Saturation Point 559 The Self-Regulating Mechanisms of Groups --. . . . . . . . . . 564 EXPERIMENTAL PLANNING OF A NEW COMMUNITY 566 567 Preparatory Phase Population Test - -- ---------- -------------------------- 569 Process of Selection of Population 572 Population-Test, Form A 575 Population-Test, Form B . 576 A Case Example of a New Community 578 THE ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING OF A SOCIOMETRIZED COMMUNITY 586 SPONTANEOUS EVOLUTION OF SOCIETY . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .. .



THE CREATIVE REVOLUTION --- --------- . . .----- . . . . °°--- . . . 595 "Zoomaties" and the Future of Man's World 599 Zoomatics and Cybernetics 606 The Underpopulation of the Universe . . . . . 607 Nature's Planning and the Planning of Science . . . ... . . 611



Comparison of Actual Sociometric Findings with Chance Experiments 631 Contrast Between Quantitative and Structural Analysis . . . . . ... . . . . 634 Interpretation The Sociodynamic Effect 639 Network Theory . .--- ------.. . . . . 640 Tele 642 Discussion of Sociometric Scales (a) Scales on the Basis of Choice Analysis 645 (b) Scales on the Basis of Configurational Analysis -._ . . . 649

AUTHORITATIVE AND DEMOCRATIC METHODS OF GROUPING 652 Sociometric Method of Grouping and Regrouping 653 Control Study I 664 Control Study II 667 Discussion and Comments ---- ------------------- ------... 671 CURRENT TRENDS IN SOCIOMETRY, 1942-1952 673 SOCIOMETRY AND GROUP DYNAMICS 679 GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY AND GROUP MEASUREMENT 684 INTERACTION ANALYSIS 686 CRITIQUE OF SOCIAL SYSTEMS Two Schools of Role Theory .- . . . .---- . . . . ... . . . . . . . 688 Theory of Action ..--- -------------------------------------------------- . . . . . . .. 692 FORMATION OF GROUPS IN Statu Nascendi .. .. . . .- . .___-. . 693 . . . . . . . . . .. . . 695 'CONCLUSION : A SCIENCE OF PEACE GENERAL HYPOTHESES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Book I . .---- --- --- - ..- ---- . . . . . 696 Book II 699 Book III . . 704 Book IV ---------------------------------- ----------- -------------- ------------ - ------ 715 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . .---- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY BIBLIOGRAPHY . 725 SUBJECT INDEX 756 NAME INDEX . . . . . . . . . . 762






III Rear of Book

PRELUDES OF THE SOCIOMETRIC MOVEMENT I The closest approximation to an official start of the sociometric movement occurred on April 3-5, 1933, when the Medical Society of the State of New York exhibited a few dozen sociometric charts during its convention at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel . These charts became, by mere chance, the showpiece of the scientific exhibits ; a large number of physicians, neurologists, psychiatrists and sociologists stopped in to see them and to read in the criss-cross of red, black and blue lines the unveiling of the social forces which dominate mankind . It may at first appear to be of little academic significance but it was by no means unimportant for the development of the movement that the Director of Public Relations of the Medical Society, in search for an exciting news item for the science reporters of the metropolitan newspapers and press services, focussed upon the sociograms to secure for the medical convention the widest possible attention . The Director of Public Relations was Dwight Anderson and the man to whom he showed the charts was Howard Blakeslee, the late Science Editor of the Associated Press . In the days to follow all the large newspapers, led by the New York Times, carried headlines, stories, editorials, pictures of sociograms and sociometric cartoons, throughout the United States . I later discovered to my amusem*nt, that the culprit had to do some explaining to the Executive Committee as to why so many other worthy medical contributions were pushed out of the limelight . He explained convincingly that the publicity was advantageous for the Medical Society ; and besides, the good doctors rubbed their eyes, awakened from a deep sleep, gazed through the crystal ball and saw what might become a genuine medical sociology in the future . Since then sociometry and its derivatives and extensions, social microscopy and group dynamics, group psychotherapy, roleplaying and interaction research, psychodrama and sociodrama, have retained their fascination for the general public and have matured to a widely known and respected school of thought .



This event was a crystallization point for two reasons, 1) it brought to a climax a period of latency of ideas which I had originated in Europe but which found a truly fertile soil first in the U. S . A . ; 2) I was just then finishing the writing of WHO SHALL SURVIVE? and the sociometric charts exhibited were a substantial part of this work . The book was the foundation stone of the sociometric movement. II The year 1933 may have been the official, but the year 1923 was the conceptual origin of sociometry ; it was the publication date of my book Das Stegreiftheater which contained the seeds of many of the ideas which later brought sociometry to fame . In retrospect the beginnings of my work in Europe are an indispensable part of the story because it is there where it started . The sociometric movement can be divided into two major periods ; the first could be called the axionormative period, using rather freely a term coined by Florian Znaniecki ; it lasted from 1911 to 1923. The second could be called the sociometric period, which has had three distinct phases ; the first phase began in 1923, with the appearance of Das Stegreif theater and ended in 1934, with the appearance of WHO SHALL SURVIVE? ; the second phase began with the launching of Sociometry, A Journal o f Interpersonal Relations and ended with the opening of the Sociometric Institute and the New York Theatre of Psychodrama in 1942 ; the third phase, 1942 to 1952 saw the spreading of group psychotherapy, psychodrama and sociometry throughout the United States, Europe and other parts of the world . III The advent of sociometry cannot be understood without appraising my presociometric background and the historic-ideological setting in the Western world, during and after the First World War . Marxism and psychoanalysis, the two opposites, each had spent their theoretic bolt, the one with Nikolai Lenin's "State and Revolution" (1917), the other with Sigmund Freud's "Civilization and Its Discontents" (1929) . The two opposites had one thing in common : they both rejected religion, they both disavowed



the idea of a community which is based on spontaneous love, unselfishness and sainthood, on positive goodness and naive cooperativeness. I took a position contradictory to both, the side of positive religion. The fact that Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism and other religions of the past have had limited success did not prove that the concept of religion itself had failed . My contention was that religion should be tried again, a religion of a new sort, its inspirations modified and its techniques improved by the insights which science has given us-and by no means excluding some of the insights which Marxism and psychoanalysis have brought forth . My position was threefold : first, the hypothesis of spontaneity-creativity as a propelling force in human progress, beyond and independent from libido and socio-economic motiveswhich does not deny the fact that they are frequently interwoven, but which does deny the contention that they are merely a function and a derivative ; second, the hypothesis of having faith in our fellowmen's intentions-outside of obedience resulting from physical and legalistic coercion-the hypothesis of love and mutual sharing as a powerful, indispensable working principle in group life ; and third, the hypothesis of a superdynamic community based upon these principles which can be brought to realization through newer techniques . It may be said that I tried to do through sociometry what "religion without science" has failed to accomplish in the past and what "science without religion" has failed to accomplish in Soviet Russia. All the cultural and social techniques which I developed in the course of years have been motivated to serve this purpose . This position was expressed first in the creation of a religious group with the friend of my youth, Chaim Kellmer, and was later reported in my Philosophy of the Here and Now (1918) and the Words of the Father (Das Testament des Voters, 1920) . The total misunderstanding of my original position which I have never abandoned, and its disregard in many religious as well as scientific circles has not hindered me in continuing to develop the technical innovations which, I hoped, were gradually to establish this new world . It is curious-and it may require some explanation-that it is these techniques which made sociometry famous and which have been universally accepted, whereas its underlying philosophy of life has been relegated to the dark corners of library shelves or entirely pushed aside .




The explanation is simple ; it is generally accepted that a scientist may have two compartments, one for his religion and the other for his science, as long as the scientist is, like Copernicus, Newton, Kepler, Mendel and Darwin, a physicist, a chemist or a biologist . But there is a profound bias against social scientists having two compartments . However, they can be kept apart, indeed, one is able to do conscientious screening and not let one activity impede the other-in short, it is an exercise in "role playing" . It must be added that the positive religion which I offered was just as much in contradiction and opposition to the official religions as it was to the agnostic, psychological and political doctrines of our time ; indeed, when removed from its metaphoric shell it contains the most revolutionary kernel of my whole work .

I arrived at the conclusion that the "next step" is the realization and concretization of the idea in the flesh rather than its further intellectual extension . Therefore I became a psychodramatist and roleplayer . Systems analyzing the cultures of the past, declarations of what should be done tomorrow, had become anti-climactic. Bookwriting had become a world-wide obsession . From the point of view of a creative revolution the book had become a symbol of a reactionary movement, not as much because of its contents but as a form o f creative behavior . Would God start the world by writing a book? Did he start the creation of the universe billions of years ago by writing the Genesis? What comes first? How would God behave if he would create the world again? 1910, GENESIS OF PSYCHODRAMA

The genesis of psychodrama was closely related to the genesis of the Godhead . I tried to draw in my mind a picture of what God looked like on the first day of creation . He may have been knowing and wise, a being who can penetrate with his eyes the abysses of the universe, very much in the manner of a Buddhist or a psychoanalyst . Then I began growingly to realize that the mind of God could not operate like the mind of a Buddhist or a psychoanalyst . Hovering over the chaos on the first day, he was there to create, not to take apart and to analyze . He may have become more of an analyst as the days of creation went on, or



after it was all over-in moments of reverie or in moments of disillusionment with the result . If he had started with psychoanalysis he would hardly have begun to create anything, the world might have remained uncreated . Therefore, I conclude that God was first a creator, an actor, a psychodramatist . He had to create the world before he had the time, the need and inclination to analyze it . He must have given a lot of good thought to the creation before he began with it and as he was going on with it . My first concern was the God as he was starting out to create the world, not so much "what" he does but "why" and "how", the Deus Primus or the Creator in Situ ; this is the God of the first day as against the God "after" the world is created . This is the genesis of God, the Creator, rather than the genesis of creation . When I found that the God of the first day was neglected in the literature about him, I peppered up this contrast in order to make the picture of the first moment o f the creating God as strong as possible . He would not stop at anything or leave out anything if it could make the creation more beautiful, more spontaneous and more enduring . He would come forth with everything which would promise the turning out of a masterpiece . He would put every part of the chaos into the melting pot . If blood and dirt are necessary he would get all the blood and dirt there is . If sex, hunger and feces are necessary, he will get them abundantly into it . If birth and death, charity and love, sleep and dreams, forms and colors, nearness and distance are necessary, he would get them all into it. The creative definition of "Godplaying" is the maximum of involvement, the putting of everything unborn from the chaos into the first moment of being . This preoccupation with the status and locus nascendi of things became the guide of all my future work . 1911, GENESIS OF SPONTANEITY

When God created the world He started off by making every being a machine . He made one machine push the other and the whole universe ran like a machine . That seemed to be comfortable, safe and smooth . But then He thought it over . He smiled and put just an ounce of spontaneity into each of the machines and this has made for endless trouble ever since-and for endless enjoyment .



I took to anonymity, spontaneity and creativity like wood takes to fire and began with my Godplaying in the streets and gardens of Vienna . When I saw the title of Bergson's book "Evolution Creatrice" I indignantly crossed out the "Creatrice"-which puts the idea of evolution first-and wrote in its stead "Du Createur""Evolution of the Creator"* which puts the idea of the creator first. One day I walked through the Augarten, a garden near the archduke's palace, where I saw a group of children loafing . I stopped and began to tell them a story . To my astonishment other children dropped their games and joined in, nurses with their carriages, mothers and fathers and policemen on horseback . From then on one of my favorite pastimes was to sit at the foot of a large tree in the gardens of Vienna and let the children come and listen to a fairy tale . The most important part of the story was that I was sitting at the foot of a tree, like a being out of a fairy tale and that the children had been drawn to me as if by a magic flute and removed bodily from their drab surroundings into the fairy land . It was not as much what I told them, the tale itself, it was the act, the atmosphere of mystery, the paradox, the unreal become real. I was in the center, often I moved up from the foot of the tree and sat higher, on a branch ; the children formed a circle, a second circle behind the first, a third behind the second, many concentric circles, the sky was the limit . Why I chose the course of the theatre instead of founding a religious sect, joining a monastery or developing a system of theology (although they do not exclude one another), can be understood by taking a view into the setting from which my ideas sprang. I suffered from an idee fixe, from what might have been called then an affectation, but of which might be said today, as the harvest is coming in, that it was by "the grace of God ." The idee fixe became my constant source of productivity ; it proclaimed that there is a sort of primordial nature which is immortal and returns afresh with every generation, a first universe which contains all beings and in which all events are sacred . I liked that enchanting realm and did not plan to leave it, ever. * See "Einladung zu einer Begegnung," p . 4, March, 1914 .



But gradually the mood came over me to leave the realm of children and move into the world. It was with the decision that the idee fixe should remain my guide . Therefore, whenever I entered a new dimension of life, the forms which I had seen with my own eye in .that virginal world stood before me . They were my models whenever I tried to envision a new order of things or to create a new form . I was extremely sure of these visions . They seemed to endow me with a science of life before experience and experiment verified their accuracy . When I entered a family, a school, a church, the house of congress or any other social institution, I revolted against them in each case ; I knew they had become distorted and I had a new model ready to replace the old . Behind the screen of telling fairy tales to children and stageing the sociodramas of a new society I was trying to plant the seeds of a diminutive creative revolution . This had a double significance ; it was a test of the living God idea within the framework of our modern civilization-and not in the comparative safety outside of it, as in the deserts of Africa or the plains of India, a fighting saint, not a recluse . It was also intended as a demonstration against the psychoanalytic theory of heroes and geniuses, then rampant in Vienna, that they are all mental patients, more or less, or at least touched by insanity . Therefore, I wanted to show that here is a man who has all the signs of paranoia and megalomania, exhibitionism and social maladjustment and who can still be fairly well controlled and healthy, and indeed, of apparently greater productivity by acting them out than if he would have tried to constrain and resolve his symptoms-the living antithesis of psychoanalysis, foreboding the protagonist of psychodrama . The only way to get rid o f the "God syndrome" is to act it out .


The genesis of the Godhead fertilized another idea in my mind God was not just a Godplayer in the literal sense . Would God have been only God, a narcissus in love with himself and with his own expansion, the universe would never have come into existence . It is because he became a "lover" and a "creator" that he could create the world . If God would come into the world again he



would not come into it as an individual, but as a group, as a collective . Only in proportion and to the extent that he took the form of a universe had he been a creator-only insofar as the idea, for instance on the human plane, could take the form of a group, of a community, was his existence and his immortality assured . To get an idea as to the form an ideal community, a "universe", should take I returned to my vision of the Godhead of the first day ; what picture of the universe did he have on the first day of creation? One of his first blueprints might have been a universal axionormative order of the cosmos and I formulated accordingly two hypotheses .* 1) The spatial-proximity hypothesis postulates that the nearer two individuals are to each other in space, the more do they owe to each other their immediate attention and acceptance, their first love . Do not pay any attention to the individuals farther away from you unless you have already absolved your responsibility to the nearer ones and they to you . By the nearest is meant the one whom you live next to, whom you meet first on the street, whom you find working next to you, who sits next to you or who is introduced to you first . The sequence o f "proximity" in space establishes a precise order o f social bonds and acceptance, the sequence o f giving love and attention is thus strictly preordained and prearranged, according to a "spatial imperative ." 2) The temporal-proximity hypothesis postulates that the sequence o f proximity in, time establishes a precise order o f social attention and veneration according to a "temporal imperative ." The here and now demands help first, the next in time to the here and now backward and forward requires help next . Here I had some of the ingredients of "the sociometric system" on hand, the idea of proximity and the metric, the love of the neighbor and the idea of the meeting, in addition to spontaneity (s) and creativity (c) . I tried the sociometric system first on the cosmos . God was a super sociometrist . The genesis of sociometry was the metric universe of God's creation, the science of "theometry" . What I know of sociometry I learned first from my speculations * See J . L. Moreno, The Philosophy of the Here and Now, original editions in German published by Gustav Kiepenheuer Verlag, Berlin, 1918-1923 ; translated into English by Dr . Gerhard Schauer, to be published by Beacon House Inc., 1953 .



and experiments on a religious and axiological plane . To fit the sociometric system into God's world I made God assign to every particle of the universe some of his s and c, thus creating for himself innumerable oppositions, the counter spontaneities of innumerable beings . This made him dependent upon every being and because of the enormous extent of distribution through the endless spaces, almost helpless ; but it made us and all beings far more dependent upon him than we would have been if we would not share in some of his initiative and responsibilities . This distribution of s and c made him a partner, an equal ; he was to serve, not to rule, he was to co-exist, co-create and co-produce, nothing for himself, all for others . It gave to sociometry the model of the objective investigator par excellence, "the objective eye" of God ; for him all events are of equal merit, he has no bias ; hate and stupidity are just as close to his heart as love and wisdom . I was fortunate to experience and act out firsthand during my own life the transformation of a sacred into a secular cultural order-a process which ordinari~y lasts centuries of development . The sociometric system gained in depth and clarity and was able to combine the two extremes which have pervaded human cultures, the concretely, actively magic-poetic, with the objectively, methodically scientific . Because I had lived through two opposite cultural systems, first a sacred religious existence, then a secular worldly existence, I could pass without difficulty from religious into scientific thinking, in fact, they appeared like two sides of the same coin . It is because the sociometric system had first a religious character that all sociometric and psychodramatic techniques were in their first format religious and axiometric . As I tried the sociometric system first on the universe and on the concept of God, its first manifesto was a revolutionary religion, a change of the idea of the universe and the idea of God . The God of Spinoza was not real and dynamic enough ; his God was metric but void of spontaneity and creativity . The God of Jesus was further extended, the son "withered away" until nothing was left except the universal creativity of the Godhead and only one commandment : To each according to what he is .* * The postulates "each according to his needs or according to his work capacity" still indicate a bias against all the potentialities of the individual . The postulate above indicates an all-inclusive acceptance of the individual "as he is ."



Now" I had two teachers, Jesus and Socrates ; Jesus, the improvising saint, and Socrates, in a curious sort of way the closest to being a pioneer of the psychodramatic format . His dialogues impressed me, not because of their content, but because they were presented as "reports" of actual sessions (probably accidentally and unintentionally) and not an imaginary output of a poetic-philosophic mind. (Even though Plato, as an "auxiliary ego" reporter has worked over the actual material and conserved it for posterity, this does not change the concrete-situational relation of Socrates to it.) Socrates was involved with actual people, acting as their midwife and clarifier, very much like a modern psychodramatist would. So far so good, but here is where my quarrel with Socrates began ; the frame of reference of his dialogues was limited to the dialectic-logical ; he did not, like Jesus, enter into the totality and essence of the situation itself . Perhaps if there would have been, among the disciples of Jesus, besides Matthew, Mark and Luke, a Plato, the psychodramatic technique might have been born in Palestine two thousand years ago . But for other reasons than in Jerusalem, it did not happen in Athens although the naturally playful Socratic dialogue and the dynamic but conserved tragedies of Aeschylus existed there side by side . It did not happen until in our time that the two approaches of Jesus the healer and Socrates the teacher, and the two arts, the Socratic and the Aeschylian-dramatic were brought to a synthesis . My first three psychodramatic protocols "The Godhead as Author" (1918), "The Godhead as Preacher" (1919) and "The Godhead as Actor" (1919) * bear the mark of Socratic influence but it is my conscious insistence upon the "actuality of the event" and upon the "here and now" of production that made the difference . Socrates must have felt this intuitively whenever he was in situ, although he never made a point of this most significant fact . Even if Plato could have concocted dialogues far superior in artistic, dialectic and ethical value to anything which Socrates was able to accomplish in the ongoing process of a session, they would have been of secondary value for the simple reason that "they never happened ." I was interested in the ethical more than in the intel1913, THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE "HERE AND

* See The Philosophy of the Here and Now, op . cit.



lectual Socrates, in the "changer" more than in the thinker . Socrates, in order to prove a point, chose the form of the dialogue instead of lecturing to the crowd . He picked as his counter-protagonist a representative character, a sophist . Unconsciously using the technique of "role reversal" he elevated the sophist and turned him into the teacher, whereas he himself assumed the role of the ignorant pupil who asked questions . He calculated intuitively what I had to discover after long practice, that by means of role reversal he could more easily find the weak spots in the armor of the sophist than if he would tell him directly what the faults in his logic were . As he carried the sophist through various dilemmas his audience became involved and the dialogue ended with a "dialectic catharsis ." I profoundly suspect that he came closest to the psychodramatic format that one time when he visited a theatre . He would never have gone into it to see a play, a thing which was against his religious beliefs ; but when he heard that Aristophanes had written a comedy in which he, Socrates, was made a funny character, he went, in true psychodramatic manner, to show himself in the flesh to the good Athenians in the audience, and to prove that the actor mirroring him on the stage did not do him justice . That is how far he went . This time it was a real life situation in which he himself was the protagonist . It was not only a highpowered dialectic issue, he himself was challenged as a person and as the representative of a value system . He could have turned the theatre upside down and a "sociodrama" might have ensued . He saw clearly his own existential part of it just as he saw it later when he was adjudged a seducer of youth and heroically drank the potion. But he did not see "beyond his own situation" ; he did not see that a new method of teaching and clarifying human relations was within his grasp . Socrates had the message but the demon within him did not speak loud enough or became prematurely silent . Socrates was existentially great but the great method inherent in his existentialism escaped his attention . Armed with implements like psycho- and sociodrama and assisted by an army of followers, he might have prevented the breakdown of the Athenian republic . As it was he stood only in protest against an avalanche he could not halt . Two thousand years later Kierkegaard again heard the demon but he was hindered by private remorse, submerged by the imperatives of his private existence, the





fear of losing the "I" in the "Thou" and an obsession with his own monodrama . It remained for me to hear and understand the demon more completely and to bring the idea to a finish . My reference to Socrates serves not only to emphasize the influence which Socrates had upon my formative years, but also the great importance of the sociodrama as a teaching technique . It should not cloud the fact that the origins of sociodrama go back into the prehistoric period of mankind, before any recorded literature in the modern sense could exist . On the other hand, there are elements in sociodrama, f . i ., the theory of spontaneity and creativity, which could not have been brought out to full maturity before the civilization of the machine and the robot made it an indispensable antidote . It may not be an accident that a sociological action method raises its head again in the greatest political democracy which has ever existed, in the United States . It was in the Athenian republic when, with the disbelief in the old gods and the anarchy of moral and social values, the Socratic method made its appearance . But the emancipation from all values, from religious, family, economic and sexual ties has reached an unprecedented climax in the twentieth century . There are good reasons to hope that this time the sociodramatic methods will be integrated into the social and cultural fabric of a new humanity on the march . 1911, THE PSYCHODRAMA OF GOD, THE AXIODRAMA

On an unforgettable day I was moved by a sudden inspiration to accost a preacher who had announced a sermon on "Love", on the way to his church . t I : Say, Sir, do you have servants in your home? The Preacher : Yes, a few . I : Do you have father and mother? Preacher : Certainly, they live with me . I : Have you children, relatives, friends, acquaintances, do you? Oh, don't get angry with me! Certainly you have them, you have them all and they live with you in the same house, or, at least, nearby . Your sermon-from the moment that you had decided to speak it to the people of your parish, to speak it into the worlddid it not act up, did it not begin to cry in your mind, aroused by t The following dialogue is taken from the opus cited above .



a profound sympathy, sympathy for the sad look in the eyes of your servant as he looked at you that morning, or the longing face of your sister ; have you already enlightened and saved your own father and mother (have you tried your sermon on them?), on the people closest to you, up to the lowest beggar knocking on your door? No, no I read it in your eyes, you have done nothing (or only vaguely) or at least, you have not entered the situation with the full earnestness required by religious authority . (Oh, man, and the adequate way of behaving was so obvious-if your sermon is to be more than an esthetic concoction .) Say, the "love you have for mankind," did it not give you any sign? Preacher : I did not notice anything (perhaps because I was too involved with my goal) . But I have always thought this way : keep your sermon to yourself, until you are in the place where it is to be given . I have always thought that the power of a truth grows with the duration of keeping it silent . I : Oh, you are a confused prophet, Sir . To remain silent in the face of an emergency which requires your help cannot be granted without a special dispensation . Let us better confess, the God of Love (who is, according to you your final authority) did he not come over you, all the days that you passed by your neighbors, did he not pray in your ears, "Hear, hear, why do you still wait with your love which I have given you?" Listen, God is not love, God is a lover. The real way of acting is so logical and so obvious! Preacher : My course was set, I did not notice anything which could stop me. I : You have not yet started your sermon, all is not yet lost . The love for your fellowmen can still come to your assistance, today . An hour ago you have left your house and you started on the way here. When you went out on the street the porter bowed his head, when you came near the second corner of the block a little boy pleaded to shine your shoes, on your left a lame and tired horse pulled a carriage, on your right there was an old friend who stretched his arm to touch you . But you went on and on, or did your sermon do anything? Preacher : Nothing .



I : Was there no messenger from Heaven who stepped out from one of the churches which you passed on the way to this place, pleading with you, "Do not run, do not pass, this is the moment and the inspiration coming from it and its needs can come to your rescue ." Didn't you start out following the man who wanted to teach love? That man, he had the love within him, there is no question, about like one who has the lover of his heart within him, or, still closer, like one who has his failings and sins within him and is unable to get rid of them ; and he, the man, he had the love for a very long time until one day he wanted to convince himself whether he really had it . What do you think, would he, in order to put his love to a test, would he have ordered the people into a "distant" place, as far as possible away from him? (Oh, the love of this man loved speed and nearness!) Do you think that in that great and deep urge to help he would have found the time to prepare and write a sermon neatly, or to make long and complicated preparations or even to stammer a short prayer in order to invigorate himself? (Oh, the love of this man loved speed!) Oh, no, Sir, and you know as well as I do, the meaning of the lover and his decision is in the moment of love . It is in the moment, whether he has had before that all the presences which have ever been and all the thousands of years which are going to comesay, if you would know now that there is one here, outside of the church who would need your sermon very badly-and that one could be me-would you still not give it to him-to me-immediately, at once? Preacher : I would, I would, I would . The preacher begins the sermon on the street . The encounter is just a warmup . People stop outside instead of going into the church, others come out of the church to listen-and now the real "axio"drama begins. Axiodrama deals with the activation of religious, ethical and cultural values in spontaneous-dramatic form . The original "content" of psychodrama was axiological. Contrary to the statement in current textbooks, I started with psychodrama from the top down . First it was axiodrama (1918), second came sociodrama (1921) ; psychodrama and its application to mental disorders was the last stage of the development .




In my second year of medicine, 1911-1912, I was invited by Professor Wagner von Jauregg, chief of the Psychiatric Clinic of Vienna University, to join his research staff where Dr . Otto Poetzl, later chief of the clinic, engaged me as his "private" assistant. I was little impressed with the routine of the clinic and discontinued my contact with it after more than one year of attendance . It was during that period that I had a personal meeting with Freud, but psychoanalysis, like Kraepelinian psychiatry, left me cold . However, my interest in psychiatry never ceased . I realized later that my quarrel was not with Wagner von Jauregg's malaria therapy, nor with Freud's psychoanalytic doctrine, or at least, only secondarily so, my quarrel was with their behavior as therapeutic "actors" . I did not think that a great healer and therapist would look and act the way Wagner or Freud did . I visualized the healer as a spontaneous-creative protagonist in the midst of the group . My concept of the physician as a healer, and that of theirs were very far apart . To my mind, persons like Jesus, Buddha, Socrates and Gandhi were doctors and healers ; for Freud they were probably patients . It should be remembered that psychoanalysis grew out of the neuropsychiatric world of Charcot and Breuer, whereas the origins of my work go back to the primitive religions and my objectives were the setting up and promoting of a new cultural order . It was the conflict between "analytic" and "operational" methods of therapy . I don't know whether Freud ever got to the study of my work, or whether he took it seriously, as we were worlds apart . I remember that ten years later, in the winter of 1923, when the opening of the Stegreiftheater produced quite a sensation in Vienna, Dr . Theodor Reik, at one time secretary of Dr . Freud, told me he would show Dr . Freud my book on this topic . I do not know whether he ever did, nor what Freud's reaction was. One thing is certain : Freud's resistance to "acting out" was a block to the progress of psychotherapy . He did not only fear the acting out of the patient, but if possible, even more the consequences of his own acting out. An analysis of Freud might have disclosed that his parting ways with Breuer was not only due to Breuer's dislike of sex, as Freud reports, but



even more to Freud's dislike of acting out in the role of the hypnotist* in the hypnotic trance . It is the same complex which made him hesitant and critical of spontaneity and the play of children ; to observe and analyze them, yes ; to enter into their play and act with them, no . Freud's psychoanalysis was the natural opponent of play techniques and play psychotherapy, except as they yielded "material" for analysis . But playing out and acting out are, after all, siblings . At least in the Viennese circle, the public impetus for play techniques and spontaneous play psychotherapy came from my demonstrations in the parks, my Stegreiftheater experiment and my writings . Psychoanalysts took over some of my ideas and absorbed them gradually into their practice and literature . It should be remembered that they were the greatest barrier to the application o f the play principle to therapy in the crucial decade from 1914 to 1924 . Remember also, in connection with this, that Anna Freud and Melanie Klein published their work on play techniques many years later, after I had established a receptive climate for them . 1913, DEFINITION OF PSYCHODRAMA The most amusing of the early definitions of psychodrama was given to me by a Viennese poet, a chronic alcoholic, as he was walking with me one night up and down the Kartner Strasse . "Moreno", he exclaimed, "I agree with you, if I have to die I would rather die of diarrhea than of constipation . As I see it, this is the difference between you and Freud ." 1913-1914, GENESIS OF GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY Parallel with the idea of acting out, the idea of group psychotherapy developed . It had a different origin . This is how it came about . One afternoon I walked through the Praterstrasse when I encountered a pretty girl, smiling at me . She wore a striking red skirt and white blouse with red ribbons to match it . I had hardly begun to talk to her when a policeman came between us and took her away . I followed and saw them entering a police station . After a while she came out and I asked her what had happened . * This point came out clearly in a recent discussion with Dr . Wilfred C . Hulse .



"Well," she said, "they told me that we are not permitted to wear such striking clothes as this during the day, as we may attract customers . It is only after sundown that we are allowed to do so ."

Vienna had at that time a red light district, a ghetto for prostitutes, in its first borough, located in the famous Am Spittelberg . Here was an entire class of people segregated from the rest of society, not because of their religious or ethnic character, but because of their occupation . They were not acceptable either to the bourgeois or to the Marxist, not even to the criminal . The criminal, after he had stayed his prison sentence is again a free agent ; but these women were eternally lost, they had no rights, there were no laws established to protect their interests . This was in 1913 when I began to visit their houses, accompanied by a physician, Dr . Wilhelm Gruen, a specialist in venereal disease and Carl Colbert, the publisher of a Viennese newspaper, Der Morgen. These visits were not motivated by the desire to "reform" the girls, nor to "analyze" them . They suspected this at first because the Catholic charities in Vienna had frequently tried to intervene in their lives . Nor was I trying to find among them what one may call the "charysmatic prostitute" . I had in mind that what LaSalle and Marx had done for the working class, leaving aside the revolutionary aspect of the labor movement, was to make the workers respectable, to give the working man dignity ; to organize them into labor unions in order to raise the status of the entire class . Aside from the anticipated economic achievements it was accompanied by ethical achievements . I had in mind that perhaps something similar could be done for the prostitute . I suspected to begin with that the "therapeutic" aspect would be here far more important than the economic, because the prostitutes had been stigmatized as despicable sinners and unworthy people for so long in our civilization that they had come to accept this as an unalterable fact . It was easier to help the working class . Although manual labor had been and still is considered by some people as a sign of vulgarity it was still comparatively easy to give it, with the aid of skillful propaganda, the emblems of service and dignity . But we were optimistic and started to meet groups of eight to ten girls, two or three times a week in their houses . It was



during the afternoon when the Viennese had what is called "Jauze" ; it is the counterpart of the English five o'clock tea . Coffee and cake were served around a table . The conferences at first simply dealt with everyday incidents which the girls encountered, being caught by a policeman because of wearing too provocative a dress, being put into jail because of false accusations of a client, having a venereal disease but being unable to find a hospital to admit her, becoming pregnant and giving birth to a baby but having to hide the child before the world under a different name and hiding her own identity as the mother towards the child . At first they warmed up very slowly, fearful of persecution, but, when they saw the purpose and some benefit for them, they began to open up more . They first noticed superficial results, for example, we were able to get a lawyer for them to represent them in court, a doctor to treat them and a hospital to admit then . But gradually they recognized the deeper value of the meetings, that they could help each other . The girls volunteered to pay a few dimes a week towards the expenses of these meetings as well as towards some savings for emergencies like sickness and unemployment or old age. From the outside it looked like a prostitutes' "union." But we began to see then that "one individual could become a therapeutic agent of the other" and the potentialities of a group psychotherapy on the reality level crystallized in our mind (see my autobiographic novel "Der Konigsroman", p . 131-138) . Four aspects of group psychotherapy struck me already then ; they became later the cornerstones of all forms of group psychotherapy : 1) the autonomy of the group ; 2) that there is a group structure and the need for knowing more about it, group diagnosis as a preliminary to group psychotherapy ; 3) the problem of collectivity ; prostitution represents a collective order with patterns of behavior, roles and mores which colors the situation independent from the private participants and the local group ; 4) the problem of the anonymity . When a client is treated within the framework of individual therapy, he is alone with the doctor, his ego is the only focus, he has a name, his psyche is highly valued private property . But in group psychotherapy there is a tendency towards anonymity of membership, the boundaries between the egos weaken, the group as a whole becomes the important thing .




My debut as a writer was, instead of a book, an "Invitation to a Meeting" . The face to face meeting with people is naive and direct but the book starts an endless dilemma by separating the person of the writer from the person of the reader . So I found a third alternative, an interpersonal technique of communication, the book as an Invitation to a Meeting, supplanting the book as a conserve . It is then when I coined what is perhaps the simplest definition of interpersonal relations : "Ein Gang zu zwei : Auge vor Auge, Mund vor Mund . Und wenn Du mir nah bist will ich Dir die Augen aus den Hohlen reissen un an Stelle der Meinen setzen . Und Du wirst meine Augen aus der Hohlen reissen and an Stelle der Deinen setzen. Dann werde ich Dich mit den Deinen, and Du wirst mich mit meinen Augen anschauen ." "A meeting of two : eye to eye, face to face . And when you are near I will tear your eyes out and place them instead of mine, and you will tear my eyes out and will place them instead of yours, then I will look at you with your eyes and you will look at me with mine ." In some circles the opinion prevails that the theory of interpersonal relations is a product of psychiatric thinking . Actually, psychiatry arrived as a poor third in this race . First came religious and ethical thinking which provided the most rigorous operational definition of interpersonal relations . It can be found, for instance, in my Dialogues (1918) ; its influence was considerable in literary circles, as can be noticed particularly in Martin Buber's I and Thou (1924) .* Second came sociological thinking, Simmel, von Wiese, Thomas, Znanieckit and others, culminating in sociometry ; psychiatry came last . The theory o f interpersonal relations is born o f religion . * Martin Buber was acquainted with my early work ; he was a contributor to Daimon, a monthly magazine of which I was the editor, 1918-1920 . It was published in Vienna by the Anzengruber Verlag . t It might make an interesting Ph .D . thesis to compare "the situational approach" as defined in my Dialogues and Speeches with the position taken by Thomas and Znaniecki in The Polish Peasant .



The first sociometric plan of a population was constructed by me between 1915 and 1918 . The place of study was an Italian colony with a population of more than ten thousand . It was during World War I when great numbers of peasants, Austrian citizens of Italian extraction, fleeing from their homes in southern Tyrol before the oncoming Italian army, were transplanted by the Austrian government to a place near Mitterndorf in close proximity to Vienna . The community consisted of cottage dwellings each holding several families and at the head of each cottage was a capo di baracca, a man who was responsible for the welfare of that group. The cost of minimum maintenance was supplied by the Austrian government and, in addition, a shoe factory was established employing at times one to two thousand workers . The government was concerned with three problems and reflected them into the planning : safety from the enemy, sanitation, and subsistence . However, social and psychological planning was not considered, not even conceived of . A staff of which I was a member was appointed by the government to supervise the problem of sanitation in the new community . In this position and later as superintendent of the children's hospital established within it, I had the opportunity to study this community from its earliest beginning to its final dissolution three years later when at the end of the war the colonists returned to their homes in Tyrol . During this period a whole community life developed . Step by step, hospitals, schools, church, theater, department stores, shops, industry, social clubs, newspaper, came into function. Yet, in the face of an attempt of the government to meet the emergency and notwithstanding the establishment of practically all the outward signs of a community life, there was great unhappiness and friction among the population . Whole villages of wine growers were transplanted into a suburban industrial district, mountaineers from Tyrol into a flat spot of country near Vienna . They were thrown together unselected, unaccustomed to the environment, unadjusted within themselves . I studied the psychological currents they leveloped around varying criteria-the criterion * See Frontispiece, letter to the Department of the Interior of the AustroHungarian Monarchy .



of nationality, of politics, of sex, of staff versus colonists, and so on-and considered them as the chief contributory sources of the flagrant maladjustments and disturbances . It was through this experience that the idea of a sociometrically planned community began to occupy me . 1918-1920, PSYCHIATRY AND RELIGION

The greatest blunder which Freud made was to mix the idea of the Godhead with the father image of the human family . Instead of following the trail which Spinoza blazed he took the anthropomorphic concept of God at its face value and analyzed it as naively as it was presented to him . He repeated on the analytic level the mistake of infantile religionists, in reverse . My double effort to broaden the concept of psychiatry beyond its medical and sociological limitations and to broaden the concept of religion beyond its historical and theological limitations found expression in my books of that period . To advance a rapprochement between religion and psychiatry around 1918 was an extravagant idea, repugnant to theologians as well as scientists . I was a lone prophet, formulating my position long before Jung, Jaspers and others, but there are many today following my tune . The burning problem now, as it was then, is the combination of two variables, the healer and an adequate theory or method. Therapeutic theories and methods without the physician who embodies them, able to grasp and to practice them, are meaningless and dead . A healer without adequate theories and methods is like a painter without arms . Looking at secular psychiatry of 1950 from this vantage point one can predict its evolution, the ascendance of therapeutic doctors influencing the conduct of larger and larger masses . It will take a course for which there are parallels in the history of previous cultures . The Hebrew culture is an example par excellence, with its ascendance of healers, prophets and saviours from generation to generation, warming one another up to greater and greater deeds, from Moses over Joshua, David, with hundreds of in-between performers, up to Jesus of Nazareth, the Christ . The warming up process established a temporal chain reaction, a crescendo of effort and accomplishment. In the development of psychiatry of our time the



less intellectual but more effective Anton Mesmer may get a better ranking than many of the more profound intellectual healers . Mahatma Gandhi may rank among the doctors and in retrospect Freud may lose a great deal of the reputation he has, which was largely built upon his methodical sagacity, but little upon his ability as a therapeutic performer . Our epoch, too, will reach a climax

with a scientific Christ ending the chain .


"Es war die Psychoanalyse, welche mit deco Kampf aus dem Hinterhalt gegen das Genie begonnen hat, um ihm seine Komplexe vorzuhalten . Sie ist die Rache des Normalkopfes : nach der Entgotterung der Natur and der Gesellschaft die Entgotterung des Geistes . Da jedermann Komplexe hat and das Schaffen aus Komplexen besteht, ist jeder ein Mann . Es gibt nur Genies . Der Eine gibt sich Miihe es zu sein, der Andere nicht . Nun fallen die Philister offen fiber Simson her : es ist nur der Komplex, die langen Haare . Jeder kann sich Haare wachsen lassen ." "It was the influence of psychoanalysis which waged a war from the rear against all genius in order to reproach him with his complexes . Psychoanalysis-if one looks at it from a high historical planeis the vengeance of mediocrity : after the devaluation of nature and the devaluation of society, the devaluation of the spirit. As everyone has complexes and as creativity consists of complexes every man is a genius . There are only geniuses . One tries to be one, the other doesn't . Now the Philistines dare attack Samson openly and kill him. As there are no heroes he is not a hero, what holds him up and what makes him strong is only the complex, the long hair. Everyone can let his hair grow long ."* 1921-1923, THE "IDEA" OF DAS STEGREIFTHEATER

The Stegreiftheater itself had one objective : to let the collective of spontaneous-creative actors emerge in the midst of the group, but, instead of in a religious climate, in the climate of a scientific age. My Stegreiftheater book had three aims : 1) To define spon* See Rede vor dem Richter, Gustav Kiepenheuer Verlag, Berlin, 1925, p . 21, to be contained in The Philosophy of the Here and Nowv .



taneity, especially in its relation to creativity, 2) to explore the possibilities of interpersonal measurement, and 3) to experiment with the spontaneous interaction of small groups. As I had no precedent in this I had to introduce many new terms which made the book difficult reading . Compared with the depth of my religious ideas my scientific discoveries were rather simple and naive . I am usually credited with the introduction of interpersonal measurement and apparently at the time when the Stegreiftheater went to press nobody else had tried his hands at this problem . Sociometric measurement started with things like this : how much "time" does an actor A spend with another actor B? He may spend half as much time with another actor C and three times as much time with another actor D. Or, what is the "spatial distance," near or far, in inches, feet or meters, between actors A, B, C and D in the course of the same situation and what effect have nearness or distance upon behavior and acting? Or, how frequently do two actors appear simultaneously in a scene and how frequently do they exit together? (Points of coordination .) What is the duration of a single act, of a co-act, of a whole scene, of a whole drama? I constructed a time clock and an interaction diagram to record interpersonal time and space frequencies so that I could measure them . When dealing with time and space relations I could use the standardized time and space units and so the counting seemed to be precise and also meaningful . I started with the premise that time and space are the dearest properties within the social universe, for instance, how much time does A spend with B and how near in space is A to B . I began then to count items, things and events for which there was no unit of measurement . I just took a chance on it, thinking that it may find a meaning afterwards, when the sample would be large enough . I began to count the number of words a person A speaks towards a person B and how many words he received from B in return during their mutually allotted time. I began to establish the word volumes of individuals in various situations and interactions with other individuals. I began to count the number of roles in which they act and which individuals they chose as partners . As it turned out after twenty-five years of research, the important thing was that I actually counted them and that I had the notion that there must



be some significance to these figures . It is this which gradually laid the scientific foundation of sociometry and interaction research. It was by no means an accident which led into this job of counting and measuring interpersonal relations ; it was due to the task of running a Theatre of Spontaneity . Its premise was that there should be exclusively productions of a hundred percent spontaneity, that is, there should be no rehearsal whatsoever, that the actors should not be prepared for each other and that their spontaneous actions and productions should be an end in themselves, by no means material for a finished product, later to be memorized or conserved like a written play . The crutches and memno-techniques of the legitimate theatre and the Comedia del Arte drama proved to be barriers rather than aids . It was logical that I should look for some natural principles which are intrinsic in the spontaneous interactions between actors . I organized, therefore, a laboratory of spontaneity research (Stegreif Forschung) . As long as a play is written and rehearsed it has little meaning to measure the physical distance between one actor and another, or the number of seconds which they spend together, or the number of words they throw at each other, or the number of roles in which they interact or the choices they make for partners in a scene, simply because all this is already pre-established and proscribed in advance by playwright, coach and dramatist . There is no purpose, therefore, in measuring such items meticulously . But in a theater of full, uncensored spontaneity, the spatial and temporal affinity between actors promised to give the director clues as to their adequacy or inadequacy of performance . It might be fruitful, I thought, to study spontaneous interactions as long as the actors remained spontaneous . I discovered soon after that the less fictitious these interactions were for the actors, the more personally and privately they were involved in these roles and interactions, the more meaningful also became the counting of seconds, inches, words and choices . The more the Theatre of Spontaneity became a group theatre of the private worlds of actual people, the more rewarding it became for spontaneity research . Interaction researchers who do not start with an account of the spontaneous-creative implications upon their experimental designs are like architects who make one believe that a house can be built without a foundation .



1919, THE DILEMMA OF ANONYMITY AND THE "PATERNITY SYNDROME" All my books (nine) published between 1919 and 1925, were anonymous . The greatest plague of the twentieth century is its worship of the ego, its "egolatry" . Anonymity is the natural reaction against it . The natural state of genius is anonymity . It is clear that the more he wants to keep his babies for himself, the more he declares his ownership of them, the more he gets involved with their fate ; the more time and energy he will give to these pursuits the less creative and productive he will become . But the difficulty is that anonymity is a form of creative behavior for which individuals are only rarely equipped . If an individual is not able to maintain it unselfishly and in complete serenity, it is more ethical to give anonymity up, assume a name, claim paternity and fight for his babies to the limit . Here becomes visible the conflict between the "creator" and the "father" . The creator is only interested in his creations, not in their possession ; anonymity is his natural form of operation . The father is possessive, protective, defending his children against all comers ; his natural condition is to suffer from a "paternity syndrome" . Genius has little prestige in our culture, it all goes to the promoter of ideas ; we are worshippers of energy . My anonymity experiment hardly made an impression upon our "name-ridden" world . A man without a name does not count . Anonymity has no status ; it is not recognized or appreciated as a positive sign of unconcerned, naive genius, but it is immediately classified as a "withdrawal" from the reality of the common man . But when I turned from religious to scientific writing the first thing I dropped was anonymity and began to use a name . The change from anonymity of authorship to a name had profound connotations for my conduct. The Words of the Father I wrote with red ink on the walls of an Austrian castle. The publisher had to send two secretaries to decipher and copy the sayings . WHO SHALL SURVIVE? I dictated into a typewriter . A name is a form of capital and links the inventions and works of an author to proprietory, priority and other legal rights . Anonymity, on the other hand, begins and ends with the assump-



tion that a work created by an individual or a group is not the property of anyone in particular, it belongs to universality . I was literally playing two roles, the role of a religionist and the role of a scientist . I felt like writing a musical theme in two different keys ; but it was not what is called a conversion, the two roles ran parallel, one complementing the other . . This was in accord with my position that science and religion are like the two ends of a stick . There is no conflict between them . Because of the kind of universe we live in, science is dialectically limited and it may never attain final clarity and encompassing knowledge . The more science advances the larger are the number of mysteries which emerge ; they can never catch up with each other . When a child is born from a woman's womb, that is a mystery. When it will be born from a chemical test tube the mystery will not he lesser although we may have created all the mechanics from beginning to end . This requires an explanation : nature has given us a master model for creativity-the way a woman conceives and carries a baby alone, up to delivery ; as soon as the infant is born, other individuals may step in to help . But nature did not arrange that several women should share in the conception and pregnancy of an infant, although it is feasible for society to arrange that several women share in its upbringing . This defines only the vehicle and the operation which nature has established for human fertility and reproductivity ; it does not change the fact that the whole biological collective of the human race contributes to the conception of every infant . It appears reasonable that this master model would have parallels also in other dimensions of creativity, as in the case of geniuses of the arts and sciences whose behavior resembles, in the acute phases of great productivity, the behavior of pregnant women . In our own civilization efforts have been made to counteract the special position which the physical mother and the "cultural mother"-as a genius could be called-hold in our society. The nun is an illustration of how the physical mother is counteracted, she becomes the mother of all children, sharing them with all physical mothers . This, by the way, may become a grave problem in the future, should ever physical motherhood be the exclusive right of a privileged class . On the cultural level too, many efforts have been made to counteract the special position of genius ; one method is well known as the scientific



method, which is the organized revolt of mediocrity against genius "in the name of science" . Another method, little understood, is the method of anonymity . Anonymity is the "masoch*stic" solution of this conflict by genius himself . As the bone of contention is the creative product which endows its creator with a status of superiority and exclusiveness, the creative genius can renounce the finished product as his property and give it away, so to speak, so that it can become the property of all . If there is no name attached to a given product no ownership and no paternity is claimed. The origin of an idea is removed from an individual creator and is returned to universality . 1925, USA AND SOVIET RUSSIA

The German reaction to The Words of the Father was unsatisfactory and the Stegreiftheater movement, although it had begun to take root in Bavarian and Prussian cities, moved too slowly for my expectancy . I saw a long and difficult struggle ahead . The question was where to go, east or west? The east of Europe was dominated by Soviet communism which was by 1924 firmly entrenched . It offered little hope for a new idea unless I was willing to accept the given structure of Soviet society and to bore from within . I decided against Soviet Russia and in favor of the United States for the following reasons . All my inspirations for my methods and techniques have come directly or indirectly from my idea of the Godhead and from the principle of his genesis . My God hypothesis has made me enormously productive ; all conclusions which I drew from it and translated into scientific terms have been correct . I had no reason to assume that the original hypothesis itself is false just because it is not popular with scientists. My God idea, out of which the idea of the sociometric system grew, was therefore ultimately the greatest barrier to my going to Russia, accepting the Soviet doctrine and, so to speak, not letting my left hand know what my right hand does . I was trying for a mankind which is built after the God of the first day. I preferred to be the midwife to an incoherent, confused, democratic way of life, then the commissar of a highly organized world . It is my God book which turned me to the United States.





The quantitative exactness of sociometry can be equal, if not superior, to the quantitative exactness of the natural sciences . Looking for a model for a scientifically sound social system man has tried in vain to imitate the physical and biological sciences . Stars and planets, rats and guinea pigs, are not equivalents of man . Man has tried to look for a model among the "automatic" sciences . But cultural conserves, calculating machines and robots are also not equivalents of man . The only approaches which he has neglected to use are the models derived from religious systems, perhaps because science owes its own existence and power to their decadence and disappearance ; it is fearful of looking back . But it is from religious systems that sociometry has drawn its chief inspiration . We are rarely conscious that the role of the objective scientist has been modeled after the idea of the impartial Godhead . As God's pronouncements are expected to have superpersonal validity, also the scientist's pronouncements are expected to be impersonal . He must not wish the sun to gravitate around the earth nor the earth around the moon ; he must not wish the universe to last for ever or to perish by sundown . He must not wish only such people to be born who will be kind and just, he must not wish only such people to be born who will be ugly and stupid . He must not wish some races to multiply themselves and to live in comfort, and others to live in distress and perish . He is objective, neutral, uninvolved, he is the impartial recorder of events as they emerge . This all embracing and impartial Godhead, the God of Spinoza, has stood model for the physical scientist and stood well, but he has not been adequate for the needs of the social scientist, at least not entirely . As long as the social scientist was a pedantic actuarist and demographer, a vital statistician and naive economist, the model passed . But as soon as he became concerned with the We's and collectivities of actors the model needed an extension. It is significant, it seems to me, that the need for this extension appeared first on the religious level, long before the scientific operators became aware of it. It was in my philosophical Dialogues o f the Here and Now and later in my Words of the Father that I added a new dimension to the Godhead, a dimension which un-



consciously was always there but which has never been properly spelled out, theoretically the dimension of the "I" or God in the "first" person (in contrast to the "Thou" God of the Christian, and to the "He" God of the Mosaic tradition), the dimension of subjectivity, the dimension of the actor and creator, of spontaneity and creativity. The dimension of subjectivity does not deprive the Godhead of the objectivity, neutrality and impartiality of the old model but it makes the path free for the exercise of cosmic empathy, love and intimate participation, in other words, for the psychodrama of God. In the Christian dogma the tendency has been to relegate the subjectivity to the Son and the objectivity to the Father but from the point of view of ontological speculations this division has made endless trouble ; ever since it was introduced it has been the cause and excuse for anthropomorphizing the divinity and the masquerading of man as God. Well, it is this new model of an "operational" Godhead announced in the Words o f the Father (1920) which was my stairway to the sociometric system, developed for an apparently entirely different objective-the search for a model of scientific objectivity in the social sciences. The greatest model o f "objectivity" man has ever conceived was the idea o f the Godhead, a being who knows and feels with the universe because he created it, a being unlimited in his ability to penetrate all facets o f the universe and still entirely free o f "bias" . IV 1925, THE UNITED STATES

When I arrived in the New York harbor I was asked by a newspaper reporter what I thought of American sociology . I answered : "The only American sociologist I can think of is Walt Whitman ." I brought with me the three vehicles I had invented, which have done more than anything else to inaugurate and spread sociometry, a characteristically American sociology, in the United States the psychodrama stage, the interactional sociogram and a magnetic





sound recording device .* Each led to a revolution of conceptthe psychodrama stage by surpassing the psychoanalytic couch led to the acting out techniques, the theory of action and the audience participation of group psychotherapy ; the sociogram to systematic small group research ; the sound recording device to a method of recording case material and playback, to a new objectivity, accuracy and completeness of data. I threw myself immediately into feverish activity, trying to gain support, and found many helpers who, unselfishly and deeply enthused, set about to give my ideas a place in the sun . But I had made my lot extremely difficult by the paternity of three offsprings, sociometry, group psychotherapy and psychodrama . 1928-1929, EXPERIMENTS WITH SPONTANEITY AND ROLEPLAYING AT MT . SINAI HOSPITAL, NEW YORK AND THE IMPROMPTU GROUP THEATRE

Upon the invitation of the pediatrician, Dr . Bela Schick of Mt . Sinai Hospital I demonstrated during May, 1928, in the Department of Pediatrics before a gathering of physicians and nurses the application of impromptu techniques to children's problems . Looking backward, this modest event may well be recorded as the first presentation of roleplaying techniques at a medical institution in America . I continued the work in the Mental Hygiene Clinic of the Hospital, in collaboration with Dr . Ira S . Wile . Simultaneously, Beatrice Beecher, the granddaughter of Henry Ward Beecher, launched the first application of psychodramatic techniques to the Plymouth Church Sunday School.t The high point of this period was the opening of the Impromptu Group Theatre in Carnegie Hall, where, between 1929 and 1931 "open" sessions were regularly conducted three times weekly . The outstanding characteristics of these sessions were : 1) they were open, that is, problems which the audience members raised were presented on the stage before them, personal and social conflicts which heretofore were hidden in a consultation office were brought out into the open ; and 2) spontaneous participation of the audience . t * See The New York Times, July 3, 1925 . t See The New York Times, February, 1929 . t See Impromptu Journal, 1930-1931 .



1926-1935, THE HELPERS The sociometric movement had, during its pioneering period in the USA, six helpers : William H . Bridge, E . Stagg Whitin, Helen H . Jennings, William Alanson White, Fanny French Morse and Gardner Murphy . Bridge, a professor of speech at Hunter College, was the first to teach psychodrama in his classes and other places . Whitin established the support of the Departments of Correction and Social Welfare ; without him the Hudson and Brooklyn experiments would not have come into existence . Jennings assisted me in the completion of the research ; without her it might have been delayed indefinitely . Her personality as well as her talents have exercised a decisive influence upon the development of sociometry . Without White psychiatrists would not have given my ideas a respectful hearing . Without Mrs . Morse the ongoing experiment in Hudson might have been nipped in the bud by her Board of Visitors . Without Murphy the acceptance of sociometry by social scientists in the colleges and universities might have been delayed by a decade . 1931, THE PASSING OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC SYSTEM, I

On June 6, 1931, anyone living in New York,* Washington,* Chicago,* Los Angeles,* Toronto,* Montreal,* London,* or Paris,* reading his newspaper was probably startled by headlines referring to Abraham Lincoln as a schizoid-manic personality, as psychoanalyzed by Dr . A . Brill and further by the following item "An American by Adoption Rose to the Defense of a Dead President of the United States at Today's Session of the American Psychiatric Association's Convention in the Royal York . Dr. Brill's critic was Dr . J . L . Moreno, New York Psychiatrist, Formerly of Vienna ." It was at the Toronto meeting of the American Psychiatric Association that I came to the rescue of the memorable late President of the United States . I had just been elected a member of the American Psychiatric Association and walked proudly through the aisles of the beautiful Royal York Hotel when the *See New York Times, Washington Post, Chicago Daily Tribune, Los Angeles Times, Toronto Evening Telegram, Canadian Star, London Times, LeMatin of that date .



late Dr. Walter M . English, then President of the Association approached me and said something like this : "Dr . Moreno, you may have heard that Dr . Brill is reading a paper on'Abraham Lincoln as a Humorist' ; he asked me to invite you to be its discussant ." I was taken aback and muttered, "I feel greatly honored to be asked by Dr . Brill but I never had the pleasure of meeting him and besides, I wonder whether I could meet his expectations . Furthermore, I am not a psychoanalyst (pause)and I don't know anything to speak of about Lincoln ." Dr . English nodded assurance and I walked on, my chest swelling with a narcissistic glow . I was but a few steps away when another distinguished Fellow of the Association, Dr . Samuel Hamilton, Chairman of the Program Committee, interceded . I thought : "What's going on here? Is Brill short of a discussant? Will I get into trouble? Why pick on me? I see so many distinguished psychoanalysts here ." Just then Brill walked by and this is how he and I became acquainted . Brill handed me a copy of his manuscript and said : "I have heard fine things about your work . I am glad that you are willing to discuss my paper ." Shortly afterwards Dr . English opened the meeting. The joint session with the American Psychoanalytic Association convened at nine-thirty o'clock, President English presiding. President English : "I have great pleasure in calling for the paper on `Abraham Lincoln as A Humorist' by A . A. Brill, of New York." Dr. Brill read his paper . President English : "Ladies and gentlemen, this was such an interesting paper that I was loathe to ask Dr . Brill to stop. It is now before you for discussion . From its presentation I see nothing of which we can complain ." Dr . Brill's paper was discussed by Dr. Jacob L . Moreno, and by Dr . Brill in closing .* The auditorium was packed to its farthest corners when Brill began to read . As soon as he and Dr . English ended I stepped upon the platform and said "Mr . President, Ladies and Gentlemen : I have listened carefully but I am not sure now whether Dr . Brill's paper was a paper on Lincoln or on psychoanalysis . The title of his paper is `Abraham Lincoln as a Humorist .' It might just as well have been called * As reported in the American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol . XI (old series : 88), p. 362, July 1931 .



`Dr . Brill as a Humorist .' It is not fair to psychoanalyze the personality of a man now dead, as you have to do it without his consent. One must have therefore a special reason . Dr. Brill's conclusions are based on the statement of friends and contemporaries who may have had all kinds of motives to relate all kinds of stories about Lincoln . Had a contemporary psychiatrist made a study of Lincoln, Dr . Brill would have been justified to some extent in accepting the findings . But as no scientific study of the great American emancipator has been made during his lifetime there was no justification for any attempt to analyze his personality from what is related about him by laymen . "It is difficult to understand how the dead Lincoln could have made a 'transference' to the living Brill . It is obvious, however, that Brill has developed an extraordinary transference to Lincoln . The unconscious psychodynamics which become "available in the course of analysis" are those of Brill, only they are "here and now ." `Grill has attempted to prove that Lincoln's coarse and vulgar humor was unconsciously determined, a form of libidinal sublimation. My opinions have developed by means of a different method-the psychodrama . They are based on the study of persons placed in improvised situations . Those persons respond spontaneously to a new situation, much as an actor or actress on the stage of life, and cultivate a personality such as is deemed by them to be most suitable for the circ*mstances and which best will meet the purpose they are endeavoring to serve . In a man of Lincoln's genius an enormous amount of creativity must have gone into the reorganization of the psychic material emerging from his private person . The more unusual the character and the circ*mstances, the more dangerous it is to apply an "accepted formula ." "The psychoanalytic method has not developed sufficiently to the point where it could attempt an analysis of Lincoln . Not only had no expert in psychiatry first hand knowledge of Lincoln when he was alive but a genius of his type was capable of playing roles and saying many things which could be explained in a multitude of ways ."* * The newspaper accounts of the Lincoln incident were of an unusual accuracy . I found most of my speech quoted almost verbatim when comparing them with my notes .



Brill was apparently nonplussed, taken by surprise and replied to my criticism : "In a histrionic manner Dr . Moreno tries to show that we don't know anything about anybody who is dead . We know a lot about Lincoln . If his friends and contemporaries tell us about him we have a right to accept what they say as facts ."t Biographic evaluation of historic personalities, is of course, not new ; it is as old as the writing of history. But psychonanalysis claims that it has added the novel element of being able to penetrate the intimate dynamics of a dead hero by using the phenomena of his recorded life as clues . It is obvious that even in a strictly psychoanalytic sense the analysis of a dead person is symbolic rather than actual . According to psychoanalytic tenets an actual analysis is not possible without display of "transference" and "resistance" of the subject . Neither transference nor resistance can be expected from a dead person. A superficial student and particularly a layman may easily be carried away by suggestive writings and might take a symbolic analysis for an actual one . Brill, in his analysis of Lincoln, followed in the footsteps of his master, Freud, who tried something similar with DaVinci and Moses . I believe that in most cases of this type it would be more interesting and more resourceful to analyze the analyst instead of the dead analysand, and this is what I could be doing here with Brill. Similarly, it would have been more interesting to find out why Freud picked on Moses and to analyze Freud as to his own involvements in Moses rather than to follow Freud in his analysis of Moses. It is from the analysis of the psychoanalyst in situ, when he is involved in the process of analyzing someone else who is dead that one of the most important contributions of Psychodrainatic theory developed-the subjectification of the apparently objective investigator . It stands to reason that if Brill, instead of keeping himself, his own private dynamics out of his analysis of Lincoln, would have included himself into it a scientific paper might have evolved which could have been a true milestone in the development of psychoanalysis. But he excluded himself from Lincoln just as Freud excluded himself from Moses . Thus it became my job to return Lincoln into Brill and metaphorically speaking, Moses into Freud . This is one of the basic limitations t Quoted verbatim from the Toronto Evening Star, June 5, 1931 .



of Freud's psychoanalytic theory in dealing with personality problems of this type. After the formal meeting was over I found myself surrounded by a number of members who bombarded me with questions . What did I mean, for instance, by the statement that Brill had developed an "extraordinary transference" to Lincoln? "Yes," I admitted, "there are four puzzling questions . First, why did he pick on a dead person instead of on a living one? Second, why did he pick on an illustrious, outstanding character and particularly why on an American? Third, why did he pick on Abraham Lincoln? Fourth, why did he choose me to discuss his hypothesis?" The first question is comparatively easy to answer . It is easier to analyze a dead man, that is, easier for the analyst . He is not exposed to any `counter spontaneity .' And besides, he might never have had a chance to analyze Lincoln would he be alive . But there is another angle . There are millions of people who are dead. If he would have picked on an anonymous, entirely forgotten man offering a similar syndrome, the analytic results might have been equally significant . This brings us to the answer of the second question . It had to be an illustrious, outstanding character, because the paper was apparently intended to give psychoanalysis great publicity to document before the world that psychoanalysis has the intellectual power of coping with creative geniuses and the most outstanding individuals of history and put them in their proper places . But why did it have to be an American? There were many other outstanding men in recent history who should have been good schizomanic material, Nikolai Lenin, Emperor Franz Joseph, King Edward V . Obviously Brill picked on an American because he was personally involved with the American people . Very possibly America was the country he had set out to conquer for psychoanalysis and for himself ; he may have wanted to shake them out of the dream of being the greatest nation in the world and their leaders as the best . But why did he not pick on some of the other great Americans : George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt? Why exactly did he pick on Lincoln? This brings us to the fourth question . It is more difficult to answer . I may



be able to, if you will permit me to psychoanalyze Dr . Brill himself . I am in a better position towards Brill than he was towards Lincoln. Brill is still living. Like towards Lincoln, he must have had an enormous transference towards me otherwise he would not have chosen me, a total stranger, to discuss his paper . Moreover, I saw him in action (he never saw Lincoln) . Particularly significant was the situation in which I placed him after my comments . He was taken by surprise and so he was like a subject in a psychodramatic test . He had to counter spontaneously, he had to improvise his comments without preparation . The first remark he made was about my "histrionic" manner . This is interesting ; he had been accused of being histrionic himself because of the publicity which he had given to the paper about Lincoln many months in advance . He was building himself up to appear before the world, the American public, in a great role, the role of the psychoanalytic emancipator and liberator . Seeing him in action, I could not help comparing him with Lincoln, the object of his analysis . He was little more than five feet tall . Lincoln was a giant, way above six feet . Both have a beard and both have the first name, Abe . I imagine that when Brill came to this country as a little boy he soon heard about his namesake, the great American emancipator and he felt very warm towards him . He became his idol . He thought that maybe some day he would be like Lincoln and President of the United States . But sometime after he must have been disillusioned when he heard that this honor is not available to a foreign-born . The seed for a conflict with Lincoln was beginning to take root but it remained dormant . Either he had to accept that there was a greater Abe than himself or he had to find some counter measure to overcome his own weakness . Many years later, when he became a student of medicine a solution offered itself . He came to Vienna, met Freud and became acquainted with psychoanalysis. Now he had found a weapon by means of which he could fight all the prophets and geniuses, all the superior people of history, especially a particular one . He returned to this country, rapidly rose to influence and became the outstanding exponent of psychoanalysis, the Freud of America . Brill had waited patiently for a chance to measure up to that other Abe and today, in this hall, before all of us, he



had this opportunity-The President of the American Psychoanalytic Society versus the President of the United States . Of course, I am giving you this analysis in a preliminary form and with all humility that it may require further investigation and extension . Last but not least, the question must be answered : Why did he choose me to discuss his paper? It was, to say the least, an irrational choice. Irrational it was, in a psychoanalytic, but not in a sociometric sense . Brill and I were, as we sociometrists call it, in the "networks," although strangers, closely related . We had many emotional acquaintances in common, psychoanalysts, psychiatrists and others, with numerous links between them . These links are channels of influence and communication preparing the individual target for important decisions . These "tele" factors work on an individual although he is hardly conscious of the complex network which it forms around him . Why did he choose as a discussant one of the opponents of psychoanalysis? Why did he choose an immigrant, like himself? Why did he not choose a native American? Why didn't he choose an ignoramus who would make a good figure in the newspapers? Why did he choose me who knows psychoanalytic tactics inside out? For Brill the reading of this paper was a climax of his career . Why did he make a slip at such a critical moment? What are the jokes and tales of Lincoln compared with this joker? I do not recall any such slip which Lincoln made in critical situations of his own, manifesting so little insight as Brill manifested today . I was already in Vienna a blunt critic of psychoanalysis . Brill must have known of my radical theories about the group and the therapeutic theatre . I was dangerous, not as much because I knew its limitations but particularly because I had developed methods which the future will, as I claimed, prove to be superior . My answer as to why Brill slipped is : he was not quite sure that psychoanalysis. i s able to analyze geniuses of the calibre of Abraham Lincoln ; he was not quite sure that he, as an individual-an immigrantwas the one to deliver the blow to American autism and he was also not quite sure that the American people will accept him, Abraham Brill, the deliverer, as an idol instead of Lincoln . He feared that he was playing a losing game . He felt guilty and Freud was not around to help him and in a masoch*stic mood, with



a brazen gesture he called upon the very man whose ways of production and presentation should have been as mysterious to him as those of Abraham Lincoln . He called upon myself . Like the dying Hamlet he called Fortinbras to take over . It would be only fair for me to tell you also why I accepted Brill's invitation . I had two reasons . The one was that Brill represented psychoanalysis which I esteemed highly but considered as my natural opponent . The second reason was my profound sympathy for Abraham Lincoln . I felt as if I took his place, like an auxiliary ego in a psychodramatic session . As I spoke, I felt as though, in a way, Lincoln spoke through me . He, the defenseless dead, defended himself . He appealed to me as a psychodramatic character in real life, a producer of ideas and actions . The psychodrama of his own life and the sociodrama of the American continent were merging on that morning of June 5th, at the Hotel Royal York, into one great, indissoluble event . The history of the last twenty years has made the Brill-Lincoln incident symbolic . I had hardly returned to New York when I got a telephone call ; it was from the president of the Pathe News . "I have read what you said about Abraham Lincoln, in the New York Times and other newspapers . Your statements have aroused great public interest and I would appreciate if you would permit Pathe News to interview you for its forthcoming newsreel ." I answered, "I'm sorry, but my comments were given at a medical meeting . I have nothing further to say." "Well," said the spokesman for Pathe News, "that's too bad, because it was not only a scientific paper . The honor of a great American figure, which you defended so eloquently, was at stake . Besides" he added, "Dr . Brill has accepted to make a newsreel for us ." "Well," I said rapidly, "that changes the situation . Whatever Brill does against Lincoln, I will do for him ." And so as many people may remember, in the course of the summer of 1931 moving picture audiences could see and hear Brill getting up and trying to prove that Abraham Lincoln was a schizoid-manic personality and I standing up after him and disproving it . The reader may reproach me for not publishing an account of the Lincoln incident immediately or soon after it occurred, instead of waiting until now, almost twenty years later . The question is appropriate . But Brill himself hesitated . What is still more sur-



prising-as far as my knowledge goes- his paper did not appear, either in a psychiatric or in a psychoanalytic journal . It has remained unpublished .* He was obviously very much displeased . Apparently he was not only displeased with me but also with his paper and with himself . He wanted to bury the incident and my discussion with it . Furthermore, I suspect that the executive officers of the American Psychoanalytic Association got together, took Brill to task for the Lincoln incident and forbade him to publish the paper . I did not give a public account of my own reaction because I did not want to hurt Brill and make him feel that this was a personal matter with me . I did not deal with Brill . I dealt with psychoanalysis and Abraham Lincoln . 1932, THE PASSING OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC SYSTEM, II

The historian of the year two thousand, looking back at the development of psychiatry and the social sciences during the twentieth century, may count my intervention in Toronto as one of the signals of the passing of the psychoanlytic system and its replacement by more satisfactory systems of universal life assessment. By psychoanalytic system I mean all systems of analytic character. I made the Freudian doctrine the particular target of my attack because it was the farthest developed and the most influential. My critique is not directed against Freud the scientist, but against Freud, the metaphysician, the system builder . Although he again and again assured his contemporaries that "psychoanalysis is not a system," the fact is that he has built one just the same and that his pupils have turned it into a bulwark of strength and security in order to continue the identity of the movement. Now that Freud is dead the source of productivity of the psychoanalytic movement is gone with him . None of his pupils has been able to match him by far, the only thing left is the system . Unfortunately, the system was never quite adequate, not even at the time when it was freshly constructed and when psychoanalysis was a strong idea . One of the reasons which makes the battle against psychoanaly* Dr . Brill never published his Toronto address in any generally accessible publication ; at least such publication is not recorded in Dr. Philip Lehrman's Bio-Bibliography (181 items) in his paper "A . A. Brill in American Psychiatry," Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Vol . 17, 1948 .



sis difficult is that Freud's scientific discoveries are continuously mixed up with his metapsychological views, as the theory of the libido, the theories of sublimation, projection and frustration, the theory of the unconscious, the trilogy of the id, ego and superego, the theory of the death instinct and many others . The psychoanalytic system should be strictly differentiated from Freud's observations . The theoretical framework of a system is often the last thing to go, even i f its content has been modified or replaced . Were it not for the system, the discoveries which Freud has made could be incorporated into a different one, as the sociometric system, without loss to their cogency . Therefore, as his system contradicts a more imaginative explanation of the universe and the advance of science, it should be rejected . The psychoanalytic system has in common with other analytic systems which followed its steps, the tendency to associate the origins of life with calamity . The key concept of the Freudian system is the libido. But Freud, instead o f associating sex with "spontaneity", associated it with anxiety, insecurity, abreaction, frustration and substitution. His system shows strong inclinations towards the negative and for negation, a tendency which grew stronger in him with age . Even sexuality, which owes him its permanent elevation to a respectable and powerful agent, he studied in its negative rather than in its positive aspects . It was not the sexual actor and his warm up towards org*sm, it was not sexual intercourse and the interaction of two in its positive unfoldment, but rather the miscarriages of sex, its deviations and displacements, its pathology rather than its normality, to which he gave his attention. Surely, he hoped that by showing up the calamities in the course of analysis, a healthy sexual life, liberated from its shackles, will emerge. But all along he gave priority to the hindrances of sexual life and not to its performance, cultivation and training . Adler's system* started with another calamity, the inferiority of organs and the feelings of inferiority . Rank started with a different calamity again, with the trauma of birth . All therapeutic prescriptions in these three systems were made to overcome the initial calamity which the human actor encounters . We can understand the Freudian approach when we * Adler developed in his later years a supplementary system but he could never free himself from an analytic position .



consider the scientific climate in which psychoanalysis arose . In the second part of the nineteenth century the biological view of life prevailed in medical circles . It was a fashion to think with Schopenhauer and Darwin that pain and evil dominate the universe. Freud looked at man from below ; he saw man "upside down" and from the position from which he looked at man he saw first his sexual organs and his rear . He was profoundly impressed, perhaps oversensitized, and he never turned his attention away from them. But one can evaluate man more advantageously by looking at him from above . Then one sees him erect, standing on his feet, eyes and head first . The psychoanalytic system suffers from a negative bias which gives a sour taste to all the appetites and aspirations of man . But it would be erroneous to think that it is the biological approach which is at fault . Some of his students who have tried since to supplement the Freudian position by social and cultural analyses have not been able to overcome the original deficiencies, but rather accentuated them . I do not agree with some empiricists and those who swear by the experimental method that Freud was unscientific, intuitive and mystic, in order to dismiss his findings lightly . Freud was a greater scientist than most of those who criticize him, his hypotheses were based at least on partial evidence and perhaps at times on as little as ten percent probability, but he knew it . He was always willing to change his hypotheses with new evidence and he changed them several times during his life . My critique goes against the psychoanalytic system in its entirety and the unconscious motivations underlying it . The unconscious motivations underlying it can be read plainly from the model which gave impetus and continued inspiration to the system-the psychoanalytic situation . It was so modelled that it permits analysis and excludes action. The patient was placed on a couch in a passive, reclining position ; the analyst placed himself back of the patient so as not to see him and avoid interaction . The situation was hermetically closed ; no other person was permitted to enter it and the thoughts which emerged on the couch were to remain the secret of the chamber . It was to omit the positive and the direct in the relationship to the patient . The technique of free association is not natural talk . The patient reports what is



going through his mind . The transference of the patient upon the analyst was not permitted to extend and become a real, twoway encounter . The conclusion is that the unconscious motivation behind the model is fear of the analyst of being put in the position of acting out towards the patient and being acted upon by him . It is a safety device against overt love and overt aggression . The difficulty is, of course, that by this life itself was banned from the chamber, and the treatment process became a form of shadowboxing . Once the psychoanalytic system has been discarded one can take an objective view of the scientific techniques and discoveries which psychoanalysis has made . Whereas the psychoanalytic system was stillborn to start with the psychoanalytic techniques were vigorous and unsurpassed at the time they were made . What has happened since is that new instruments, sociometry, psychodrama and group psychotherapy have opened up new areas of research, which have made the Freudian method antiquated and the Freudian discoveries part of more inclusive ones . The libido lives on in the sociometric system as a subform of creativity . The unconscious lives on as a by product of the warming up process . The psychoanalytic couch has become a piece of furniture in the sociodynamic field of the psychodramatic stage . Free association is a limited and often artificial adjunct of acting out ; spontaneous acting out is a universal function of human behavior, a sequel to the act-hunger of the infant ; acting out, which appeared to Freud as a sign of resistance and a phenomenon to be forbidden in the couch situation, has become one of the steeringwheels of therapeutic interaction . Tele has been discovered as the universal factor dominating interpersonal relations and social interaction ; transference is a byproduct of tele structure . Regression is a form of compulsive playing, a form of role playing, playing to the tune of role conserves ; the acting out of regressive patterns offers certain advantages to the individual acting, they relax the patient because they reduce his involvement with the complicated present situation to a minimum ; he can replace the expected response to the current situation by a simple one and so live with a low amount of spontaneity. Resistance is a function of spontaneity, it is due to a decrease or loss of it . Projection is a function of imagination . Sublimation becomes a function of creativity .



Freud's fear o f acting out has had many consequences . It led to his refusal to have any part in emotional and social upheavals, revolutions of individuals or of masses, to a suspicion of prophets, poets and rebels . Just as he never gave us a picture of sexual intercourse on the level of its mature, interpersonal dynamics he never gave us a positive, direct picture of the creative act as it is experienced in moments of spontaneous inspiration in men of genius. He looked at both as an analyst instead of as an actor and co-actor . Therefore, also in his conceptual system he turned his eyes away from the creator in situ treating him similar to the patient on the psychoanalytic couch . It boils down to the reply which Freud gave to the question : "What is creativity?" He answered : "It is sublimated libido ." As he was blind to the true meaning of spontaneity and creativity, he did not see that libido occupies but a small part and that the human and non-human universe is filled with ongoing "prelibidinal" and "extralibidinal" creativity . The spontaneous-creative forces are more universal and older than libido . It is a truism that the universe is maintained in part by systems of repetition and organs of reproduction, but they are not always linked to sexual organs . System building is a challenge to scientific imagination . Freud was a great scientist but a poor poet . System building requires a combination of both gifts . 1932, How GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY STARTED AND THE QUESTION OF PATERNITY

At the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in Philadelphia in May of 1932 the first conference on Group Methods took place .* I opened my address with the following definition : "Group psychotherapy is a method which protects and stimulates the self-regulating mechanisms of natural groupsthrough the use of one man as a therapeutic agent of the other, of one group as a therapeutic agent of the other ." After the conference I was discouraged because of the lukewarm reception, but Dr. William Alanson White, the moderator of the conference * It was preceded by a preliminary conference in Toronto, May, 1931 . The late Dr. Vernon C. Branham rendered a great service in the organization of the meetings and as a liaison between Dr . White and myself .



said to me : "First you will attract the social psychologists, then the sociologists, then the anthropologists and next the psychologists . Many years will go by before the physicians will listen, but the last of all will be the psychiatrists ." And thus it has come about . Whereas with sociometry and psychodrama my leadership is undisputed, with group psychotherapy the scientific audience may be wondering what the real picture is ; there are at least two or three claimants to that honor . It is not only of historical importance to determine who started group psychotherapy. This question has a crucial bearing upon the concepts and operations which are worthy of survival .

Pierre Renouvier, in a current survey,' summarizes the situation as follows : "In the years 1931 and 1932 Moreno coined the terms group therapy and group psychotherapy in connection with a specific set of operations which he described in a monograph Application o f the Group Method to Classification . It was published by the National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor, and distributed by them throughout the country, putting it into the hands of psychiatrists, psychologists, sociologists and social workers ; this culminated in the famous Conference on Group Methods in Philadelphia . It was the first organized effort to bring group psychotherapy to the attention of the members of the American Psychiatric Association . It is my mature judgment that group psychotherapy was precipitated by methods of social measurement, i.e ., sociometry ; it started as soon as the sociometric system was formulated and sociometric analysis of groups became possible ; sociometry understood in its broadest sense, not only the sociometric tests, but all forms of social measurement, group interview and group dynamics related to them . Before the advent of sociometry no one knew what the interpersonal structure of a group "precisely" looked like, in parts and as a whole, and therefore no one knew how to isolate, prevent or predict disturbances in groups . In the presociometric period all interpretations were based on hunches and intuitive speculations in the manner of LeBon, MacDougal and t See "Evaluation and Survey of Group Psychotherapies," Group Psychotherapy, Vol. VI, 1953 ; also his "Group Psychotherapy in the United States," Sociatry, Vol . 11, \o . 1-2, 1948 .



Freud . When Moreno drew the first sociograms of groups it struck him instantly that he had found one way, at least, to put the therapy of groups on a scientific basis . It has frequently occurred in the history of ideas that the emergence of a new science coincided with the coinage of adequate terminology . Obviously then, all therapeutic operations with groups before 1931 should not be and have not been called group therapy or group psychotherapy. Indeed, they all had a therapeutic precept but not a scientific one . Anton Mesmer (1790) found that group sessions were fruitful because people influence one another . He called the factor producing these effects "animal magnetism" but he did not know how to examine what took place in his groups .* Joseph Pratt (1908) found that tubercular patients treated in groups recovered faster . He ascribed this to the emotional effect of the group upon the individual and called it "The Class Method" ; but Pratt knew as little as Mesmer did about the examination and measurement of the processes in groups and so he knew as little about prevention and prediction . Moreno, in his work with children (1911) and with prostitutes (1913) noticed the powerful effect of autonomous groupings upon the individual members . He saw astonishing results and had various explanations for them but it was by no means anything which could be dignified with the term group psychotherapy. This goes still more for E . W. Lazelle who started in 1921 with a series of lectures to groups of mental patients at St . Elizabeth's Hospital, passing to them some of the current psychiatric and psychoanalytic knowledge . He found this intellectual way of enlightenment of didactic value and called it group treatment. But Lazelle knew in 1921 just as little as Mesmer in 1790 or Pratt in 1908 or Moreno in 1914 what forces operate in the group, why he had didactic effects in one group and not in another, and how to measure these effects . Trigant Burrow in 1927 encouraged free and informal conversation of patients and noticed that the individuals were better able to liberate the emotional pressures and tensions within a group then alone . He called this method "Group Analysis" but also he, without the instruments by means of which he could examine the structure of his group, could not see any sense in group therapy and gave it * Mesmer's influence upon group psychotherapy has been particularly emphasized by Dr . W. Hulse .



up. Finally Freud, the most advanced theoretician of the period before sociometric theory stepped in, in his Group Psychology and the Analysis o f the Ego (1922) had nothing to offer except vague assertions that the group is held together by libidinous ties and that the contrast between individual psychology and group psychology is hardly worth stressing ; he thought that it is all due to psychodynamics. WHO SHALL SURVIVE? created the scientific foundations of group psychotherapy, as it was without precedent at the time of its publication.* It embraced the widest range of operations which have later been transacted in behalf of group psychotherapy, 1) the emergence of group action in the here and now, 2) the involvement of the spontaneity of all participants in the group . 3) the warming up, 4) activities, 5) observations, 6) interview, 7) discussion, 8) grouping and regrouping, 9) acting out techniques, 10) interaction analysis and 11) group catharsis . It is the first determined and consistent effort to apply the principles of group psychotherapy to an entire community. Moreno coined most of the terms which are now universally used by all schools of group psychotherapists, "group therapy," "group psychotherapy," "warming up," "group catharsis," "social catharsis," "action catharsis," "acting out techniques," etc . He has been the actual leader and prime mover of the group psychotherapy movement since 1931 . He initiated or guided most of the Group Psychotherapy conferences within the American Psychiatric Association during the last twenty years, which has aided probably more than anything else to raise the medico-psychological status of the new discipline . His journal Sociometry (1937) was the first to open its pages to contributions on group psychotherapy, which led ten years later to the establishment of a special journal . In 1942 he opened the Sociometric Institute, organized for the purpose of training, besides sociometrists, group psychotherapists and psychodramatists, and spreading these ideas throughout the world . In 1942 he formed the first scientific society which had the term "group psychotherapy" in its name, the American Society of Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama, * See reviews of the First Edition by Gardner Murphy (Journal of Social Psychology), Smith Ely Jelliffe (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease), George Stevenson (Mental Hygiene), Winifred Richmond (Psychoanalytic Review) and George A . Lundberg (American Journal of Sociology) .



which published a quarterly Bulletin of Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy since May, 1943 . In 1947 he started Sociatry, Journal of Group and Intergroup Therapy, the title of which was changed to Group Psychotherapy two years later (1949) . In 1951 his nationwide petition for a Section on Group Psychotherapy within the American Psychiatric Association brought about the support of more than fifteen hundred psychiatrists and, in consequence, the establishment of a Symposium on Group Psychotherapy and a Round Table Conference on Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama within the American Psychiatric Association, now in their third year . In 1951 he formed an International Committee on Group Psychotherapy in Paris, and State Committees on Group Psychotherapy within the USA in all its fortyeight states . World War Number II created a historical opportunity to practice group psychotherapy on a large scale . But the direct and indirect influence Moreno has exercised upon hundreds of physicians, sociologists and psychologists in the decade preceding the war has mobilized in them the courage to try out group psychotherapy in the armed forces . Through books and journals, and through the liaison of former Brigadier General J . Rees and later through Major Fitzpatrick, who came to the USA as the representative of a group of British medical officers, the avantguarde of that group which later organized the Tavistock Institute, the group methods inaugurated by him exercised considerable influence in Great Britain . Last not least, and in order to give the devil his due, it was his continuous influence upon Slavson's promotional mind to try his hand in the development of parallel organizations . The "two-party system" may have had some value as a mutual catalyzer for the spreading of the group idea . These are my conclusions : if we think of group psychotherapy in vague, clinical terms instead of in terms of rigorous scientific method, it would be only just to consider Mesmer as the one who used group psychotherapy first . But, if group psychotherapy is correctly defined as a form of therapy which is based on knowledge of group structure and which aims at measurable changes of group dynamics before and after a therapeutic operation is applied to it-regardless what the operation is, lecture, interview, discussion, activity, regrouping, psychodrama, motion picture, or a combination of them-then Moreno's claim to the paternity of



group psychotherapy is justified . It has always been suspected that groups are in constant process of regrouping-people move in and out of groups, people change their position in groups-but we had no handle to guide the regrouping process to the greatest advantage of its members . Group psychotherapy is, therefore, the facilitation and adjustment of a change of structure, either in situ, through immediate therapy, or by methods of reorganization ."

THE INFLUENCES The soil for sociometry was prepared by the thinking of J . Baldwin, C . H. Cooley, G. H . Mead, W . I . Thomas and particularly John Dewey. Sociologists and educators were the first to accept it . Psychiatrists were the slowest . Theories of interpersonal relations have been advanced by sociologists like Georg Simmel and Leopold von Wiese, but I went a step ahead and defined experimentally the interpersonal situation and developed interpersonal measurement . The question has often been raised as to the merits of Harry Stack Sullivan's work and its relation to my own . I formulated my theory of interpersonal relations several years before Sullivan began to write on the subject . It is often forgotten that it was I who took the lead in testing the theory on a broad research and clinical scale paving the way for "interpersonal therapies" now widely practiced (for instance when I started to treat husband and wife, or any other two co-related persons in separate sessions or simultaneously, this was anathema then ; it was a psychoanalytic rule that each should be treated by a different therapist) . Sullivan's inventiveness was handicapped . He produced a theoretic skeleton but he could not implement it with clinical operations of his own . He hesitated to go the whole way with the concept of interpersonal relations as a "two-way" relation and followed my lead in this crucial point only haltingly . It is unfortunate that he never embraced interpersonal measurement, group psychotherapy and psychodrama and that he remained an advocate of analyticinterpretative psychiatry almost to the end of his life . However, some of his students are using sociometric instruments today to give interpersonal theory concrete foundations .




I discovered early that the quickest way to spread novel ideas is to "give them away" . Besides the good geniis who surround every pioneer there is also a class of people who want to steal his ideas and make them their own . It would be harsh to call them intellectual thieves . They are usually honestly affected people . First they become friends and followers because an intellectual commodity cannot be stolen, it has to be absorbed . But once they believe that they master the new skill they prefer that the creator be dead. Indeed, they often deny his existence . However unpleasant they may be for the person of the inventor, they are of enormous value for his ideas . Because they make an idea their own they promote it with the same vigor as the originator . They become unwittingly helpers against their will . I have been very lucky in having been visited during my career by numerous men of this type . I learned to appreciate and respect their calling in a sort of objective fashion, and to see in them the working of a general principle, operating in the promotion of all creative effort, sciences and arts . I am thinking here of three particularly good friends of this category . One was a Viennese architect who liked my stage so much that he constructed a copy of my model and displayed it side by side with mine in the International Theatre Exhibit in Vienna in 1924 . He became its best promoter, so much so that people thought we had a tacit agreement to advertise each other. When I left for the USA he followed and made publicity for it here. Another was S . R. Slavson, a visitor of my early group theatre at Carnegie Hall and later of Hudson and Beacon, N . Y. He liked my concepts and terms group therapy and group psychotherapy and a few years later began to use them without quotation. He imitated many of my steps since . I started a Society of Group Psychotherapy in 1942, he followed one year later . I started a journal of group psychotherapy in 1947, he followed two years later, using the same title . Many people have been aware of this except he himself . The third is a certain G . Denes . He liked the psychodrama and so he started to give public sessions of the Denes psychodrama in New York . I am fully aware that I owe each of these three gentlemen a royalty for their efforts in behalf of the ideas which they have tried to spread with a fanaticism equal to my own : "C'est la vie, c'est le plagiat ."






It is incredible and unfortunate that the people who steal your ideas become, in addition, also your personal enemies . They become rejecting figures in your sociogram as long as you live and frequently long after your death . He who claims priority (which is a form of superiority), however justified, becomes unpopular with the majority. It should not surprise students of sociometry that he who rejects will be rejected . Many people instinctively side with the accused, perhaps because they could be accused of the same crime, only on a smaller scale . LITERATURE AND THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE

Repetition and confirmation are inevitable stages in the development of ideas . In a famous debate on culture in the Austro-Hungarian parliament before World War I a primitive Czech deputy Bielohaveck, countering the great M-lasaryk and trying to help in the definition of what literature is, said, shockingly, "Literatur ist das was ein Jud vom anderen abschreibt"-"Literature is what one Jew copies from another". I wrote in my notebook in reply : "Hie and da kommt ein Original Jude von dem alle abschreiben"-"From time to time an original Jew appears who is copied by all" . THE COUNTER-HELPERS

There is another way of spreading ideas, that is to challenge people who represent opposite ideologies . This one, however, is often accompanied by filling your sociogram with enemy figures who block your expansion by counter-attacks of their own . There were three movements which I encountered in the USA, psychoanalysis, semantics and Gestalt. I opened with a challenge of psychoanalysis at the Toronto meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in 1931 . As described above, Dr . Abraham Brill had tried to psychoanalyze the late President Abraham Lincoln as a schizophrenic. I showed that it is psychoanalysis itself which needed care and treatment, not Lincoln. Since then I have not ceased to reiterate my claim that psychoanalysis is the method



which my methods have surpassed and that it is the Trojan horse which carries my ideas free of charge into the four corners of the globe . Semantics came next . While visiting Dr . White at St . Elizabeths Hospital one day and expounding to him upon my ideas, he suggested that I meet Korzybski who was also there, attempting to cure mental patients by semantics . White remarked : "Count Korzybski is determined and resourceful in his way, just like yourself . I would like to put the two of you overnight together in one of our strong rooms, lock you up and then see what has happened to you the next morning ." I was willing, but Korzybski did not appear . I did not get to know him until the meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in New York at the Waldorf-Astoria in 1934 . Korzybski's Science and Sanity and my WHO SHALL SURVIVE? had just appeared . Introducing himself to me he suggested that we exchange books but I said : "No, let's wait another twenty years ." Unfortunately, he could not wait that long and so we have to exchange the books in the hereafter .-The analysis of language, useful as it is in itself, does not lead to any change in behavior . It has to be followed up by methods of action learning which train the pupil to think and act below and beyond the boundaries of language . It is interesting to note that before his death Korzybski became interested in group psychotherapy and action techniques and used roleplaying in his seminars . In the course of 1935 I received in my New York office another visitor whose interest in sociometry was of help because of his vigorous promotion of its techniques . It was Kurt Lewin, then an exponent of Gestalt theory . The first time he was accompanied by several of his students . The meeting was mutually stimulating and so we met several times in succession . He had read WHO SHALL SURVIVE? and the topics of the discussions were sociometry and the dynamics of group structure, spontaneity training, and a roleplaying film which had been made in Hudson and was then being shown in several places . He promised that he would do some sociometric work with small groups and spontaneity playing, a promise which he kept in the years to come . He influenced many of his students to attend my sessions and study my methods and



a number of them are working in the field . It is not for me to judge the originality of his research in individual and Gestalt psychology, but the influence which I exercised upon him at a turning point of his career, marking the transition from individual to group and action research, has been known to a group of students who knew the circ*mstances of our meetings . A careful survey of the bibliography of Kurt Lewin's writings arranged by one of his students* makes this point clear ; it indicates a marked change of interest, beginning with 1935, or, as Pierre Renouvier, in his recent survey' put it : "Lewin had two periods of productivity, before and after the reading of WHO SHALL SURVIVE?" It is also interesting to note the dramatic change evidenced in Lewin's writings after 1935 . There is a change of focus and attention from individual and Gestalt psychology to the consideration of group and action methods. He made an extraordinary effort to incorporate many of my concepts and techniques into his own system but this effort has been ineffectual . In addition, he gave roleplaying, action and group techniques a taint of artificiality for which I have often been blamed. He had a fine sense for the new trend in the social sciences but he was at the time when he entered the group and action field psychologically too old to jump from the timeworn psychological laboratory into the open spaces of roleplaying, group dynamics and action research . His well conceived schematic constructions cannot deceive the connoisseur . The same artificiality and withdrawal from real encounter can be noted with some of his students, which may explain why so many undynamic people are found among the students of group dynamics .

1932-1936, THE `IDEA" OF HUDSON The central locus of this period was Hudson . My central effort was to give an example of a sociometrized community, as I was convinced that genuine foundations of group psychotherapy cannot be established otherwise . It is from the Hudson idea that all my efforts radiated, writings as well as actions . My monographs on the Group Method, Psychological Organization o f Groups, WHO SHALL SURVIVE? and all my writings up to 1937 * Sociometry, Vol. 10, No . 1, p . 96-97, 1947 . t Op . cit .



belong in a single block . The first large hospital which followed the lead of Hudson was St . Elizabeths Hospital in Washington . Its chief psychologist, Winifred Richmond, started there with a well planned sociometric research in 1934, realizing that it is an essential preliminary to the group psychotherapy of an entire community . Another outcome of the Hudson era was the formation of an Advisory Committee within the Department of Social Welfare of the State of New York with Gardner Murphy as Chairman, . designated to spread the good work to other institutions and communities . Sociometry owes a great deal to the courageous and enlightened support of a few university teachers . The late John Dewey wrote, after reading WHO SHALL SURVIVE? that sociometry appeared like "the next stage" and that its techniques were already far developed. On a visit to Hudson by a group of distinguished social scientists the girls put on a number of roleplaying situations in which they showed their consummate skill in handling some problems of human relations . One of the visitors, impressed with the high intelligence of the performers, asked about their IQ's . Pointing at one girl after another I replied : "55, 59, 64, 69 ." He was astonished . I explained : "Psychodrama is a cosmetic for the psyche . It makes people look smarter and more attractive than they are." While returning from Hudson after the visit, W . H . Kilpatrick, the distinguished educator, said to Murphy : "If Moreno is as much as half right, then Thorndike is more than half wrong." PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT DISCOVERS SOCIOMETRY

The nearness of Hudson to Hyde Park and a chain of lucky circ*mstances brought sociometry to the attention of the late President Franklin D . Roosevelt . It was during the period of the New Deal, when Washington was full of ideas for social betterment . Roosevelt had an open mind for anything which might help the people of the USA in an age of crisis . The attempt of technocracy to save the country from unemployment had failed. The psychological moment for sociometry had



come. It had become a topic of discussion in many government circles .

Dr. Frank Wilson, Minister of the Episcopal Church of Hyde Park, a regular visitor at the New York State Training School for Girls at Hudson, after reading WHO SHALL SURVIVE? decided to make sociometry the theme of a Sunday sermon . President Roosevelt, who was in the church that morning, became interested . Dr . Wilson invited me to meet the President next Sunday in his church . The President sat in the first row of pews, I sat in the last and when the religious ceremony was over Mr . Roosevelt had to pass my seat . Suddenly he stopped and said "Hello, Dr . Moreno," as if he would know me . He invited me into his car ; on his lap he had a copy of WHO SHALL SURVIVE? . He opened it and pointed at one of the sociograms . "This looks like progressive sociology," he said, and added pensively, "if I would not have taken my present course, this is the kind of thing I would have liked to do ." He further stated, "When I am back in Washington I will see where your ideas can be put to use ." As a matter of fact, sociological leaders like Drs . Charles P . Loomis and Carl C . Taylor, connected with the Department of Agriculture, had already begun to apply these ideas to subsistence homestead projects . I thought that President Roosevelt might forget our meeting but his interest created a new enthusiasm in Washington which culminated in a large number of sociometric community studies.

THE NEW BIBLE It was in a small meeting room at Columbia University, where a few of us were sitting, musing about where sociometry will lead us. One of the younger scholars took me aside and said bluntly "You seem to think that WHO SHALL SURVIVE? is a book of books, a new bible ." I looked at him and saw the green light of "creator envy" in his eye . , Of course I thought so, but I did not say a word . I smiled at him and he smiled back . It is a new bible, the bible for social conduct, for human societies . It has more ideas packed in one book than a whole generation of books . What is wrong with a bible? Some people have an idea that a bible stops everything . On the contrary, in the religious sphere the Old



and New Testaments did not stop religion, they opened new vistas and stimulated religious experience and techniques . The same thing happens in science . The fear of bibles is the fear of anything which is definite and decisive . There are two kinds of bibles, the one kind which become cultural conserves and are barriers to production ; they are finishers and finished products . Then there is the other kind which are starters, they set free the spontaneity and creativity of mankind . Actually, I have written two bibles, an old testament and a new testament, The Words of the Father and WHO SHALL SURVIVE? It is almost twenty years now since that silent exchange of opinion took place. Now the book has become a bible, a bible of human relations . Thenext hundred years will tell the entire story .


I started three units, a theatre,* a school and a mental hospital . The theatre was a theatre of psychodrama, the first in the USA . It was to explore upon its stage various systems of human relations, to arrive at the most productive cultural order . The school was to carry the principles discovered into teaching and learning, the training of sociometrists, group psychotherapists and psychodramatists who could start similar centers elsewhere . The mental hospital which was built around the theatre was to give the most acutely ill representatives of our culture the benefit of antidotes . The format of the modern mental hospital tends towards the extroverted type . Elegant landscaping, colorful rooms and shiny walls, authoritarian habits and discipline, orderliness, cleanliness and meticulousness are the order . The benefits of this style of mental care notwithstanding, it has not been able to give adequate expression to the patients' needs . The psychodramatic sanitarium aspires towards the introverted type ; it creates for the patients anchorages modeled after their own spontaneous aspirations, however confused . * Thanks to Gertrude Franchot Tone, the mother of the actor Franchot Tone .




The movement needed a journal . It was launched in the summer of 1937, preceded by the Sociometric Review .* We decided to call it Sociometry, A Journal o f Interpersonal Relations . Gardner Murphy was the editor and Eugene L . Hartley its managing editor . I was the publisher and William A . White joined its editorial board. It was the first journal bearing this title and appeared approximately one year ahead of Sullivan's Psychiatry, A Journal o f the Biology and Pathology o f Interpersonal Relations . J. B . Rhine planned at that time a journal of parapsychology ; perhaps because of the central position of the concept of tele in both disciplines, tele psychology in one, telepathy in the other, a serious friend had the idea of combining them into one journal . We could have called it "Parasociometry ." But each movement decided to light its own candle . 1935-1942, CONTRIBUTORS AND FOUNDERS OF SOCIOMETRIC THOUGHT

Four sociologists and four psychologists have shaped and definitely entrenched the foundations of sociometry : Helen Jennings, Joan H . Criswell, George A. Lundberg, Charles P . Loomis, Leslie D . Zeleny, Mary L. Northway, Merl E . Bonney and Stuart C. Dodd . Besides the tangential participation of Emory S . Bogardus, F. M . Newstetter, F . Stuart Chapin and Paul F . Lazarsfeld, the warm support and stimulation of Gardner Murphy was deeply felt throughout this period . 1937-1942, THE SOCIOMETRISTS AS A GROUP

Henry J . Meyer, in a recent analysis,t differentiates three types of sociometry : as an orientation towards life, as a theory of society and as a method of research . It is particularly within the third, the methods and techniques, that a high degree of consensus has been reached, the spontaneous collaboration of hundreds of *February, 1936 . t See Socioraetry, Vol . 15, No . 3-4, 1952 .



workers . The total contribution they have made as a "collective" is the more astonishing because it was not planned, it developed like the chain reactions which we frequently notice in the sociometric networks of communication. The place which sociometry holds in the social sciences can easily be estimated by surveying the sociometric literature since 1934 . The most important documentation are the Sociometric Review, the fifteen volumes of the journal Sociometry and five volumes of Group Psychotherapy which demonstrate the areas of research in which it was leading the way for others to follow . 1) The unbiased objectivity of the uninvolved, operational analyst . The study of attraction-repulsion patterns and similar sociometric phenomena in situ was a relatively new challenge to the social scientist . 2) The study of interpersonal relations and interpersonal measurement ; it should be pointed out here that other groups so rapidly followed our trail (as, for instance, the Sullivan group) that a reader of 1953 would have a hard time to separate one event from another unless he looks up the printed record . 3) The importance of the informal group in formal organization . Sociometrists were the first to demonstrate this phenomenon through empirical evidence ; see "Work and Home Groups" in this book, also the work of Charles P . Loomis and George A . Lundberg. The influence which we have exercised upon the Hawthorne group of the Western Electric Company is particularly evident in Roethlisberger and Dickson's Management and the Worker ; see their chapter "The Bank-wiring Room", and the sociograms they included . 4) The atomic theory in social science . 5) Sociometric theory of leadership and isolation ; see Helen H . Jennings . 6) Sociometric theory of ethnic cleavage ; see Joan H. Criswell . 7) Systematic attention to the small group ; see the "Analysis of a Small Group" in this book and painstaking analyses made by other sociometrists . 8) The discovery of the informal, invisible, social networks of communication and their repeated, experimental demonstration (study of rumors) . 9) The deviation from chance as a reference base in the measurement of social configurations has become fundamental in all group research, especially in the study of group cohesion and group dissociation . 10) Role




theory ; without our discovery of the role-testing methods and the empirical role research which followed it would have remained an academic affair of social philosophers . 11) The psychology of the warming up process and its linkage to action has revolutionized action-oriented research . These are merely some of the items . We are far from claiming that we have done all the work . But stop and think for a moment what these areas of research would be without the intervention of sociometry . 1937, AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY

The first sociometric conference within the annual meeting of the A . S . S . was arranged by Dr . George A . Lundberg in Atlantic City . He was the first sociologist of note to apply sociometric methods to an open village and succeeded Murphy in the editorship of Sociometry in 1941 . 1937-1938, FIRST UNIVERSITY SEMINARS ON PSYCHODRAMA AND SOCIOMETRY

Under the auspices of the Guidance Laboratory, Teachers College, Columbia University, I gave a course "Introduction to Psychodrama" ; upon invitation of Dr . Alvin Johnson I gave a course "Sociometry" at the New School for Social Research . 1937, PSYCHODRAMA AT SAINT ELIZABETHS HOSPITAL

When stricken with a grave illness in 1937, Dr . White spoke with Margaret Hagan, then Director of Red Cross, about the future development of the hospital, and it was one of his last wishes that a Theatre of Psychodrama be created within it . She gave him the assurance that she would see to it . Three years after his death it became a reality, thanks to the efforts of Margaret Hagan and Dr . Winfred Overholser, Dr. White's successor . The establishment of a theatre of psychodrama at the largest federal mental hospital in the USA was of strategic importance .




The classic sociometric test was so constructed that it was able to measure the conflict between the existing configuration of a group and that configuration which is really wanted by the members of the group .* In the sociometric test given at PS 181, Brooklyn, N . Y . in the winter of 1931 the seating order in the classroom imposed upon the children by extraneous authority was confronted with the seating order which the children expressly preferred . Every sociometric test brought out the contrast between an authoritarian and a democratic pattern of grouping. It is important to differentiate the sociometric "test" from sociometric "questions" . The test asks you to choose, for instance, "Whom do you want to sit near you in the classroom?" The question asks you to judge, for instance, "Who are the most or the least popular individuals in the class?" Test and question differ again from autonomous perception (autotele) : "Who do you think wants to sit near you?" When I started the project at PS 181 my initial plan was to commence with spontaneity and role testing first and to apply the sociometric test later . It was perhaps fortunate that the Principal of the school, the late Dr . Nathan Peiser thought that spontaneity playing would be more difficult to introduce than the sociometric test . 1937, THE "CLASSIC" VERSION OF PSYCHODRAMA

In current textbooks a distinction is frequently made between classic psychodrama and abbreviated forms . It may be useful to describe here that form of psychodramatic procedure which I have practiced earliest and which is most suited to my temperament . If you wish you may call this the classic version . First of all, it was entirely spontaneous . The spontaneity of the group was as important as the spontaneity of the director . It was un* See the sociometric geography of a community in the rear of the book, which shows the actual positions the individuals have in the houses as well as the positions they want, or more specifically, the individuals in other houses to whom they are attracted . The sociometrie test makes explicit the conflict between an existing order and the potential structure of an order to which the group members aspire.



rehearsed and more even than this, it was entirely unplanned and there was, for me, also a fundamental reason for "not" planning it . It was to be here and now and not yesterday or tomorrow . I did not want to see or know anything about the people in advance, so as to keep all my own and their spontaneity free for the moment of meeting . It was to be a meeting at first sight . I wanted to be as free from bias towards them as possible from the start of the session and I wanted the group with which I was going to work to be equally free of bias towards me . When I used to roam freely around the country I used to give sessions wherever I found people, on the road, in their homes and workshops . From this method of the "here and now and we" three versions of the psychodrama developed, a) the emergent psychodrama in situ, b) the group-centered psychodrama and c) the leader-centered psychodrama . The best account of the philosophy of the here and now and the psychodrama in situ is reflected in the protocols of my dialogues and speeches .* When I became a physician the emergent psychodrama was the model to which I stuck closest. It is modelled to meet the aspirations of a medical practitioner who has, instead of individuals, groups as patients . Just like a physician who goes into a house to see a patient for the first time, makes his own examination, arrives at his own diagnosis and lets the interaction between him and his patient determine the form of the treatment, similarly, in such a psychodrama session it is the immediate situation which determines the chain of events . All other forms of psychodrama which I introduced later are dilutions, modifications, compromises and reductions of this, the classic form . In the group-centered form certain principles have remained unchanged . The cornerstone is still the principle of spontaneity ; the second principle is the involvement of the entire group in this operation ; the third principle is to avoid giving special therapeutic status to any member of the group, including the chief therapist ; he is just another member of the group . In such a session no one has a higher status than another, the one who eventually may emerge to conduct the session is first of all a member of the group . The usual therapeutic hierarchy is brought * Op. cit .



to a zero . In such a "conductorless psychodrama" a leader emerges, rises and falls, as the opportunity and the situation demands . It is a free-for-all type of session . The difficulties which often arise from the introduction of a chief therapist or analyst is herewith eliminated. In this kind of session the fears of the non-directive counselors are quelled, one is a therapist of the other . In the leader-centered version one particular individual is accepted as the one to conduct the session ; he may be a therapist in a therapeutic session, an educator in an educational session, an industrialist or working man in an industrial session, etc . It has the advantages of a central agency which itself has no opinions, no biases, it is entirely neutral, working as a catalyzer of the entire group, protecting the weak against the strong, the shy against the aggressive, trying to give all an equal opportunity for expression . In all forms of extemporaneous psychodrama the chief problem is how to get the group started. The best prescription is to let the warm up come from the group itself . Anything can start the ball rolling . There is no one who begins and there is no favorite topic . It may start with a joke, with an outburst of anger of one member of the group towards another or towards someone not present ; the therapist waits patiently until a situation structures itself or pushes gently along the lines of strongest productivity . Some sessions are not only leader-centered but also problem-centered. A problem is given or chosen ; the central intent of such a session is to let the problem structure itself, assuming that there are certain problems inherent in the group present, certain gripes, resentments or expectations . Experience has shown that what appears to be a planless beginning gradually leads to a significant process of production, as if it would have been carefully planned . In the course of such actions, abreactions, interactions, interabreactions, role playings, dialogues, interviews, discussions, analyses, one or another individual or a clique of individuals comes forth with a special problem . It comes spontaneously to an acting out unless the atmosphere is purposely restricted and unless there is a silent consensus that actions are taboo . Otherwise, acting out will take place within the group itself and thus the action portion of a psychodrama session begins . It is due



to the awareness of psychodramatic research that such things take place that the idea arose to give such acting out a special vehicle within the auditorium, a psychodrama stage . The acting out came first, the stage was built to accommodate this dynamic process within the group . Without a special vehicle for their acting out tendencies the group members may be inclined to consider them illegitimate. The use of acting out techniques makes the responsibility of the director greater and requires a special skill of direction, but their inclusion has therapeutic and research advantages. Now The spontaneity-counterspontaneity chain between protagonist, director and audience has to be kept in constant flow in the here and now of the production in order to attain the maximum of involvement and unity of all the participants concerned . The spontaneity of one is a function of the spontaneity of the other . A decrease or loss in the spontaneity of one may produce a decrease or loss of spontaneity of the other of the three chief agents of production, protagonist, director and audience . To maintain the balance of spontaneity in the total field depends upon a number of factors, last not least upon the vigilance of the director that the "principle" is not sacrificed to any extraneous objective, for instance, smoothness and flawlessness of production for an observer outside of the total situation who is not involved in the here and now. That observer may be one who hears a recorded production after the session is over, or it may even be one who is present in the session but who has trained himself to the role of the non-participant observer in order to detect flaws, shortcomings or other deficiencies . The director may start the session with a pre-formed concept of what the protagonist should act out. The suggestion of the director may not evoke an adequate response in the protagonist, either because he is already acutely warmed up to a different situation or because the suggested situation is peripheral to his needs. The conflict between the two battlers on the stage reflects in the audience in such a fashion that some of its members take 1938, SPONTANEITY AND THE HERE AND



sides with the protagonist, the others with the director . Unless such a contrived situation is a deliberate research project it will bring unsatisfactory results. Another problem arises if the production is pre-formed, not only in the mind of the director but also in the minds of all the protagonists upon the stage, carefully prepared and rehearsed in order to attain a smooth, continuous, well balanced production . The "here and now" has been sacrificed to a "there and before" . The warm up between them is of a different nature : to remember as well as possible the agreements made between them and to discard as much as possible extraneous inspirations and intuitions emerging in the here and now . The spontaneity-counterspontaneity is replaced by a prepared-counterprepared or, in the most rigorous forms, by a rehearsed-counterrehearsed approach . It is interesting to watch the effect of such a production upon an audience . The more formal, smooth and perfect a production appears, the more it puts the audience in an awe-abiding, respectful mood . The pressure of the perfection of the production reduces the spontaneity and the informal responsiveness of the audience. The spontaneity of the audience response depends largely upon the spontaneous chain reaction among the members . It is a spontaneous contagion of ideas and feelings which is easily blocked, not only by the awe-inspiring production on the stage, but also by the nearly hypnotized and in his spontaneity paralyzed member of the audience sitting next to him . The more prepared and planned the production is, therefore, the more a psychodramatic session resembles a production in the legitimate theatre . The potential participants of the audience behave more and more like spectators ; they are passive and receptive . It is obvious that also the reverse situation can take place . If a strictly extemporaneous production takes place on the stage, but if the audience is composed of members whose attitude is highly perfectionistic, expecting smoothness, regularity and completeness from the production, then their very hostility may affect the productivity of the protagonist on the stage . Dr. Wellman Warner,* a keen observer of psychodrama, has given this phenomenon an excellent * Ohairman, Department of Sociology, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, New York University .



definition : "The response of an audience grows in inverse proportion to the smoothness of the production ." 1937, FROM THE NOTEBOOK OF A PSYCHODRAMATIST

There are psychodramas "conceived in ecstasy" and there are psychodramas which should never have been born . Nothing is so deadening as rehearsed spontaneity . Do not pay the price of spontaneity for smoothness, regularity, orderliness, continuity and elegance . Do not sell the principle for a mess of pottage . Remember that the greatest liability of therapeutic psychoanalysis was its f ormlessness . The greatest asset of psychodrama and the psychodramatic arts (spontaneous dance, music and painting) is the rise of form and beauty from the ashes of spontaneous production. 1938, HITLER'S SPONTANEITY

In the days of the approaching Second World War, I was asked by the Associated Press to predict Hitler's future . "I believe the key is in his oratory . The first style of Hitler's oratory was to come in shouting, a protagonist of the masses, it was all raw spontaneity . His method was to catch the spontaneity of the people and return their reverberations in a form of heightened violence. As long as he was in the here and now he imagined that God was on his side. But recently I heard that his style of oratory has changed, that he has ghost writers, and even that he is his own ghost writer . This indicates a profound change . He is afraid of the moment, he doesn't trust his spontaneity as he used to, he fears that it may fail him and he doesn't trust his empathy of the masses' wants . He has left the principle and the principle is leaving him . He imagines that God is now on the side of the enemy . He will lose the war ." 1938, STALIN'S PURGES

The sociometric network theory is able to interpret political phenomena difficult to understand . One illustration is the purges attributed to Stalin . Why were extensive mass purges committed when but relatively few men had actually been found guilty of



treason? It would seem unnecessary to punish more than a few, but the cold politician, Stalin, knew that, besides the few men who had been direct associates of Trotsky, there were literally thousands more, potentially equally dangerous, who could be just as threatening to his regime . He knew that, to each of the, say, twelve guilty men, a number of sympathizers must be linked, and to each of these sympathizers, in turn, others were linked, and to this larger circle many others were inter-linked, either directly or indirectly, who might become infected with the same political ideas. In other words, he visualized a myriad of psychosocial networks spread over all Soviet Russia in which these actual or potential enemies acted in roles which might be dangerous to him. Unfortunately, he had only a rough, instinctive picture of the sociometric networks ; he did not know all the men and their actual positions in their respective cliques . So, in order to reach and exterminate his potential as well as his actual enemies with the highest possible efficiency, he gave orders that not only the friends of Trotsky but also the friends of these friends, and the friends of these friends of the friends of Trotsky be "purged", even if the suspicion of any friendly relationship was very slight or zero. If Stalin would have had a psychological geography of Soviet Russia before him, showing the links and tracks through which the forces of counter-revolution traveled, imagine how many innocent lives could have been saved . 1939-1941, PILGRIMAGES TO BEACON

In the fall of 1939 a group of workers from St . Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, D.C., consisting of its Clinical Director, Dr. Roscoe W . Hall, Miss Margaret W . Hagan, Dr . Alexander Simon, Dr . David Farber, Miss Frances Herriott and others, came to Beacon to see the psychodramatic theater in action, as a similar establishment was being planned at St . Elizabeth's . The fame of the new idea began to make the rounds and the next visitors wore Dr . Karl Menninger and Dr . John Slawson . When Dr. Menninger became consultant to the Winter General Hospital in Topeka, Kansas several years later, a psychodrama stage was built there . On June 28, 1941, a large gathering of sociologists, psycholo-





gists and psychiatrists met in Beacon for a conference on sociometry, group psychotherapy and psychodrama . Among the participants were Dr . Adolf Meyer, Dr . Leonard S . Cottrell, Dr. George A . Lundberg, Dr. Paul F . Lazarsfeld, Dr . Margaret Mead, Dr . Ralph S . Banay, Dr . George P . Murdock, Dr . Theodore M . Newcomb, Dr . S . Bernard Wortis, Dr . Werner Wolff, Dr . Bruno Solby, to mention but a few . At that conference plans were made for the formation of the American Society of Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy . 1941, OPENING OF THE THEATRE OF PSYCHODRAMA AT ST. ELIZABETH'S HOSPITAL

On June 8, 1941, the new theatre was officially opened. On this occasion I had the honor to christen it, giving the first session there, assisted by Frances Herriott, its first director . 1941, SECTION ON SOCIOMETRY WITHIN THE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Upon the petition of Howard Becker, F . Stuart Chapin, Leonard S . Cottrell, Joseph K. Folsom, Henrik Infield, William H . Sewell, George A . Lundberg, Willard Waller, J . L. Moreno and Bruno Solby the Executive Committee of the American Sociological Society established a section on sociometry, with William H . Sewell of Oklahoma A . and M . College as Chairman . VI 1942, ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE SOCIOMETRIC INSTITUTE .

With the opening of the Sociometric Institute and the New York Institute of Psychodrama the third phase of the movement began . It saw the spreading of group psychotherapy, psychodrama and sociometry throughout the United States and many parts of Europe . J . L . Moreno* "The Sociometric Institute should be the meeting-point of all the sciences in which it partakes : psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology, biology, psychiatry and economics ." (1) * The following excerpts are from Sociometry, Vol. V, No. 2, May, 1942 .



"At the time when sociometry, as a theory, began to be formulated, the European philosophies of interhuman relations were purely academic, and there are - valid grounds to believe that the experiments proposed by the sociometric theory of action would never have taken shape abroad ." (2) "Sociometry is, first of all, a theory and then a method-a method of how to gather the really vital facts about the interindividual relationships among people living in social groups and how 'immediately to remedy the frictions among their members with the minimum of effort . Its outstanding characteristic, since it began to make any headway, has always been that it focusses its attention upon actual people, not upon abstractions of any sort, upon actual situations, like specific homes, schools, factories or communities, not upon abstracted and generalized situations, and upon situations in the present tense, not upon conjectures of past or future situations . Another outstanding characteristic of the sociometric method is that the people who form the subjects of research are not used as guinea-pigs of some sort : it is their initiative, their spontaneity, their judgment and their decision which count higher than anything else in the procedures applied in their behalf. It is obvious that the pertinent data about the human interrelations in a group cannot he found by one participant observer with any degree of certainty . The maximum possible certainty is, however, secured if every member of the group becomes a participant observer of all the others and of himself . This is about what every sociometric procedure-correctly carried out-attempts to accomplish . There is an enormous virtue in the direct attack which distinguishes sociometry. As a matter of principle, it approaches every new situation in a concrete way, re-shaping its tools for each specific situation . What begins as something rigid because of its specificity and concreteness, gradually turns out to be the most flexible and articulated method imaginable . Since sociometry undertakes to comprehend and measure the world as it is, every human dimension is accepted and integrated by it into human society as a whole. Moreover, since sociometry enters directly into all types of



human situations with the intent to uncover, predict and adjust disturbances and conflicts, it must take into consideration every element connected with the situations-the economic, religious, cultural, biological and psychiatric factors . Thus, it is eager to absorb any information coming from these fields and to coordinate them into its own efforts . The scientific premise upon which sociometry is built makes it unbiased-and therefore neutral-in regard to every type of social movement or social phenomenon . It is not in itself a social movement . It has no plan to offer-at least, no "plan" in the sense in which this word is sometimes usedexcept to uncover the dynamic conditions of every social situation and to use this knowledge towards bringing about in it a better equilibrium. As a science it does not extend any privileges and it does not indulge in value-judgments . It deals objectively with all social situations ." (3) "A method which has proved of invaluable usefulness in one hundred specific situations may reasonably be expected to be equally useful-or more so-in one million specific situations of the same kind . Even as large a population as that of the United States consists of nothing but millions of "small groups", each with a definite atomic structure, and each as open to direct sociometric attack as the hundred situations alread profitably studied ." (4) Gardner Murphy "Dr . Moreno's leadership in the development of methods of analyzing and measuring interpersonal relations has led to all sorts of new movements in group work, community study and personal therapy, and has spread far beyond the bounds originally designed for it." "Problems of leadership and morale will draw upon another aspect of Dr . Moreno's fertile thinking, namely the analysis of spontaneity training . Psychodrama on the one hand and the reeducational procedures of group therapy on the other hand will give opportunity to confused or wartorn personalities to rediscover themselves in the democratic process ." George A . Lundberg "Sociometry is the scientific study of patterns of social behavior . As such, it is concerned with the common core of all social phe-



nomena, the interpersonal and the intergroup relations that underly all the variety of superstructures which form the subject matter of the various social sciences . We can deal intelligently with these superstructures only if we develop positive knowledge of the atomic social structure common to all of them . This is the central task of sociometry ." Adolf Meyer "My congratulations on this announcement of a most important progress in sociometry . Psychology, and the science of man in its broad significance, has long been sabotaged by the unwillingness of science to rise to the nature and range of what it has to meet, instead of forcing the facts of the special topic into a system devised largely for physics and chemistry . This is partly responsible for the fact that social functioning has often failed to get its fundamentally important share of consideration . To have it in the form of experimental work, incidentally with development of methods of measurement, is a decided progress, not only of good intention but of determined concrete work . Performance under the principle of operational specification may at last remove old habits of exclusiveness and frustration . We do not expect to begin with perfection but trust that scientific method will free us from unnecessary dogma without having to become iconoclasts ." Margaret Mead "Sociometric techniques and the cultural-anthropological approach are mutually necessary if we are to make valid cross-cultural sociometric abstractions about the optimum composition and structure of social groups and the situations within which individuals' interpersonal functioning will reach its highest potential development. Sociometric techniques can measure and provide a basis for describing the interaction of individuals, in pairs or in other constellations ; cultural anthropology can take these descriptions and derive from them descriptions of the cultural factors involved . For example, sociometric techniques can investigate-in a given culture-the optimum size and composition of a group of individuals of specified age, sex and status, who are to perform a given



act . Cultural anthropology can then relate this description to the cultural emphases of the particular culture within which the sociometric measurements were made . Together the two disciplines can develop abstractions by which we will be able to plan a world which will call for structures of social cooperation within which members of different cultures will be able to function effectively." Howard Becker "My interest in sociometry issues directly from my interest in the study of small groups ." F . Stuart Chapin "Since civilian morale is of fundamental importance in a total war, it seems to me that the techniques of sociometric research provide tools with which a democratic people may freely conduct investigations into the bases of morale . . . . Sociometry is probably now only in its rough beginnings . It holds great promise as a device by which a free people may become aware of its means used to approach ends-in-view. The appraisal of means by objective methods contributes to the solution of understanding of the valuation problems which has plagued every culture at all times and in all places ." Raymond F. Sletto "I am especially interested in the possible applications of sociometric techniques to analyses of leadership and the role of leaders in the formation of public opinion . The recent research of Dr. Paul F . Lazarsfeld in this field may be cited as an example of such applications of sociometric methods . Analyses of interpersonal relationships may contribute much to our knowledge of the dynamics of public opinion ." Paul F. Lazarsfeld "The role of interpersonal relations as compared with formal media of communications ; the role of influences exercised at present in comparison with biographical and cultural factors-all these topics can properly fall in the domain of a sociometric institute.



We have repeatedly studied people's job-hunting experiences, partly with special groups and partly in the setting of a whole community (Millville, New Jersey) . It can safely be said that personal contacts are the most important source of jobs . In a community there are real networks along which news about available jobs is passed on . Anyone who is outside such a network has a much smaller chance to get a job . Even in a booming labor market such as we have now, these channels along which the jobs flow are very much worth investigating, because there are still good and bad jobs ; it would be very interesting, for instance, to study the important question of how government jobs are given out . The second great area where we started to study interpersonal relations was in connection with political campaigns . It seems that propaganda comes into a community in two steps : it reaches directly what one might call "opinion leaders" or "diffusion agents," and from them it passes on to the rest of the population by personal contacts . We collected considerable data in 1940, but much more work should be done . The role of personal contacts in opinion formation might be very different in local and in nation-wide elections . During the war we are not so much concerned with elections proper as with the more informal approval and disapproval of Government measures . Obviously, here again the role of rumors, personal influences and so on should be studied in great detail . Specifically, the following question should be kept in mind : If we say that a man's socio-economic position codetermines his opinions, we have to investigate how position is transformed into opinion. The process probably consists in a few people in a group being more aware of the group interests than the rest are ; they articulate the group position and transmit it to the others . The third area where we have been concerned with what might be called sociometric procedures, is the field of merchandising . What makes people buy and how fashions are formed has been studied in many fields . Why does a certain book become a best seller? Why does a movie become a flop? . . . One might, for instance, take a number of people who have bought a best seller and trace their decision from person to person by going back



one step farther each time to those people who have advised the others ." Eugene L. Hartley "I consider sociometry an invaluable approach to the understanding of major psychological structures within a group and to the classification of the position of the individual . Together with the spontaneity testing it provides a clue even to the most subtle social and personal ramifications of the individual's psychological organization ." Read Bain "One of the reasons why sociometry has been so productive and why it promises more in the future, is because it is immediately useful. Being useful, it avoids the fictitious flavor of most socalled `sociological experiments .' It enables us to solve immediately important and pressing problems regarding the organization and functioning of social groups . From such basic brute-fact data, we may go on to make scientific generalizations about the anatomy and physiology of societal structures . A second reason for its success and promise is that it deals with concrete observable data, with small social systems. . . . Thus, it escapes the vagueness and verbally confused generality which obfuscates so much so-called sociological research . Chemists seldom deal with more than a few variables at a time ; genetics is helpless when more than two or three genes are involved ; and the problem of Three Bodies is not only unsolved but unsolvable . Since all scientific facts are thus strictly approximations, it is obvious that no science will accumulate many very dependable facts except by keeping its "taken" systems as simple as possible . No chemist can give even a qualitative analysis, to say nothing of quantitative analysis, of a mixture of a dozen common compounds taken at random from the shelf . It would be nice to know all about complicated social systems but it is safe to say that we never shall know very much about them until we have mastered the structure and functioning of simple systems . , Then our more inclusive generalizations, which always must be more or less inferential, can be derived, tested, and revised from what we



veritably do know about simple, observable, manipulatable social systems. You get no Periodic Law, no Germ Theory, no Newtonian or Einsteinian generalizations, until millions of observations and experiments on simple systems have provided the raw, hard, crude, brute scientific facts which make possible these creative flights into universal predictive generalization-the golden goal of all natural science . Thus it has been, still is, and ever shall be in the physical and biological sciences ; thus must it also be in the social sciences . Given another fifty years of such development, a body of concrete factual materials will have been accumulated which may make possible the formulation of such inferential universal predictive generalizations as were produced by Newton, Dalton, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, and Einstein in their fields . I predict sociometry and psychodrama will have an important place in the history of sociology as it will be written in the year 2000." 1937-1953, Editors of the Journal Sociometry

Gardner Murphy, 1937-1940 ; George A . Lundberg, 1941-1946 ; J. L . Moreno, 1947-1948 ; Helen H . Jennings, 1949 ; Frederic M . Thrasher and Leona Kerstetter, 1950 ; Edgar Borgatta, 1951- . Assistants and managing editors : Joseph Sargent, Eugene L . Hartley, J . G . Franz, Zerka Moreno and Joan H . Criswell . 1942-1953, The Society of Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy, Now American Society of Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama First President : J. L. Moreno, M .D. ; First Secretary, Bruno Solby, M . D ., 1942-1943 ; succeeded by Frederic Feichtinger, M .D. First annual meeting : May 1943, New York . It published a quarterly Bulletin of Psychodrama and Group Psychotherapy . President Elect : Rudolf Dreikurs, M .D ., 1953 ; Secretary-Treasurer, Edgar Borgatta, 1952-. 1947-1953, Editors of the Journal Sociatry, Now Group Psychotherapy J. L . Moreno, 1947-1949 ; James M . Enneis, 1950-52 ; Edgar Borgatta, 1953- .




1942-1953, Moreno Institute (Formerly Sociometric Institute) It is due to the initiative and sponsorship of William L . Moreno that the New York Theatre of Psychodrama was built and that the operational facilities for a Sociometric Institute were established . The original Sociometric Institute was renamed Moreno Institute and Chartered by the Board of Regents of the State of New York in 1951 for postgraduate study . Chairman of the Board of Trustees : Dr. Wellman J . Warner . 1942-1953, Development of Group Psychotherapy The group psychotherapy movement has been closely linked to the Round Table Conferences within the American Psychiatric Association since the meetings in Toronto in 1931 and Philadelphia in 1932. A strategic meeting took place in Philadelphia in 1944, on May 16, with Dr. Roscoe W . Hall as Moderator of the Round Table . The topic of this meeting was "Group Psychotherapy." It was significant because the experiences with group psychotherapy in the theatres of World War Number Two merged with the work of the pioneers . The results of this meeting were compiled in a symposium Group Psychotherapy, edited by J. L. Moreno and published by Beacon House in 1945 . 1943, PATERNITY SYNDROME I am like a fellow who makes daily deposits in the bank but whenever he gets a bank statement his account shows a deficit . He must suspect that the whole system of banking is wrong . When I was young I had the idea for a stage which is in the center, like the sun, round like the earth, vertical like the skyscraper, but someone imitated it and earned money and fame . Said I to myself : "Moreno, you have to live ten years longer than this fellow, in order to make up . You have so many ideas, you will have more success with the next idea . Keep on working ." I invented a recording machine, a new graphic language, I kept on working and ten years later I saw the idea of group psychotherapy wandering off from one fellow to another . I humored myself again and said : "Well Moreno, you just have to live ten years longer than any of them, your time will come, have patience and keep on working ." I kept on working and another ten years went



by . And then I saw another idea which I had fathered, psychodrama, being distorted, and another idea, sociometry, being abused and then I said to myself, not without gloom but also not without fortitude : "Well, Moreno, you must live ten years longer, twenty years longer, thirty years longer . You have to survive them all, that is the only thing which is left to you . Some day recognition will turn up suddenly and unexpectedly, just keep on working ." I am surviving them and maybe in anticipation I called this book "Who Shall Survive?" But I asked my demon : "Well, how much longer do you want me to live?" 1943, Who Has Written WHO SHALL SURVIVE? At a meeting of the American Society of Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama I was rudely asked by a fellow scientist "Why is the first edition of WHO SHALL SURVIVE? so clumsily written? Why did you write it in such a mysterious, difficult and almost coded language?" I answered (just to tease him, I guess, and give him a lesson) "I did it purposely, in order to establish an indelible record against any claimant, typists, assistants, collaborators, that they have written it. I left my fingerprint on every page, with all the grammatical errors which only a foreigner could muster, with all its lengthy, un-English constructions, leaving out commas here and there, indulging occasionally in repetitions (to the despair of the reviewers), all this purposely, in order to make it clear for all posterity that the book could not have been written but by myself alone. An idea book like WHO SHALL SURVIVE? cannot be conceived "in collaboration ." Although I took all these precautions to establish the identity of authorship beyond all question, there have been, to my knowledge, at least three individuals who claimed that they have written the book . 1945-1952, TEACHING SEMINARS IN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES In the summer of 1945, upon the invitation of Dr . Elwood Murray, Chairman of the Department of Speech at Denver University, I conducted a seminar which was followed up for several successive summers by a number of my associates . This started



a chain reaction of invitations . Among the Institutions carrying seminars or workshops were : Duke University ; University of North Carolina ; Claremont Colleges ; Stanford University ; American University, Washington, D .C. ; Washington University, St . Louis ; Western Reserve University ; Wayne University ; Northwestern University ; Johns Hopkins University ; Emory University ; University of Georgia ; University of Buffalo ; Pasadena Playhouse ; University of Houston ; University of Oklahoma, Norman ; University of Chicago ; New York State Teachers College, Albany ; Hartwick College, Oneonta ; Williams College ; Harvard University ; Boston University, etc . The most recent was an appointment to the faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Sociology, New York University, where I gave a course on Psychodrama, Sociodrama and Role Playing . 1946, THE BOOK ON GOD

At the University of North Carrolina in the spring of 1946 I was about to make an address before several hundred students . It was some years after I had published the American version of `The Words of the Father' which aroused, in scientific circles, some controversy as to my sanity . "Well," said I, "I know what some of you are thinking : `This is the man who, when he was young and vigorous started sociometry ; now that he is old and decrepit he has become religious-the usual thing, the tragedy which befalls many good men, turning back to God when they are old .' Now just for your information, gentlemen, I wrote my book on God when I was young, it was almost my first book . It is WHO SHALL SURVIVE? which I wrote when I was about to become an old man . Apparently I was senile first, long before I was juvenile ." 1947, PITIRIM A . SOROKIN

Dr . Sorokin was driving with me from his home in Winchester to Boston . Our conversation revolved around a sore spot in our culture, the disheartening way we treat our creative geniuses, as a group . I took the view of urgency, that our generation has a separate urgency in this : creativity is a maternal function . It is not the geniuses as individuals which matter, but as carriers, as



the wombs of our collective babies ; they require protection and care throughout the vulnerable period of creative gestation . Sorokin took the position of the historian, the long view . The errors and injustices are transitory, the main current will absorb and straighten out the side currents . Time is a redeemer . 1947, PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY AT HARVARD

At Harvard University the plan was inaugurated to merge the Departments of Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology into a single department . A meeting took place, attended by professors from various universities . The question was raised whom to choose for the important task of heading the laboratory of the department . One of the participants got up and suggested me as having made the greatest contribution to social science for twenty years . There was unanimous agreement as to my prominence and to the uniqueness of my contribution . But then there was a silence . At that point a sociometrist-I do not know his name to this date but I owe him everlasting gratitude for talking in my behalf as an auxiliary ego in absentia-remarked that I would hardly accept the job, that I would not fit into academic life, with its formalities and limitations . I heard about this after it was all over and was happy to hear that Sam Stouffer was appointed . 1949, A Theatre of Psychodrama at the Psychological

Laboratory, Harvard University

"Before a gathering of grad students and professors that more than filled the modern, newly completed hall, Dr . J. L . Moreno accepted, last Monday, the presentation of his latest 'child'-the Harvard Psychodrama Theatre . With Harvard as the proud mother, this addition to the clinical psychology family has, as Dr . H . A . Murray pointed out in his introduction, no question of paternity ; for the psychodramatic techniques are Dr . Moreno's great contribution to the science of social relations ."* I permit here a reporter to describe the event, as I remember only two things clearly : Dr . Murray standing before the audience, he, the exponent of imagination, pleading for it ; and then I re* See

The Radclife News, October

7, 1949 .



member the speech I would have liked to make instead of the one I actually made : "There are two kinds of scientists, the poets and the non-poets, and here are two poets ." Since then Murray and I carry on an imaginary correspondence ; he sends me letters which he never actually wrote and I send him letters, often in the middle of the night, which he receives promptly and without benefit of mail carriers . This is a "sociometric imagination test" and consists of four steps : a) the letters I wanted to write him ; b) the letters I want to receive from him ; c) the letters he wants to write me and d) the letters he wants to receive from me . The test does not require any extrasensory perception, "intrasensory" imagination suffices . It is an excellent method for poor letter writers to keep their correspondence up to date . 1950, Symposium on Group Psychotherapy, American Psychiatric Association

Upon the petition of more than fifteen hundred members and fellows of the American Psychiatric Association an annual symposium on Group Psychotherapy, Theory and Practice, and a Round Table on Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama was established . 1950, Why Did I Run for the Presidency of the American Psychiatric Association? For two reasons : because of its bias against creative genius ; it has hardly ever elected a genius to be its President, and because of its bias against Jews ; in one hundred and seven years it has never elected a Jew to be President . 1950, COMMUNISM AND SOCIODRAMA

I have heard that a form of socio-psychodrama is used for communist propaganda in the Philippines, India and China, in order to convert people to communism . According to an informant the conductor opened a session by putting before the audience an actor portraying an American business man . The portrayal was purposely biased and was able to arouse the audience to active hostility against the ideological counterprotagonist . This is an



illustration in point that highly directive sociodrama can be used for the indoctrination of any set of values, religious, communistic or fascistic . One may think here of the atomic bomb ; the bomb is neutral, it does not take sides, it will serve the one who has it, the master . It seems to be the same way with all scientific methods, they cannot be harnessed in favor of one or another cause . A particular form of sociodrama, however, is an exception to the rule, the group-centered form . Here the problem and presentation are not coerced upon the group by a mighty dictator-director but they come from the group . If true spontaneity is permitted to the members of the group the denaturalizing tendencies have to give way sooner or later to the spontaneous aspirations of the participants. The group-centered form of sociodrama, unless prohibited by law, is a natural ally of democratic processes . 1950, GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY IN FRANCE

The reactions to group psychotherapy varied on the continent . A psychologist who had returned from France gave a report on the response to group psychotherapy . Said he : "Traveling through several cities I saw to my amazement that large numbers of people attended group psychotherapy sessions . I noticed particularly the presence of plain people, workers and peasants besides students and various types of intellectuals . But when I began to mix with the crowd to find out what motives they had in coming, I discovered that the majority of participants were communists ." The logic of this is that ideas and inventions do not belong to one or another society, but to universality . You cannot take them with you, you cannot keep them for yourself . 1951, PSYCHODRAMA IN ENGLAND

You may have heard it said frequently that psychodrama is a typically American eccentricity, a sort of "exhibitionistic" psychiatry, made to order for childlike people, and Americans are like children . It would never go over in England . My best friends began to believe this . Then I came to London in April, 1951 . There I gave some lectures and demonstrations at the Royal Medical Society, the Maudsley Hospital and at the Bed-




ford College for Women . I have rarely seen, even in New York, such an uproar of excitement, depth of appreciation and eagerness to participate in the action . It appeared to me that the Englishman's love for understatement is highly exaggerated . Maybe he, like all people, knows when he sees the real thing and gets involved in the presence of it . After it is all over and he has come back to himself, he again sees the world in two parts, overstatement and understatement . 1951, PSYCHODRAMA IN FRANCE The other day I heard a Parisian report about the reaction of France to psychodrama . "You Americans like psychodrama because you have no private life, so you have to have it at least in public . We, in France, do not need py schodrama, we have too much of it in our private life . But there is another form of psychodrama, the collective form ; as we have no public life to speak of we like to have at least sociodrama, a public life in private ." 1952, ROLEPLAYING IN GERMANY Group psychotherapy is rapidly becoming accepted everywhere but psychodrama arouses resistance in many places, perhaps because there is much more to it. In Germany, for instance, the fear was first expressed that people are not intelligent enough for it, or that they would hesitate to expose their feelings in public . But Professor von Wiese proved otherwise ; using sociodrama and roleplaying as a method of teaching sociology he has found that the German youth react similar to French, English and American youth . 1952, THE MIND OF J . L . MORENO The other day a distinguished English scholar wrote a letter to my publisher (ordering all my publications) stating that he is writing a book "The Mind of J . L . Moreno" . It looked as if I had been dead for a long time and the moment had come for a historian to look me over . This gave me a hint as to how difficult I make it for my contemporaries to keep my calendar straight . For some who have seen me in action I look like one



of the youngest living social scientists ; for others, who know me from prints (reading what I have written or done in 1908, 1911, 1918, 1923, etc .) I am about the oldest . In order to explain this contradiction one of my arch enemies has spread the following tale : there are really two Morenos, the father and the son . The real genius was the father, it is he who came from Vienna, it is he who started the group psychotherapy, the psychodrama, the sociometry and the roleplaying, but he has been dead for a long time . That fellow in Beacon is his son, he is just carrying out and exploiting his father's ideas . 1952, Sociometry and Sociodrama in Education Sociometric methods have places of application in every state of the union. The names of individual researchers and teachers whose work contributed ideas and materials are too numerous to name . The following are but a few PS 181, Brooklyn, New York Riverdale School, Riverdale, New York Hunter College, New York City Collinwood High School and Hazedell School, Cleveland, Ohio Gove Junior High School, Denver, Colorado New Park Avenue School, Hartford, Conn . Clara Barton School, Margaret Fuller School, Ramsey High School and Washburn High School, Minneapolis, Minn . Camden Street School, Central Avenue School and Pre-Vocational School for Girls, Newark, New Jersey Colfa School, Girls Vocational High School (Irwin Avenue Unit), H . C. Frick School, and Manchester School, Pittsburgh, Pa. Thomas A . Doyle School, Providence, Rhode Island Vashon High School, St . Louis, Missouri Lake Bluff School, Shorewood, Wisconsin Adams High School, South Bend, Indiana . 1952, SOQODRAMA AND ROLEPLAYING IN INDUSTRY United States Steel Company Kaiser Aluminum Company



Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Radio Corporation of America Johnson & Johnson Management Development Center Baur Inc . Industrial Relations Center, University of Chicago 1952, Centers of Sociometric Research American Council on Education, Washington, D .C. Departments of Psychology and Education, Boston University, Mass. University of California, Los Angeles Human Dynamics Laboratory, University of Chicago, Ill . College of the City of New York Colorado State College of Education, Greeley Department of Education, University of Colorado, Boulder University of Connecticut, Bridgeport University of Connecticut, Storrs New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Core nell University, Ithaca University of Florida, Miami University of Georgia, Athens Laboratory of Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Soziologisches Laboratorium, University of Koln, Germany School of Education, London University, England Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Psychological and Educational Institute, University of Lund, Sweden Michigan State College, East Lansing University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Moreno Institute, New York City and Beacon, N . Y . New Jersey State Teachers College, Trenton New York State College for Teachers, Albany New York University, New York City : Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of Sociology, Center of Human Relations Studies ; School of Education North Texas State College, Denton



Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater Department of Sociology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Laboratoire de Recherches Sociometriques et Psycho-Sociologiques, University of Paris, France Department of Education, Queens College, Long Island, N . Y . Department of Education, San Francisco State College, California School of Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Canada Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa . University of Texas, Dallas University of Toronto, Canada Department of Sociology, University of Washington, Seattle School of Education Yale University, New Haven, Conn . 1952, Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama in Mental Hospitals and Clinics

There is hardly a mental hospital in the United States which does not practice some form of group psychotherapy or psychodrama. A number of pioneering hospitals are listed here St . Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, D .C. Beacon Hill Sanitarium, now Moreno Sanitarium, Beacon, N . Y . Boston Dispensary, Mass . Kings Park State Hospital, Long Island, N . Y . Worcester State Hospital, Mass . Pinewood Sanitarium, Katonah, N . Y . Psychopathic Ward, Bellevue Hospital, New York City Boston Psychopathic Hospital, Mass . Boston State Hospital, Mass . Alfred Adler Consultation Center, Chicago, Illinois Central Islip State Hospital, Long Island, N . Y. Rockland State Hospital, Orangeburg, N . Y. Milledgeville State Hospital, Georgia Mental Health Institute, Independence, Iowa St. Louis State Hospital, Missouri Longview State Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio Downey Veterans Administration Hospital, Illinois Brentwood Veterans Administration Hospital, Los Angeles, California



Little Rock Veterans Administration Hospital, Arkansas Mental Hygiene Clinic, Veterans Administration, Brooklyn, N . Y . Mental Hygiene Clinic, Veterans Administration, Seattle, Washington Veterans Administration Hospital, Lyons, New Jersey Veterans Administration Hospital, Roanoke, Virginia Veterans Administration Hospital, Tuskegee, Alabama Veterans Administration Hospital, Tuscaloosa, Alabama Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, Illinois Veterans Administration Hospital, Montrose, N . Y . Veterans Administration Hospital, Northport, N . Y . Veterans Administration Hospital, Lebanon, Pa. Veterans Administration Hospital, Fort Logan, Colorado Veterans Administration Hospital, Murfreesboro, Tenn . Veterans Administration Hospital, Knoxville, Iowa Veterans Administrattion Hospital, Marion, Indiana Brooklyn State Hospital, New York Veterans Administration Hospital, Buffalo, New York Veterans Administration Hospital, Augusta, Georgia Veterans Administration Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky New Jersey State Hospital, Trenton Veterans Administration Hospital, Newington, Conn . Veterans Administration Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska Veterans Administration Hospital, Tacoma, Washington Mental Hygiene Clinic, Veterans Administration, San Francisco, California Veterans Administration Hospital, Houston, Texas Mental Hygiene Clinic, Savannah, Georgia Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia Mental Hygiene Clinic, Veterans Administration, Philadelphia, Pa . Johns Hopkins Hospital, Phipps Clinic . Baltimore, Maryland Spring Grove State Hospital, Catonsville, Maryland A number of hospitals abroad also practice group psychotherapy and psychodrama in some form : McGill University Hospital, Montreal, Canada Institut Claude Bernard, Paris, France Clinic for Nervous and Mental Disease, Leiden University, Netherlands Maudsley Hospital, London, England



Tavistock Clinic, London, England Institute of Social Psychiatry, London, England Sutton General Hospital, Sussex, England St. Anne Hospital, Paris France Villejuif, Paris, France Arbeitskreis fur Psychotherapie, Graz, Austria 1952, ACTING OUT

We psychodramatists are not afraid to act out our thoughts and feelings in a form appropriate to their dynamic content . The problem is not the acting out ; it is rather whether the actor has the equipment with which to perform and has learned to keep what he performs within the bounds of his equipment . SECESSIONS FROM THE SOCIOMETRIC MOVEMENT

a) Group Therapy Until 1935 there was only one group of workers and one complex of ideas associated with the terms group therapy and group psychotherapy, the one which I had started, with myself as their chief exponent . From then on the terms began to be taken up by others and for more than a decade there was only one journal, founded by me-Sociometry-which began to publish investigations on group methods and group psychotherapy systematically and exclusively . Then we were able to develop the new methods quietly and without concern for priorities . Indeed, all principal ideas and operations were well established by 1940. But today, within little more than ten years, we have two, societies on group psychotherapy, two journals on group psychotherapy and the tendency for further secessions is in the air. What happened? Looking backward, even the manipulations of Slavson are incidental . After drawing his first inspirations from me, being without a medical or psychological degree, he tried to develop a new group and to shield his own insecurity by surrounding himself with some people of professional status . But I realize now that the secession was produced by forces which would have been hard to keep in harness by a single organization the awakening of the individual schools, as the Freudians, the



Adlerians, the Jungians, to the fact that the old methods of psychotherapy had become stale and that a new orientation was necessary for their survival . Many of their representatives began slowly to enter the group field and brought with them the theories and interpretations of their own school . Theories and interpretations are not given up overnight, they represent profound emotional, ideological and economic investments, not only of the individual representatives but also of the organization to which they belong . There was hardly any theoretical block which could not have been overcome . Within the framework of sociometry all prominent psychoanalytic concepts and techniques could have found a niche-transference, resistance, free association, etc . But the block was terminological and metapsychological, and still is . Paul Schilder's reaction was typical ; he resisted the idea of group psychotherapy at first when I presented it to him in 1931, but when he saw the light several years later he said : "I agree with your ideas but I do not like your terminology ." Actually, what he did not like was my all-out attack upon the psychoanalytic system . It is significant to note that many adherents of the analytic schools with a strong sociological and actional orientation, like the Adlerians, the Jungians and the neo-Freudians are inclined towards our original society, whereas those with an individual and verbal orientation tend towards the secession group . Among the practitioners, the only term and concept on which there is fair agreement is group psychotherapy and some of its sub-classifications .* The operations used are far more alike than the language describing them would indicate . The secession has slowed up the needed consensus of common terms and common operations by many years . Only after agreement is * The earliest differentiation made by me was between analytic and nonanalytic (suggestive) group therapy (Group Method, 1932, p. 65) . Soon afterwards I differentiated further analytic forms from activistic forms of group psychotherapy (First Edition, WHO SHALL SURVIVE?, 1934, p . 301) . A few years later I suggested a more detailed differentiation of Group Psychotherapy into eight classes based on the description of the methods practiced . 1) lecture methods, 2) analytic group methods, 3) psychodramatie methods, 4) sociodramatic methods, 5) sociometric methods, 6) musical methods, 7) dance methods and 8) motion picture methods (Group Psychotherapy Symposium, 1945) . A more dynamic type of classification is my Basic Categories of Group Psychotherapy, contained in the same volume, p . 318-319 .



reached as to terms and operations can the next stage be fruitfully approached-the formulation and testing of hypotheses . b) Group Dynamics The similarities between Kurt Lewin's work in action and group research and my own has been so striking that many have wondered what kind of interdependence there is between Lewin and myself . Moreover, many of Lewin's students have also been my students, writing articles published in Sociometry and Sociatry since 1938, on subjects with which I have been widely identified, sociometric methods, dynamics of group structure, sociodrama and roleplaying, psychodrama and roletraining . After I had initiated them they began to write similar articles for other journals and in books, having the stamp of my thought. In consequence, group dynamics, the name which was frequently used by them, as a label covering their common interests, was considered by interested observers as a branch of the sociometric movement . My obvious support, linked with my silence may have encouraged such a view . I have frequently been bombarded with questions about this . An illustration is the query of a French psychologist, Roger Girod, in a book on the current situation of the social sciences in the United States . "On peut distinguer au moms deux courants principaux au sein de la microsociologie americaine : un courant sociometrique dont l'animateur est Moreno et un courant-d'inspiration lewinienne surtout-oriente vers 1'etude de la dynamique des groupes, plus particuliermont des groupes dont les membres sont en rapports direct les uns avec les autres out ont en commun un projet d'action precis . Ces deux courants presentent de nombreux points comniuns et de noinbreuses similitudes . Its se developpent en etroite liaison mutuelle."* (Italics mine.) "One can distinguish at least two principal currents in the center of American microsociology a sociometric current, of which Moreno is the driving force and a current-primarily of Lewinian origin--focussed upon the study of group dynamics, more particularly upon groups of which * Roger Girod, Attitudes Collectives et Relations Humaines, Tendances actuelles des sciences sociales americalnes, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 1953 .



the members are in direct contact with one another or have a specific action project in common . These two currents have many points in common and present many similarities . They are developing in close mutual relationship ." (Italics mine) . Many an idea is started by two or more individuals independently . But this is not a case of duplication of ideas . It can be shown on the basis of printed records that the leading associates of group dynamics have been in close contact with me . Theirs is not a problem of productivity, theirs is a problem of interpersonal ethics . In the case of duplication of ideas the carriers do not know one another, they work in different places . But the imitators sit near the one from whom they steal the eggs ; they are parasites. I did not harbor ill feelings towards them, this is the reason I remained silent . I said to myself : Just as there are people who can have no children, so there are people who cannot create any ideas, therefore they adopt them . What matters is whether they fulfill their obligation and bring them up well . It is unfortunate-and this is why I am breaking my silence now-that these students of group dynamics have not only published distorted versions of my ideas and techniques, but they are practicing them on actual people in so-called research and training laboratories,* receiving large fees and research grants without being properly trained for the job . The first question which I shall try to clarify here is : Did I influence Lewin's ideas and methods and where and how did this take place? It should be clear that when I talk about ideas and methods I refer exclusively to group theory and group methods, action theory and action practice, that is, only to the work which Lewin had begun to do since about 1936, soon after the time that he had met me, and not to his work in Gestalt and topological psychology prior to that time . Kurt Lewin met me for the first time early in 1935, and during that year we had several meetings . As Dr . Alfred Marrow, an intimate friend and student of Lewin's reports in the obituary to Lewin in Socioinetry, Volume 10, 1947, "I recall the day when I first introduced Dr . Lewin to Dr . Moreno . Both recent *The Research Center for Group Dynamics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; the National Training Laboratory, Bethel, Maine ; the Research Center for Group Dynamics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.



arrivals here, they had known of each other, but had never met . It was not long after the publication of Moreno's WHO SHALL SURVIVE? and of Lewin's Dynamic Theory of Personality . Both men quickly found common ground ." He was acquainted with sociometry and with some of the work I had done in Europe, especially das Stegreiftheater and had read WHO SHALL SURVIVE? Up to that time Lewin's publications did not deal with either group or action dynamics .t For better or worse, my pioneering status in this field was already established and so I became the model for his first efforts in this, for him, new direction of research . He expressed in our talks particular interest in the democratic structure of groups, in contrast to their laissez faire and authoritative structure, problems with which I experimented at that time ; it happened that my report on this topic in "Advances of Sociometric Techniques" appeared in the same issue of the Sociometric Review (February, 1936) in which he announced the carrying on of sociometric research at the Child Welfare Research Station at the University of Iowa . His first report of this study was subsequently published, two years later, in Sociometry, Volume I, No . 3-4, 1938 . A careful reader of my publications* up to that time who knew also of my direct, face to face contact with Lewin, must have gained the impression that he was a student of my work and under my influence, that he tried to combine his concepts and experiences in Gestalt and topological psychology with the new acquisitions . As the matter stood by 1938, I was in the circles which were interested in the new developments of action and group theory, the acknowledged leader . Because of gentle pressure the editors of a recent collection , of their publications, Kenneth D . Benne and Bozidar Muntyan made a special acknowledgment, giving me full credit for having originated the ideas with which they were preoccupied, in Human t See Bibliography in Ronald Lippitt's "Kurt Lewin, 1890-1947, Adventures in the Exploration of Interdependence," Sociometry, Vol . 10, 1947, pp . 87-97. * Das Stegreiftheater, 1923 ; The Group Method, 1932 ; Psychological Organization of Groups in the Community, 1933 ; WHO STALL SURVIVE?, 1934 ; "Advances of Sociometric Techniques," 1936 ; "Interpersonal Therapy and the Psychopathology of Interpersonal Relations," 1937 ; "The Place of Sociometry Among the Social Sciences," 1937 ; "Sociometric Statistics of Social Configurations," 1938 . t Containing articles by Kurt Lewin, Alex Bavelas, Ronald Lippitt, Alvin Zander, Leland Bradford, etc .



Relations in Curriculum Change, published by the Dryden Press,

New York, 1951 "The editors make special acknowledgment to Dr . J. L. Moreno, who has pioneered in the areas currently referred to as psychodrama, sociodrama, roleplaying, action dynamics, warming-up technique, group psychotherapy and sociometry, and who first introduced these terms into the literature, with some of the meanings emphasized in the present volume . To a great extent, the basic impetus for certain new trends in group and action research can be traced to the work of Moreno and his numerous associates ."

But it should be clear that I strictly separate Kurt Lewin from the group o f students who attended my workshops in Beacon and

in New York in the course of the last ten years . I am inclined to believe that Lewin himself was rather naive as to their astute and Macchiavellian practices, especially as these tactics did not show their true face until after his death . The journal Sociometry (and the journal Sociatry, later called Group Psychotherapy) became one of the chief organs in which appeared a large number of their articles dealing with experiments in group and action methods . Indeed, these articles on psychodrama, roleplaying, sociodrama and other sociometric techniques, by Ronald Lippitt, Alvin Zander, John R. P. French, Alex Bavelas, Leland P . Bradford, C. Hendry, Margaret Barron, Kenneth D . Benne and others, differed little, if any, in theoretical position, description of techniques and hypotheses to be tested, from those of any other workers more closely identified with sociometry . Increasingly, I suppose, the temptation came over them to play different games on both sides of the fence, on one side to appear as students of Lewin, on the other as students of Moreno, by printing the same or similar articles in the context of various publications . It was a shrewd device to plant, at least in the mind of some people, the idea that by sheer coincidence of circ*mstances the same ideas developed independently . By using a technique of quoting only each other, that is, those who belong to their clique, and not quoting any of my close associates or myself their double game became the laughing stock of the connoisseurs and initiated in this new form of "interdependence ."



The other day I was reading old protocols of psychodramatic sessions* which are now in preparation for a special volume . Among them were some of the transcripts in which these men were participating as students or protagonists before they began to write on the subject and organize workshops of their own . I still see the bright boys sitting in my classes and role-playing on the psychodramatic stages of Beacon and New York . Lewin's dependence can be further shown in three respects . a) The Sociometric Institute served consciously or unconsciously as a model for the Research Center for Group Dynamics . Compare, for instance, the following points taken from his announcement of the Research Centert with the announcement of the Sociometric Institute . The dominant tone and objectives are the same . "Social science needs an integration of psychology, sociology and cultural anthropology into an instrument for studying group life. . . . Although philosophical prejudice had `proved' the impossibility of controlled experiments with social groups, today, I think, it is fair to say that the possibility of such experiments has been demonstrated . Finally, the development of sociology proper has brought about a state of affairs which seems to demand group experiments . More recently, data are considered which are obtained by intimate studies of small-scale groups, by recording interaction between their members and investigating typical attitudes of individuals in typical roles . One last point : Experiments with groups have not only to overcome philosophical prejudices and technical difficulties ; they have also to justify themselves as honorable and necessary social procedure . "Group manipulation" is a term that is dreaded, at least in a democratic country . It seems to go counter to the basic dignities of man . The Center is devoted to the development of scientific * See Group Psychotherapy, Vol. 5, No . 1-3, 1952 . The acquaintance and sociometric tests presented in the protocols show that Ronald Lippitt played a key role ; he was to become the chief manipulator in the more organized efforts of the later Research Centers for Group Dynamics . t Sociometry, Vol . VIII, 1945, p . 126-136 .



concepts, methods, and theories of group life which should lead to a deeper understanding and permit a more intelligent management of social problems in small and large settings . Emphasis is placed on laboratory and field experiments for studying systematically the forces which determine group life and changes in group life ." b) The divergence between his theory and his actual research work in group dynamics . He tried to apply topological theory to the various group methods which I had developed . It is not astonishing that the two did not fit well together and that a considerable artificiality resulted as soon as they were translated from paper into practice. Therefore, I agree with Eysenck's critique* of Lewin although for different reasons . Lewin was original as a theoretician but his experimental work in group and action dynamics was not original . The techniques which made his work popular stem from me, they led him and his students to the study of autocratic and democratic group structure, group decision and roleplaying . He did not have firsthand inspirations in these areas but was quick in secondary elaboration and giving them a topological costume . He became belatedly aware of this incongruity and tried to develop, supplementary to topological theory, a theory of action of his own, using my action theories as a model . But he did not succeed in this, he did not see clearly the relationship between spontaneity, warming up, the stages leading up to and the operational circ*mstances emerging in the moment of action . He tried to set up a theory of change without a theory of spontaneity, a theory of action without a theory of the actor in situ, a * See the review of Field Theory in Social Science, by Kurt Lewin, written by H. J . Eysenck in The British Journal of Sociology, Dec . 1952, Vol . III, No . 4 . "Most experimental psychologists have found this mixture somewhat indigestible and have protested that Lewin's theory had but a very tenuous relation to his experimental work . This has been hotly denied by Lewin's followers who insist that theory preceded experiment, and that the latter would have been impossible without the former . If this contention is correct, the volume under review is obviously of the greatest importance ; if not, it may be dismissed as Teutonic philosophizing of a particularly unintelligible kind . The reviewer believes that the latter alternative is the correct one for the following reasons . In the first place, qualified mathematicians who have examined the Lewinian theme have shown in great detail that his use of topological concepts bears little relation to the orthodox usage. Lewin has never answered these criticisms, which, even to the mathematical tiro, appears reasonable, and in the absence of such a refutation, it is difficult to take Lewin's topological analysis very seriously . "



theory of productivity without a theory of creativity. This theoretical deficiency led to deficiencies in the comprehension and the effect of action techniques . Lewin's chief handicap was that he tried to formulate a theory o f action without being an action technician himself. He had to depend upon his students to be indoctrinated into them and they were themselves unimaginative and inadequately trained . This is confirmed by Ron Lippitt : "It will be of interest to readers of this journal to note that his (Lewin's) growing interest in the theory and methods of social change has led him to sign up as a student in a course in psychodramatic techniques this semester . He was looking forward eagerly to this opportunity to learn ."t Which of our "mutual" students was teaching this course on psychodrama? c) Many of his students merely render lipservice to topological theory; they lean upon sociometric theory or theories o f similar origin .* Since Lewin's death the Research Center has lost the dignity and direction which he was still able to supply . Behind a carefully groomed scientific facade lurks the cold head of a business organization . I am not sociometry, only its spokesman . The creative efforts which have gone into its development can be traced to many persons . The secession is not from me personally, but from the entire group . If sociometry would be a sum of writing which I have exclusively produced, it would be a personal matter . As a person I might have decided to let the bad actors run away with the goods . I have never expected that sociometrists would give each other a reference or a footnote on every occasion . It would be like saying to the woman you adore : I love you, whenever she turns up . Such behavior may be considered as bad manners . But the chronic neglect of references is bound to produce some anxiety in the potential recipients . I cannot close this unpleasant chapter without asserting that I have not written it because I personally have been cheated of any benefits . I have written it for ethical reasons, and for the det See Ronald Lippitt, "Kurt Lewin, 1890-1947, Adventures in the Exploration of Interdependenee," Sociometry, Vol. 10, 1947, p . 87 . * Goad examples are : Training in Community Relations by Ronald Lippitt, 1949 ; Human Relations in Curriculum Change, edited by Kenneth D . Benne and Bozidar Muntyan, 1951 ; Social Pressures in Informal Groups, Leon Festinger et al., 1950 .



light of all participants in the various social atoms involved, so that everyone should know "that they did not get away with it ." I hope it will do something for the morale of the group dynamic students and that they will enroll for a refresher course at the Moreno Institute next term . Actually, I have greatly benefitted from their intervention, they have helped to spread my ideas faster than I could have done alone and directed the attention of readers everywhere to my work . THE PRIMACY OF SOCIOMETRIC VALUES IN THE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS OF SCIENTISTS

The motives for exposing interpersonal conflicts with former associates has little to do with "priority" or "recognition" . My craving for ego-satisfaction, for "being loved and admired" has been comfortably reciprocated. If a father of ideas gets fifty percent returns he can consider himself lucky, and I got more than this . This book appears simultaneously in three languages, English, French and German . Behind the histrionic stylist of the Preludes is an humble man who remembers every kind thing which has been done for him, but unfortunately perhaps, he remembers also the many kind things he has done for others . The dilemma is that I cannot write a book like WHO SHALL SURVIVE? and, at the same time, lead an entirely unsociometric life . There is nothing more distasteful, I think, than a "sociometric hypocrite"-to have it all for science but nothing for his own behavior . I am a devotee of primary relations and cannot conceive of a world to survive in which warmth and friendship, truth and clarity are entirely replaced by cunning, calculated cleverness and reliance that the technical media of communication, as the printing press, can obliterate the here and now, the face to face communications . THE RAPPROCHMENTS

There are developing a number of combinations between psychodrama and psychoanalysis, in recent years . Interesting is the use of psychodramatic operations followed up by orthodox psychoanalytic interpretation . An illustration is John N . Rosen's* * See Direct Analysis, 1953 .



treatment of schizophrenic patients . As Meiers puts it,t "Hecame to act as what the psychodramatic theory calls an `auxiliary ego,' i.e ., in the role (s) necessitated by the psychotic fantasies of the patient ." "It will be observed that Rosen reestablished the patient's `contact with Reality' not through his (R's) `assuming the identities' of the various figures of the patient's persecutory phantasies . What evidently first took place was the patient's meeting his dreaded `figures' in reality : hearing and seeing them embodied-in this case-by the doctor ." Another promising rapprochement is the work of French psychoanalysts like Dr . S . Lebovici and R . Diatkine. Their work appears to be more advanced than Rosen's towards "an analytic psychodrama" .# A step closer towards operational psychodrama, analysis and action going hand in hand, is illustrated in Carp's work.l Last not least is the work of courageous English group psychotherapists and psychodramatists, Dr. Maxwell Jones at Sutton General Hospital, Dr . S. H . Foulkes at Maudsley Hospital and Dr . Joshua Bierer at the Institute of Social Psychiatry . In Graz, Austria, Dr . H . Teirich has been pioneering . On the sociological side the school of Dr . Leopold von Wiese founded upon his Beziehungslehre became to the sociometric school a source of mutual inspiration and intellectual friendship . The scientific printing press runs in the USA at such a mad tempo that the great work of von Wiese is not sufficiently appreciated . He has introduced sociodrama and roleplaying in his classes as a sociological teaching method and sociometry is paving its way through German schools .* The greatest help to sociometry in the last decade, however, has not come from the United States, but from France . The credit for having inspired interest for sociometry and sociodrama in most European countries goes to Professor Georges Gurvitch, probably the most courageous and most productive French socit See '' Reaching out for the Psychodrama," Sociatry, Vol. 1, 1947, p . 64-69 . t See Group Psychotherapy, Vol . 5, No . 1-3, 1952, "Application of psychoanalysis to group psychotherapy and to psychodramatic psychotherapy in France ." ¢ E.A .D .E . Carp, Psychodrama, 1949 . * See Schule and Schiilergemeinschaft, Soziometrie in Gruppenleben, Helen H. Jennings, edited by Ernst Lichtenstoin, Christian-Verlag, 1951 ; Grundlagen der Soziometrie, J . L. Moreno, Westdeutscher Verlag, 1953, with an Introduction by Leopold von Wiese .




ologist since Durkheim . Gurvitch was the driving force in the establishment of the Laboratoire de Recherches Sociometriques et Psycho-Sociologiques at the University of Paris and wrote the most penetrating analysis of sociometry yet made .t Under his supervision and with the assistance of Jean Maisonneuve the French sociometric laboratory is making original contributions and valuable modifications to sociometry and sociodrama . 1953, FINAL WORD

I have been the chief public carrier of these ideas . Therefore, besides the facts and figures, my personal struggle towards their realization, coupled with my "histrionic syndrome" may help the reader to warm up to the elan vital of the sociometric movement . Why did I write the Preludes? On the way to New York from Beacon one day a well meaning critic said : "Do you want to know what is wrong with your books? I'll tell you . It is that they mix autobiography with science ." Here, then are the Preludes . They try to indicate how the thought grew in my mind, and to tell some fragments of the psychodrama of my life . There is no controversy about my ideas, they are universally accepted. I am the controversy . The fondest dream of my youth has come true, they are already used anonymously in many places . I have tried to explain why an individual of my type was particularly suited to produce them . I hope that I succeeded some and that everyone, friends and enemies will enjoy them, because they are autobiography "unadulterated" . Now I fear only that many will read the Preludes and not the book . t "Microsociologie et Sociometrie," Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie, 1947.

DR . WILLIAM ALANSON WHITE'S FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION The affairs of men are dynamic ; they do not remain in any particular state but are ever changing, ever responding to the bombardment of forces which alter them . One of the ways in which these affairs can be considered is after the analogy of the heart beat, ever-recurring diastoles and systoles . We might take as an example the function of administration in a small institution, say a hospital of one hundred or two hundred beds . From the time it begins to function it begins to add here and there to its undertakings, and perhaps increases somewhat in size . It is a very simple matter to begin with concentrating all these functions in a central office. We have the well known administrative unit centrally organized . But let this process of complexity and differentiation proceed a bit further . Let the extent of the increase, its operations, extend spatially farther and farther from the central office . It soon comes to be seen that an exclusively centralized administration has self-imposed limitations . The whole structure becomes so complicated that instant response to needs is no longer possible . These needs develop at some distance from the functional center of the institution, and unless there is someone at the point where these needs develop to respond to them adequately a disintegration of the administrative scheme begins . If this does not take place the needs are met by a beginning decentralization of administration, the locating of individuals at critical points throughout the institution with power to act when the necessity demands, the transferring to these subordinate centers of an increasing amount of responsibility as the institution begins to grow, and the building up of each one according to the same general principles involved in the building up of the original central office . Then this process continues until it limits itself in the same way as did the original process and a still further differentiation begins, and so the diastole and the systole of administrative development is represented by the repeated replacement of the functions of centralization and decentralization by each other in accordance with the needs as they develop . cix



I have given the above illustration because it seems that it might be within the experience of almost every reader to have observed something closely similar, and to warn the reader that in approaching the contents of this book he must not expect to find society or social groups considered as if they consisted of the sum of the individuals composing them . Wherever two or more people are functioning as a social group that group not only consists of those individuals, but, more important perhaps, if that is possible, than the individuals themselves and without which their functioning as a social group could not be expressed, are the relations which maintain between them. It is these intangible, imponderable and invisible aspects of the situation which enable the mathematical sum of a certain number of individuals to function as a social group. Dr. Moreno's book might be described briefly as a study of these relations between individuals . To qualify this description still further, it might be added that it is a study of the emotional relations between individuals who are functioning as a social group, or, as the cross-currents of emotion as they play back and forth between individuals . The statement of the material studied as it is expressed above is a very simple one . But, like a small hospital unit which starts with a very simple administrative set-up, as we begin to investigate and study it, it becomes increasingly complex, more and more highly differentiated in accordance with the growth, development and evolution of the social group studied . All of us, not only in our work but in our daily life, are constantly classifying individuals after some principle or other but usually largely on the basis of our likes or dislikes, upon our feelings of their trustworthiness and dependability or the contrary . In our institutions our classifications are crude . They are based upon behavioristic principles and the trial and error method, putting patients together who seem to belong together on the basis of their general outward appearances and conduct manifestations and separating those who seem to introduce discord into the situation. Dr . Moreno develops a technique for a process of classification which is calculated, among other things, to bring individuals together who are capable of harmonious interpersonal relationships, and so creating a social group which can function at the maximum efficiency and with the minimum of disruptive



tendencies and processes . I will not undertake to explain this technique, which he has described so well in this book-in fact that is what the book is about-but will only make certain comments which strike me as pertinent to the entire problem which he sets himself. I can think advantageously of the whole problem of the emotional cross-currents of plus and minus signs which flow between individuals in terms of energy distribution . Complex patterns of social structure are built from simpler ones by increasing the number of individuals, increasing the qualities of interest which each has for the other, and so increasing in the final analysis the capacity for bringing about results of a social nature . These emotional cross-currents, as has already been indicated, may be attractive in their function or they may be repellent, so that every individual in the group feels the pull of the emotional interests of his fellows and the pressure of their repulsion . These currents not only flow as between individuals who are differently located and thus have a spatial pattern of distribution, but they also flow as between individuals of different degrees of development and thus have a temporal pattern of distribution . The quality of the interest differs in each instance . There may be a definite love attraction or an attraction based upon an emotional factor which is perhaps less positive, certainly is so in its description ; for example, a likeness, which may be very mild and may refer to any one of many things . The same thing may be said of the repellent currents . They may run the gamut from hate to the simplest sorts of dislike, while, in addition, certain individuals may find themselves isolated because no currents of any sort move in their direction . There is an indifference of their associates to them . We therefore can vision an infinite series of possibilities : people who are held in high esteem and are much beloved by a large number of people, on the other hand individuals who are hated or feared or both, and, finally, a group who are isolated either by a preponderance of repellent emotions or by a general attitude of indifference. Without pursuing this matter further it is interesting, and to my mind significant, that in the analysis of social groups Dr . Moreno has discovered again many homely truths which have been recognized by others but he has rediscovered them by a



different method and a method which permits of their development to a more highly differentiated degree as well as their utilization for the benefit of the individual . For example, he refers to the so-called volume of "emotional expansiveness" of an individual, upon which depends the number of those with whom he may at any one time be acquainted, the "acquaintance volume," or, when expressed in number of individuals, the "social expansion ." This at any particular time for any particular individual seems to be rather definitely limited . On the other hand, experimentation indicates that the volume of acquaintance may be enlarged by stimulating the individual's interest along certain lines that include types of other individuals not previously encompassed within the limits of his acquaintance . Similarly, within a given more or less hom*ogeneous group members of an alien group may be introduced, but it will be found that there is a fairly definite saturation point for such aliens . The group can assimilate, as it were, a certain number, but beyond that point assimilation is rendered difficult or impossible and the group tends to break up along the lines of cleavage created by the alien group forming a minority group within the majority group . The preserving and conserving tendencies of group traditions, the development of cultural patterns, the adding by the individual of his mite to the traditions or the patterns as he passes through-all of these things are discovered anew by Dr . Moreno's methods, and discovered in a way which makes them available for constructive purposes, which means, in many instances at least, for therapeutic ends . Just a word about the therapeutic ends mentioned above . Certain individuals with certain patterns of personality find themselves merely by the accident of circ*mstances in a certain group which operates in a specially disadvantageous way with respect to their particular personality patterns . For example, an exceedingly timid person may find himself in a gang dominated by a cruel bully and be so completely frustrated as to find no avenues of adequate self-expression . Generally speaking, the same principle is involved in any situation where an individual has a personality pattern which requires certain kinds of individuals through which his emotions can find some sort of adequate outlet, and when placed in a social group where these possibilities are reduced to a



minimum the type of personality he presents, finding no possibilities of expression and growth, is stunted in its development, retarded in its growth, rendered frequently regressive in the direction in which it seeks satisfactions, and the individual to whom it belongs becomes an increasing social liability. If, now, the problem can be appreciated in all its ramifications, if the individual can be sufficiently understood on the basis of his needs of expression, and the qualities of other individuals who, so to speak, are needed to supplement him can be derived from this understanding, then it is theoretically possible to place such an individual in a human environment where he would, as it were, blossom and grow and be not only a socially acceptable and : useful, but a relatively happy person . These are some of the possibilities which not only suggest themselves but which have been definitely intimated in the discussion of the formulations and the theory, and examples of which are here and there given . In reading Dr . Moreno's book it isinteresting to bear in mind what has been happening during the present century with respect to certain particular therapeutic problems . In the early part of the century the therapeutic devices available for handling problem children were confined almost entirely to changing their environment . It was generally felt that whatever the symptoms of the child might be, whether they expressed themselves in cruelty, lying and stealing, sex offenses, or what not, that in some way or other they were the expressions of disharmonies existing within the household, more especially as between theparents, and that if the child could be removed to another family group he had a fair chance of straightening out his emotional difficulties . And thus among other things arose the frequent utilization of the foster home as a therapeutic agent . As time went on, however, and under the constantly increasing influence of the psychoanalytic school, more attention was paid to the purely subjective aspects of the problem, and child analysis began to develop . The attack on the problem, therefore, was shifted' somewhat by this new growth from the environment to the individual child . Now it is very interesting that Dr . Moreno comes back, apparently, to the position in which the environment seems to have the greater significance, but he comes back to that aspect of the problem not on the same level as it existed originally but



at a higher level ; and the interesting thing is that while he does come back to a consideration of the environment, that consideration includes the subjective aspect which has been almost exclusively emphasized in the development of child analysis . So we have here one of those typical advances which swings from one point of view to another but in doing so includes that other . At the same time Dr. Moreno emphasizes the fact that he differs from the psychoanalytic approach in another very significant way, namely, that the analyst works backward to an explanation for the individual's conduct while he takes the individual's conduct as the starting point and works forward . All of these various points of view, methods, techniques, seem to me to be of very great significance . Take, for example, if this technique works out with the possibilities that it has, what a valuable aid it would be in choosing a foster home, in relating the individuals of this home to the child and the child to these individuals . Think of how much may be added to our capacity for dealing with our mentally ill patients in institutions by a more intelligent classification, a classification which shall not be just a simple matter of practically conducting the wards as administrative units but a classification which would go deeply into the individual problems of each patient and relate them one to another, and more particularly perhaps to the nurses, upon a basis which has definite therapeutic objectives . And think, further, if you have no objections to flights of the imagination, of what possibly it may offer to an understanding of the problems of democracy as they occur in a country like the United States made up of races from all the four quarters of the globe. Washington, D . . C. 1933



SOCIAL AND ORGANIC UNITY OF MANKIND A truly therapeutic procedure cannot have less an objective than the whole of mankind . But no adequate therapy can be prescribed as long as mankind is not a unity in some fashion and as long as its organization remains unknown. It helped us in the beginning to think, although we had no definite proof for it, that mankind is a social and organic unity . Once we had chosen this principle as our guide another idea developed of necessity . If this whole of mankind is a unity, then tendencies must emerge between the different parts of this unity drawing them at one time apart and drawing them at another time together . These tendencies may be sometimes advantageous for the parts and disadvantageous for the whole or advantageous for some parts and disadvantageous for other parts . These tendencies may become apparent on the surface in the relation of individuals or of groups of individuals as affinities or disaffinities, as attractions and repulsions . These attractions and repulsions must be related to an index of biological, social, and psychological facts, and this index must be detectable. These attractions and repulsions or their derivatives may have a near or distant effect not only upon the immediate participants in the relation but also upon all other parts of that unity which we call mankind . The relations which exist between the different parts may disclose an order of relationships as highly differentiated as any order found in the rest of the universe . A number of scant proofs have been uncovered which indicate that such a unity of mankind does exist . Its organization develops and distributes itself in space apparently according to a law of social gravity which seems to be valid for every kind of grouping irrespective of the membership . Once the unity of mankind had come within the possibility of proof the next question which by necessity arose was how this unity originated . A closer relationship must have existed between individuals in the earlier stages of the development ; in the absence of social organs, such as language, the interactions between the members of a group were physically more intimate than in 3



levels of a later date . A predominantly psycho-organic level of society must have preceded the predominantly psycho-social level in which we live . A process of increased individualization must have gone parallel with increased differentiation of the groups the individuals formed, a gradual evolution from simpler to more complex patterns according to a sociogenetic law . Something must have happened which drew individuals more and more apart than they were before,-the source of differentiation may have been one time a new climate, another time the crossing of different racial groups, but however far apart they were drawn by these differences something evidently was left to fill the gap between them, like a remainder from more primitive days, a certain mold of interrelations into which their social impulses craved to be fitted and upon which social organs as language were drafted . We are used to reckon with a strict determination of our physical organism . We are gradually learning that also our mental organism develops as a unit step by step. But we are not yet used to reckon with the idea that also the whole of mankind develops in accord with definite laws . But if such laws exist and can be ascertained then the adjustment of man to them is a logical consequence and therapeutic procedures have to be constructed accordingly. Christianity can be looked at as the greatest and most ingenious psycho-therapeutic procedure man has ever invented compared with which medical psycho-therapy has been of practically negligible effect . It can be said that the goal of Christianity was from its very beginnings the treatment of the whole of mankind and not of this or that individual and not of this or that group of people. An attack against its foundations has been attempted many times during its existence but none has been so persuasive and aggressive as the concentrated efforts against it during the last hundred years . The one line of attack as led by Marx asserted that Christianity is a tool in the hand of the capitalistic class, a narcosis of the people to keep them under suppression . The other line of attack as led by Nietzsche asserted that Christianity has brought into the world a subtle technique of sublimation with which it tried to keep the instinctual drives of man in submission, but that this process of sublimation has never changed more than the surface and that the human beast breaks out of these chains



whenever it has an occasion . Marx thought little of psycho-therapeutics of any sort . He thought the psyche a private matter and expected a solution from economics . But Nietzsche suggested, and Freud did that later in fuller measure, a form of negative sublimation, a reversal of the active form of Christian sublimation, attained through analysis of psychological development, unaware that they didn't do else but continue on a side line the very doctrine of Christianity they thought to have overcome . In considering this we began to speculate over the possibility of a therapeutic procedure which does not center primarily in the idea of sublimation but which leaves man in the state in which he is spontaneously inclined to be and to join the groups he is spontaneously inclined to join ; which does not appeal to man either through suggestion or through confessional analysis but which encourages him to stay on the level towards which he naturally tends ; which does not forcibly transgress the development of individuals and groups beyond their spontaneous striving as has often been attempted by sublimating agencies . We were developing a therapeutic procedure which leaves the individuals on an unsublimated level, that is on a level which is as near as possible to the level of their natural growth and as free as possible from indoctrination . It is based upon the affinities among them and the patterns resulting from their spontaneous interactions . The patterns are used as a guide in the classification, the construction, and, when necessary, for the reconstruction of groupings . This concept carried us away from such forms of psycho-therapy as center in the idea of changing the individual or of restoring him to normalcy through direct attack and towards a therapy which centers in the idea of leaving the individual unchanged, changed only so far as this is bound to occur through the reorganization of groupings . But it appeared to us in a final conclusion that if an individual had once found his place in the community in accord with laws which appear to control the psychological properties of population, the laws of sociogenetics, of sociodynamics and of social gravitation, he would be safeguarded against trespassing the limits of his natural growth and expansion and that sublimation in a modified form could then be called back to function again as agent . It is a form of active sublimation, productive as well as curative, productive of individuality, a form



of sublimation which does not arise through analysis backward towards the past trauma but through the training of the individual's spontaneity based on the analysis of present performance . THE PROBLEM OF NATURAL SELECTION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF SOCIOMETRY

After a community was analyzed throughout, down to its "social atoms," more general questions arose in face of the imbalances found within its entire structure . 1) Do we have to retreat to a less differentiated form of society in order to reach a stage from which a fresh start can be made, and, if this is so, how far back do we have to go? 2) Or can we overcome the imbalances as we advance without halting the present flow of progress? 3) What type of society can, then, and which shall survive? Darwin's hypothesis of natural selection contends that the organisms best adapted to the environment survive ; variations favorable to adaptation tend to be preserved, those unfavorable to adaptation tend to be destroyed . Who Shall Survive? is a question which has been asked thus far from the point of view of the biologist . We are raising this question again, but it is from the point of view of the sociologist, more precisely, that of the sociometrist. Which are the "social" laws of natural selection? Who shall survive? The question could be asked only in a society which is, as sociometry has proven with overwhelming evidence, satisfied with wasting a very considerable part of its human element. In contrast, it would lose meaning in a sociometric society where no one would be cast out and all be given an opportunity to participate to the best of their abilities, in other words, to survive . For the gross manifestations of natural selection of the species which Darwin described, direct evidence is impossible or difficult to obtain, whereas by means of sociometric methods we are able to gain direct evidence as to how natural selection takes place continuously in the very society of which we are a part, every second, in millions of places . Individuals and groups are pushed out from the anchorages in social aggregates to which they belong, from material resources which they need, from love and reproduction, from jobs and homes. It is in billions of small



groups, therefore, in which the process of natural, social selection comes to the awareness of the sociometrist . It is in sociograms that these minute processes are brought to visibility . How the microscopic social laws which we have discovered may correlate with the gross evolutionary laws of the biologist is secondary at this point. However, one cannot help but think that if these minute social forces are given long and continuous range of influence into the remote recesses of the past and future, the gross developments which evolutionary theory postulates might result from them. Therefore, it is important to know whether the construction of a community is possible in which each of its members is to the utmost degree a free agent in the making of the collectives of which he is a part and in which the different groups of which it consists are so organized and fitted to each other that an enduring and harmonious commonwealth is the result . But when we began to let loose each individual and each group against one another, each in full pursuit of his happiness, each striving to see his particular wishes or the wishes of his group fulfilled, then we recognize the origin of different psychological currents which pervade the population of the community and divide it into different sections. In the face of the clash of the spontaneous forces we reconsidered the problem of freedom . Looking for a solution we turned our mind back to a similar dilemma in which we found ourselves when we attempted years ago to adjust men's mental and nervous equipment to impromptu situations . The occasion was the organization of play groups to whose participants nothing but spontaneous expression was permitted. However brilliant the spontaneous, creative ability of an individual appeared as long as he acted alone, as soon as he had to act together with a group of individuals who had to release also only spontaneous expression the product often lacked in unity and harmony . In the face of this difficulty we refused to turn back to the dogmatic patterns in play . We decided to stick by all means to the principle of spontaneity for the individuals participating in the group training. To meet it we devised a technique to support individuals in the attempt at spontaneous group production . When we faced a community we realized the similarity of the problem. We had only to substitute for the play groups social



groups. As in the one case we wanted to keep the principle of spontaneity pure, in this case we wanted by all means to keep the principle of freedom, for the individual and for the collective, as far as possible unrestrained and uncensored ; and just as in the first instance every participant takes direct part in the authorship, direction, and performance of the production, in the second instance every individual is permitted to impress his intentions upon every activity of which he is a part . And in the face of the contradicting and combating psychological currents, which are the more powerful and complicated the larger the populations are, again we did not turn back to dogmatic, out-lived forms . We sought a "technique of freedom," a technique of balancing the spontaneous social forces to the greatest possible harmony and unity of all .

THE HISTORIC ROLE OF SOCIOMETRY During the first quarter of the twentieth century there were several main directions of thought in development, each apparently unrelated and uncoordinated to the other . One line of thought was represented by Bergson in his work "Creative Evolution ." His concept of evolution was a real advance over Spencer as it brought man in his immediate inner experience in contact with evolution . But this elan vital was in itself insufficient . If his "Creative" Evolution should be true, it cried for a demonstration, for its continuity in the realm of action, or, as we formulated it then, for the evolution o f the "creator ." It was this which brought about our attempt to turn the elan vital into the reality of experimentation, the training of spontaneous personality . The experiment compelled us to develop a psychology of the creative act, to recognize the limitations of man as a spontaneous creative agent and to invent spontaneity techniques which might lift him beyond these limitations . The second line of thought was represented by Freud . In that period psychiatry and psychology were overstuffed with general concepts . Psychoanalytic method marked a real advance . Instead of trusting all to the all-might of outer appearance and observa-



tion Freud called the subject to his aid (free association) . Yet he didn't do the job completely . Instead of calling the whole subject to aid, he was satisfied with the half, the subject who remembers, who looks back towards the "trauma"-a la recherche du temps perdu . And so the same method which had been an advance at first was its own block against a further advance . We reversed the psychoanalytic technique and turned the subject loose as a totality, turned him into spontaneous action, into a spontaneous actor . Instead of searching after past experiences, the subject turned his mind to the present, to immediate production . Instead of free association we sought the full release of the subject, his mental and mimic expression . When other subjects had a part in the same pattern of action, also the inter-actions among the subjects were free . In consequence of this broadening technique of training, psychoanalytic method became but a preliminary to the task of spontaneity therapy .

Freud and Nietzsche were essentially historians. Nietzsche, the philosopher, circled around morals and cultures of the past which he tried to surpass . Freud, the physician, circled around the traumatic origins of mental disturbance . They were both psychoanalysts, they recommended this returning, remembering and analyzing as a therapy in itself . To them the "now and here" seemed superficial. They did not know what to do with the moment. They did not take the moment in earnest, they did not think it through. It seemed to them that the only thing to do with the moment and its conflicts was to explain them, that is, to uncover the associations back to their causes. The other alternative would have appeared an absurdity to them : to live, to act out in the moment, to act unanalyzed . It would have seemed to be the end of psychology and of the psychologist . Spontaneity and spontaneous acting would have been refused by them because it appeared to be an affirmation of immaturity, of childhood, of unconscious living, a dangerous disregard for just that which the psychoanalyst tried to illumine . But there is an alternative : to step into life itself, as a producer, to develop a technique from the moment upward in the direction of spontaneous-creative evolution, in the direction of life and time . A third line of thought developed by the Nancy school, especially by Bernheim, made the stimulus of a person another person



and this gradually led to the study of groups and crowds . It was an advance as it put emphasis upon the group rather than upon the single individual . Russian investigators began to perceive the group as a reality superior to the individual, as a collective, and to study the form collectives might assume under different conditions . But the larger the groups became the more were the individuals reduced to symbols and their inter-actions to nebulous processes. As the investigators could not travel except on the surface of these collectives, they could not study more than structures as they appeared on the surface . We met this difficulty with a method which considered the individual in the collective, we entered into the group to call all the subject-centers within the group to aid . And as we studied the development of the collective from within the collective we became able to estimate its inner organization .

A fourth line of thought originated by Comte in his Positive Philosophy was brought to fresh advance by Le Play and his disciples. His study of the nature occupations, hunting, mining, agriculture, fishing, herding, woodcraft, gave the general concepts of Comte a concrete anchorage . His observational method elaborated by his disciples disclosed man in interaction with nature, conditioned by environment . But the further they moved away from their original objective of investigation, man's inter-dependence with nature, the more they attempted to study in civic surveys more complex conditions than the rural district, for instance, urban populations, the more their methods began to look stale and their results unconvincing . Man is not only conditioned by nature's environment but also by man's society, by its social structure . The economic side is only one phase of this structure, covering up the psychological structure of society which is beneath the surface and most difficult to ascertain . To produce an advance here a changed methodology was necessary . Instead of developing a survey from the geographical set-up in its relation to men and their occupations, we have developed a survey from within society . The channels and structures as they are erected by man, families, schools, factories, etc ., had to be presented in their inner unfoldment . A picture was thus gained which was geographic and psychological at the same time, the "psychological geography" of a community .



A fifth line of thought was represented by economic planning based on an analysis of society as an economic-materialistic process (Marx) . Economic planning was a real advance . But the tacit basis of this planning was the collective, the collective of symbolic membership . It attempted to function in disregard of the individual as a psychological energy and of society as a growing complex continuously pressed by psychological currents and the networks they form. Or better said, it had so little regard for the psychological factor that it thought to suppress or denaturalize without expecting any particularly harmful consequences . As the planning progressed and began to manage the nature of man and society according to the economic criterion curious disturbances appeared, the cause of which was a puzzle . The founder of scientific socialism underestimated religious forces for the same reason which made him underestimate sociopsychological forces operating in groups . He failed to integrate them into his theory of social revolution and communistic government . This occurred for the same reason which made him distinguish between the first phase of communistic society and the highest phase of it. It was a theoretic obsession with strategic procedure, splitting a unity into two different issues . The deep analyst of the relation of merchandise to man was a poor psychologist of human interrelations . Marx thought that the economic and the socio-psychological problems of man can not be attacked at one time ; that the psychological problem can wait ; that, so to speak, two different revolutions were necessary and that the economic-social revolution has to precede what we have called the psychological or creative revolution of human society . He tried to prove that, in the long run at least, all decisive psychosocial changes are produced by economic revolutions ; that from the division between capital and labor derived the structure of two different classes, bourgeoisie and proletariat, and with this all major differences among men . The change of economic structure in Russia has not brought about, however, after the revolution of 1917, the expected change in the socio-psychological behavior of the masses . Looking at the Russia of today he might be amazed to find that the socio-cultural changes lag far behind the economic changes. This lag is perhaps easily comprehensible if we apply a frequent Marxistic phrase to Soviet Russia itself : the



communistic society is still in its first phase ; the chief objectives of scientific socialism have remained unfulfilled, because the State has not yet "withered away ." But it seems as if the communistic society in its highest state of development is becoming a comfortable myth, to be set aside permanently as an Utopian goal, as unattainable, as soon as the economic program of the first phase is achieved . Finally a sixth line of thought developed, the idea to improve man as a kind through eugenic measures (Galton) . Is it meant to improve what is worth improving or to improve what just happens to survive in the battle of existence, to create an elite or to improve all of mankind? Who shall survive? It is through a synthesis of these six lines of development that gradually the preliminary ground was laid for an experiment in the psychosocial planning of society.

SOCIOMETRY, SOCIOLOGY AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM In the last hundred and fifty years three main currents of social thought developed, sociology, scientific socialism and sociometry, each related to a different geographic and cultural area : sociology to France, socialism to Germany-Russia, and sociometry to the USA . Each of the three disciplines is defined broadly . The focus of sociology was to develop a rigorous system which embraces all social sciences . The focus of socialist doctrine was to prepare and produce proletarian revolutions . The focus of sociometry was to comprehend and measure the socius . This is a heuristic hypothesis, designed to arrange the productivity of social science, around these three points of reference . The first part of the hypothesis, that is, that sociology owes its origin to France is probably most easy to accept, as it is primarily to the French revolution between 1789 and 1795, and French writers like Claude Saint Simon, Auguste Comte, Pierre Proudhon and Emile Durkheim that sociology owes its name and existence . The productivity of the French revolution consisted of the emancipation of the bourgeois class-that is how far it went or



was able to go ; it spent itself in doing it-and inspired the emergence and consolidation of sociology as a scientific system . The total configuration of social forces during the nineteenth century in France-and also in England-did not permit the victory of a proletarian revolution to cluster although it was the battleground of at least two major efforts . As already said, its revolutionary energy had spent itself in the emancipation of the bourgeois and its theoretical energy in the development of sociology . The second part of the hypothesis, that scientific socialism owes its origin to the German-Russian combine, is also plausible . No one denies that many seeds of thought which entered into the doctrine of Karl Marx came from French and English writers, but on the other hand, no one can deny that it is in Germany and Russia where its most feverish theories developed and that it is there where the most violent proletarian revolutions culminated in victory. Scientific socialism became, in the hands of Marx, Engels and Lenin as rigorous a system of revolutionary social science and interpretation of history as sociology in the hands of Comte and Durkheim . This hypothesis is, of course, an oversimplification and this it is meant to be. Its merit would lie in helping to bring the speed, development and direction which the social sciences have had in the last two centuries in line with the powerful political currents of our time. The first consequence would then be to consider Marx exclusively as the founder of scientific socialism and not to claim him, as it is often the case, along with Comte and Proudhon as one of the founders of sociology, an honor which he would most likely have refused . This also gives proper consideration to the deep cleavage and divergence which exists between sociology and revolutionary socialism . By classifying Marx as a "sociologist" one dilutes and sentimentalizes the theoretical and practical clash between the two historical movements . This hypothesis makes more understandable the tight resistance against sociology in Soviet Russia and in the countries dominated by its influence and, in turn, the tight resistance against revolutionary socialism in the western democracies . One may assume that this sharp demarcation of boundaries is not only due to political reasons but to genuine differences of thoughtways which hinder the infiltration of sociology and western cultural concepts into the Soviet world .



The third part of the hypothesis, that sociometry owes its origin to the USA is more difficult to explain ; indeed, it needs more elaborate explanation . First one would have to prove that it is a "main current" of thought, it smacks of arrogance to single it out among other significant trends in the USA, and second, it does not explain the rich development of sociology in the USA before the advent of sociometry . Before I go into the discussion of these two arguments let me define clearly the position I am taking . All the excellence o f American sociology, I claim, has found its climax in sociometry and its allied developments . It is for the first time, in sociometry, that the social sciences in the USA showed "collective originality ." By this I mean that sociometry is not so much the work of a single individual, but a collective effort within a "favorable" social climate . It may be helpful here to differentiate between sociometry and the sociometric movement, sociometry being the most systematic and the farthest developed crystallization of the trend towards group measurement in the social sciences in the last two decades, sociometric movement being the influence beyond its pales, upon all branches of social sciences, anthropology, sociology, psychology, psychiatry, etc . This does also not mean that sociometric measurement is an exclusive property of the USA ; it is known that some seeds of social measurement existed already in France, England and Germany in the work of forerunners as Adolphe Quetelet, John Graunt and Johann Sussmilch, but their efforts did not take root-they did not develop beyond the "demometric" variety-the historical situation was not ready and the social climate not favorable . The first argument, that sociometry has become a main current of thought, can easily be verified by referring to the many thousands of quantitative studies of group structure which have been carried out in the last thirty years, in the great majority of cases under the term sociometric, and perhaps even more striking is the fact that sociometric terms and techniques are becoming increasingly anonymous, universally applied, and frequently used as the basic reference for studies which are in themselves non-sociometric . An analysis of American sociology before sociometry entered the field could easily show that my second argument is also reasonable, as it was largely under foreign influence, particularly that



of Comte, Spencer and Darwin . This influence can be especially noted in the two great leaders of American sociology, Ward and Giddings . This does not reduce their genius as "individuals" but their work did not develop a collective productivity, a specific school of thought ; it was colored by the cultural determinants which were French and English . On the other hand, one can already discern a tendency towards sociometry in the work of Cooley, Mead and others, which substantiates the historic continuity of sociometric thought in the US . It is in the spirit of my hypothesis that, although certain aspects of sociometry and microsociology had already been conceptualized by Simmel, von Wiese, Gurvitch and myself in Europe, it is still a genuine American movement because it would have died there, whereas it flowered here to great productivity . More than any other living variety of the human species, the American man loves to express status in figures, he is the "hom*o metrum." When I speak of the sociometric movement I mean sociometry in its broadest sense and the direct and indirect influence it has exercised upon all branches of social science in the last thirty years ; sociometry as it has marched on under various labels, guises and in various modifications as group dynamics, action research, process and interaction analysis, etc ., a) spontaneity theory and evaluation of spontaneity ; b) theory of interpersonal relations and theory of action ; c) the revision of the experimental method in the social sciences ; d) the measurement of interpersonal relations and the measurement of groups ; e) the empirical and experimental study of small groups ; f) the emergence of social microscopy and microsociology ; g) initiation and development of social interaction research ; the study of social networks and communication ; h) the gradual emergence of an experimental sociology ; i) the experimental approach to role theory known as role playing, psychodrama and sociodrama ; j) experimental spontaneity and creativity research . There has been considerable consensus among leading social scientists in giving sociometry a broad definition, as a point of confluence of many individual contributions "Sociometry is the mathematical study of psychological properties of populations, the experimental technique of and the

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results obtained by application of quantitative methods," so reads the definition of the subject given by J . L. Moreno,* who has chiefly popularized the term among students of human behavior . My inclination is to go to the etymology of the word which shows it to be a combination of the Latin `socius', meaning social, and the Latin 'metrum', meaning measure, or the Greek 'metron', meaning measure . Thus the term would mean social measurement ."t "Sociometry is and probably will remain a generic term to describe all measurements of societal and interpersonal data ." $ "There is no doubt that to the general public the word `sociometric' means today having to do with the measurement of social phenomena."¢ "Sociometry seems to have solved this age-old methodical difficulty in a more satisfactory way than any other attempts to introduce quantitative methods into social science ; for in Moreno's pregnant terms, it does not sacrifice the 'socius' to the 'metrum', empirical content to formal technique ."ff "In the social field mathematics was applied first to demographic statistics, whose original assumption was that the human individual is an ultimate `indivisible' entity and that consequently every collective phenomenon is a mere sum of individual phenomena . The majority of sociologists, however, are by now fully aware that the human individual as member of a collectivity is not an independent unit but a participant in collective systems and processes and that the main task of mathematical methods in sociology is the quantitative analysis of such systems and processes . A step toward the final elimination of this old source of confusion is the recent development of sociometry-a method of research with important, though as yet only partially realized, possibilities."II * Moreno, J. L ., "Psychological Organization of Groups in the Community," Proceedings of the 57th Annual Session of the American Association on Mental Deficiency, Boston, June, 1933 ; read at the joint meeting of the American Psychiatric Association and the American Association on Mental Deficiency . t Chapin, F . Stuart, Sociometry, 1940, Vol . 3, p . 245. $ Bain, Read, Sociometry, Vol . 6, 1943, p . 212 . ¢ Lundberg, George A ., Sociometry, Vol . 6, 1943, p . 219 . ¶ Znanieeki, Florian, Sociometry, Vol. 6, 1943, p . 227 . II Znanieeki, Florian, American Journal of Sociology, Vol . 50, No . 6, 1945 .



"That which constitutes all the originality of sociometry is that the measure (metrum) is only a technical, very limited means of obtaining better understanding of purely qualitative relationships with the socius ; these relationships are characterized by their spontaneity, their creative element, their link with the moment, their integration into concrete and unique configurations ."t "We consider sociometry as a method, which if it is applied consequently and in the most comprehensive way possible would raise our science from the position of social scientific astrology to astronomy ."t "If statistics deal with measurement, why is there any necessity for a separate field of sociometry which also is concerned with measurement? The superficial answer might be that statistics is concerned with measurement in general and that sociometry is confined to social phenomena . But there would be no point in creating a new discipline unless there were something in the nature of social phenomena that required the devising of special methods of measurement . If society is conceived as an aggregate of individual organisms, as in population studies, there would be no need of sociometry . But if we take as our subject-matter the person and groups of persons, then the analysis of interpersonal relations and the devising of instruments for their measurement become important. Sociometry is to be further differentiated from statistics in the fact that the former deals with all types of measurement significant for understanding human behavior and not exclusively with those requiring statistical formulae ."* Before I elaborate further on the historical and political significance of the sociometric movement several questions should be answered : 1) What, precisely, is sociometry? 2) Why did sociometry emerge in the US and why could it not emerge elsewhere, for instance in France, Germany or Soviet Russia? 3) Why did it succeed in the USA? t Gurvitch, Georges, Sociometry in France and the United States, 1949, p . 2 . t Von Wiese, Leopold, Sociometry in France and the United States, 1949, p . 214. * Burgess, E . W ., Sociometry, Vol . 6, 1943 . p . 223 .



1) What, precisely, is sociometry? The cornerstone of sociometry is its "Doctrine of Spontaneity and Creativity ." It has created an experimental methodology which is applicable to all social sciences. It is the sociometric revision of the scientific method of the social sciences that will gradually make such a thing as a science of society possible. It gives its subjects research status by changing them from subjects into participating and evaluating actors ; a social science becomes sociometric to the degree in which it gives the members of the group research status and the degree in which it is able to measure their activities ; it goes to work with actual or prospective groups and develops procedures which can be used in actual situations. It puts an equally strong emphasis upon group dynamics and group action as upon measurement and evaluation . In the early phases of sociometry measurement was mere counting, for instance, counting of words, of acts, of roles, of choices and rejections, of steps in walking or of mouthfuls and pauses in eating ; these naive, rough forms of measurement were an indispenable first step before standardized units of universal validity could be established. 2) When sociometry entered the field three powerful currents of ideas existed in the United States : pragmatism, progressive education and social engineering (to have things "done") . But more important, perhaps, is that the United States of America is a commonwealth in which small groups enjoy (or at least enjoyed at the time when sociometry emerged) a greater degree of independence of action than in France, Germany and Soviet Russia, and therefore more easily amenable to open experiments with small groups and genuine small groups research-and negatively, the absence of an over-all religious or cultural ideology as Marxism, Catholicism or Nationalism which might have been so overpowering as to hinder the growth and outbursts of smallgroup "spontaneity ." Its supreme political position after the First World War made it into an enormous sociological island, open to everything novel, people, ideas, and almost carelessly embracing and permitting every form of social experimentation . If we could chart the nation's social structure, a sociogram of its human relations, positive and negative, of its sympathies and antagonisms, we will probably see millions of small groups, each gravitating around its own center, the connections between them



being weak or distorted in the majority of cases . It must have been due to the continuous influx of new groups of pioneering migrants and the comparative independence of the small group to start and take off, left unharnessed by a rigid, central idea of government, or culture, that it became the natural soil for the ever-changing and pliable sociometric action experiments and methods . The low social cohesion of the American nation as a whole had to be offset by a high autonomy and cohesion of its small groups.* In contrast to the United States, some of the cultural centers on the European continent, for instance Germany and Soviet Russia, could not consolidate themselves except on extreme levels of high cohesion of social structure which went parallel with a low degree of freedom-their only alternative was social anarchy and chaos-they could not integrate their social forces on a median level (between the two extremes) which would permit the spontaneous and natural movement of their small groups.

3) Sociometry succeeded rapidly in the USA because it fulfilled an important need for its gradual integration into a united, national culture ; its three major forms, the sociometric experiment, group psychotherapy and psychodrama provide a binder to tie the parts together . They promise to transform areas of low cohesion into areas of high cohesion without sacrificing, however, the spontaneity and the freedom of small groups . Cohesion of the group is measured by the degree of cooperativeness and collaborative interaction forthcoming from as many sub-groups and members as possible on behalf of the purpose for which the group is formed . There is great probability that in a spontaneously growing society the cohesion rises and declines in proportion to the number of small, independent groups within it and with the number of independent goals (criteria) around which they revolve. As a free, democratic society is more inclined to permit the production of a large number of independent small groups with a large number of different and independent goals, its cohesion will tend to be low . t * See "The Function of a 'Department of Human Relations' Within the Structure of the Government of the United States," Sociometry, Experimental Method and the Science o f Society, p . III. t For factual evidence in support of the above hypotheses see Sociornetry, Vol . 1-15, 1937-1952.



The historic significance of sociometry rests with the medial position which it has between sociology and scientific socialism . If one would like to play with the Hegelian formula of dialectic development one could say that sociology presented the thesis, socialistic doctrine the antithesis and sociometry the synthesis ; every step, however, being somewhat more than the previous step . Sociology is historically defined by the two or three great systems it has developed . Scientific socialism is defined by the two or three great proletarian revolutions it has incited . Sociometry is defined by its operations, it is immaterial whether they are called sociometric or by any other name . Sociometry is recognized by what it does, stirring to action and keeping action open but using scientific precision and experimental methods to keep action in bounds. Sociology, for instance, becomes a science in proportion to becoming sociometric, but the same is true about revolutionary socialism ; it, too, becomes a science in proportion to becoming sociometric . It is bound to happen sooner or later that sociology, with its dependent social sciences, and revolutionary socialism will converge and meet on a new level of social insight-the sociometric. The methodical development of sociometry is the dynamic link which should bring sociology and scientific socialism to increased convergence and, finally, to unity . Universally accepted standards of social measurement will also aid to resolve the international tension between the communistic and democratic societies . There are two principles pregnant in sociometry which it shares with sociology, but not with revolutionary socialism and vice versa . It shares with classic sociology the tendency towards elaborated social systems, a tendency which is not shared by scientific socialism in equal measure . Sociometry shares with revolutionary socialism the idea of planned social action, with the fundamental modification, however, that it must be experimentally devised and controlled, that it must be applied to small groups first and applied to larger groups as the knowledge derived from small systems increases . It is thus the sociometric action experiment which links sociometry with scientific socialism and separates them both from sociology . It is in the sense o f the dialectic theory o f sociometry that the analysis made here will become increasingly "less" true the more scientific socialism will permit its Marxistic hypotheses to be tested within sociometric



settings (this may sound Utopian, but ideas have a way of boring from within) and the more sociology will include into its operations actual experiments . Indeed, this analysis is less portent and correct today than thirty years ago when sociology was entirely engrossed in general systems which, however ingenious in prospect and vision, never actually stepped from the libraries and classrooms into social reality of the "Ding an sich" and never became a "sociology of the people, by the people and for the people ."* Sociometry did not develop in a vacuum ; many generations of social philosophers have anticipated and formulated a number of the hypotheses which I have brought to a clearer formulation and empirical test. However, I do not have any illusions as to my importance, I am fully aware that sociometry might have come into existence without me, just like sociology would have come into existence in France without Comte, and Marxism in Germany and Russia without Marx .

EMERGENCE OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD My first scientific dream was that if I were God, the Creator of the universe, I would be able to start an adequate science of the universe . Or, if I would have been at least there and near the source on the first day of creation, his auxiliary ego and participant observer-instead of being born into the twentieth century of an elusive mankind's history-my account of the meaning of the universe would have some semblance of reality . This fanciful dream of getting into the midst of creation, of "ongoing life and production," has never forsaken me and is behind all my actional and written communications and my insistence that all measures and tests of humanity should be constructed after the model of God involved in the creation of the universe . When I had the courage to put the idea of the Godhead to an empirical test I concluded from it one thing : just like a science of the Godhead also a science of culture cannot be produced at * Moreno, J. L., "Contributions of Sociometry to Research Methodology in Sociology," American Sociological Review, Vol . 12, 1947 .



a distance and post mortem by philosophers and historians ; it must be initiated and inspired by the creators of the cultures themselves . They know the origins, they are at the source, they are the source, the designers of its value systems, the inventors of its instruments and emblems . If they could be made to speak and to investigate the cultural order as they create it in locus ywscendi a light can be thrown upon the forthcoming development of the culture and a guide can be prepared which may prevent its deterioration .

It is probably because of this ontology of my scientific work that I cannot resist the temptation to apply sociometric concepts and findings to problems which have stubbornly eluded explanation heretofore ; the temptation has been greater than the obligation to stick to facts and to facts only. So I succumb here to the lure of discussing, before an audience of benevolent readers, the common origin of three age old riddles, the scientific method, social revolution, and social communication . Although I had studied many systems of sociology they often contradicted each other and, even worse, they did not offer any specific starting point for my own designs . I saw no other way than to start from scratch, trying to establish experimental foundations for a new science of social change, even if it should differ substantially from the society systems of the past . I needed two allies, a community which was willing to cooperate with me in a revolutionary venture, and a scientific method which could give me clues as to how to develop a design of a genuine social experiment. The disappointment came when I discovered that the classical experimental method as developed by Mill did not meet with the requirements of a human society in locus nascendi .

I tried first to clarify in my mind what the scientific method might signify . We all dream up concepts as we focus our imagination on a specific problem area, long before we begin with actual, concrete empirical and experimental studies . The degree of "right" guesses depends upon the genius of the investigator . There are, of course, some people who have more genius than others, a sort of affinity for a certain problem ; there have been rare men in all fields of esthetic and scientific endeavor who have demonstrated "adequate" intuition without any carefully conducted empirical and experimental studies . This condition exists



especially in an early stage of a science when men with inspirational talent are indispensable for primary crystallization of concept . But as a particular science develops these men do not provide tangible proofs for the correctness of their intuitions, they are all based upon their authority . This is fair enough for geniuses but it is insufficient for more mediocre minds . It is, of course, for mediocrity, that is, for the average minds, that scientific method is particularly designed and beneficial . Without science the intuitions of great men would have to wait for geniuses of equal talent and similar aspiration to recognize and repeat their intuitions within their own minds . This is usually called "confirmation ." However, what is sufficient for an aristocratic, intellectual elite is insufficient for the universal scientific fraternity . For it the great intuitions are primary and indispensable but still a preparatory step only for the actual research to follow . Whereas the "genius" method made the participation in the sciences and arts an exception, the scientific method strives towards making the participation universal . This may mean that the brave world of men needs not only to be shared but also co-produced ; that it is to be created not only by one or a few geniuses but through the efforts of all people. The principle propelling the gradual growth of the scientific method appears to have the characteristics of an "ethical" principle and to be rooted in the dynamics of the history of human civilization. As a sociometrist I was not satisfied with the explanation that an ethical drive underlies the scientific method . What dynamic social structures might correspond to such ethical constellations? This ethical drive seemed to proscribe that a majority of people should participate and share in the development of scientific instruments and scientific progress . It stands to reason that this shift from the few to the many and vice versa must have some sociometric connotations . Shifts in power from the few to the many or vice versa can frequently be observed within the structure of groups, in fact, they belong to its standard phenomena . One of them has become known as the "sociodynamic effect," the unequal distribution of emotional volume among the members of a group, dividing them into socioemotionally rich and poor . We see frequently, especially in rigid, authoritarian structures that the volume of social power hinges upon one or a few indi-



viduals only, the majority remaining neglected or powerless, and that any extension of opportunities for incoming choices, directly or indirectly (symbolic), private or collective, increases the socioemotional power of a few out of any proportion . We have also observed that, as long as a social system rigidly maintains its social structure the form of the sociodynamic effect within it remains little changed . At times a loosening of the structure takes place, the volume of choices begins to spread to new focii, to new individuals or subgroups which had previously been neglected . The precipitating cause may be a social trauma which affects the group, some factor which decimates its crop of leaders, an economic war or call to arms, migration, sickness or death in the course of famines or epidemics . It appears then that the volume of social emotions begins to get a wider dispersion and under the impetus of that trauma a larger number of members of the group begins to share in the love which is mobile . In certain moments the sociodynamic effect changes from a narrower (authoritarian) to a wider (democratic) distribution of the social energy the group is capable of spending . These are moments in the development of a group which are wide open for social change, either in one dimension only, say the axiological, or the economic, or the involvement may reach all dimensions of the society . This ripening first becomes manifest as a change of the sociodynamic effect within that particular group . From the sociometric networks comes then the voice of the people embodied in key individuals who proclaim and request certain changes in the social order . But just as the loosening of structure indicates a relaxing of the sociodynamic effect, an increased rigidity of the structure indicates a rehardening of the sociodynamic effect . This hardening and crystalizing may have in its wake a relapse of the social order, a counter-revolution which is reflected in the sociogram by the sudden increase of the inequality of tele distribution . One may ask : what are the causes of the sociodynamic effect? The cause of the sociodynamic effect rests in all its forms-on the economic, the ecological, axiological or the sociometric level-in the differential character of human society itself . The effect can be altered but it may never be entirely removed. The question is now to define the sociometric forces which pushed the genius from his lofty place of isolation above the crowd



down the ladder unto the level of mediocrity . The exploitation of creative genius and the struggle against his exalted position has been waged as far back as there is human history, to extricate from him the secrets and inventions of his mind which he was able to attain in a miraculous way of communicating with the mysteries of nature . We know from previous work with sociometry about the existence of strictly aristo-telic structures* in which a creative individual influences, through the media of several powerful leaders, the total community . But what renders him powerless and keeps him from direct contact with the people? The myth of Prometheus might give us a clue . The Greek gods lived on Mount Olympus, entering only in rare instances into contact with humans . According to legend, Prometheus was an exception . As protest against the Godhead Zeus he brought fire to earth so that everybody could share its blessings . But why did Prometheus betray Zeus? He was a half-god and jealous of the superiority of the gods . He was unpopular and rejected by them . He did not have the creativity of a god but he was permitted to share their secrets . Prometheus did not invent the fire, he "stole" it . Through such an act of piracy he could look like a god and when he could not fool the gods with his god-likeness, he tried to impress those who did not know better, the plain people on earth . According to the myth he succeeded and became a hero . This phenomenon might be called "creator envy" . Promethian individuals, the precursors of the "public relations" men of our enlightened age, may have made their appearance frequently in the course of history, the heroes of the people acting like anti-genius and genius at the same time . From the dawn of history this situation repeated itself innumerable times, again and again there were rival geniuses in conflict with one another, the fire was stolen in every generation and thus gradually the scientific method developed . I figured that the sociogram of creative genius-if one could get at such a thing-may reveal in a tangible manner some of the trends persistently dramatized in the mythologies . My hypothesis was that the involvement of a man of genius in the product of his mind and its appreciation by others reveals significant behavior patterns ; praising or condemning, stealing or silently overlooking, * See p . 324.



quoting infrequently or non-quoting the work of a genius is a dynamic way of defining its place in the sun . One techniques of testing this hypothesis was to study the "quoting behavior" among scientific writers ; it resulted in characteristic sociometric patterns . The sociometric pattern of genius was a unique case among them . Exploring a sample of sociograms attained through the examination of such sociometrized people may give us clues as to the sociodynamic status of genius . I used as sociometric specimens a dozen living authors considered as pioneers in their field of endeavor. I selected them at random ; the purpose was to attain as large a variety of sociograms as possible . The test which I used was actuary, "cold sociometric" (cold because it is frozen in the books) . Their bibliographies and reference lists were systematically examined, starting with their first publication up to the last one, in some cases up to the point of death, and listing all the persons whom they quoted . Then I looked through the bibliographies and references of all the people who quoted them . The following known sociometric symbols were used as references : quoting himself equals self attraction or autotele ; being quoted equals attraction or chosen by ; quoting equals attracted to or choosing ; unquoted equals unchosen ; unfavorable, critical reference or footnote equals rejection ; discontinued quotation and reference equals emphasized indifference ; mutual quotation equals a dyadic relation or a pair ; a quoting clique is a number of individuals quoting each other or persistent in not quoting certain other individuals . It was not, however, until I was able to follow up a small sample of the sociograms by interview, role playing and psychodrama that the insights which the sociograms indicated began to show a significant relationship to this discussion . The protagonist formed positive and negative pair relations to individuals, each himself a center of attraction . The mass of individuals represented in one of the sociograms was divided into two subgroups, 1) attracted to the protagonist, either directly, or most often indirectly through the key individuals charged with positive tele in favor of the protagonist. The psychodramatic production showed the profound investment of love, admiration and faith projected into the protagonist . This involvement was deeply t See "Sociometry and the Cultural Order," Sociometry, Vol. 6, 1943 . p . 327-329 .



enforced by the key individuals linked to him and resulted in a network composed of chain reactions ; one could call this phenomenon sympathy with the pioneer or "creator love" ; 2) rejecting the pioneer, the protagonist, either directly or indirectly through the individuals charged with negative tele and in disfavor with the protagonist . The psychodramatic production revealed a profound hostility, being reinforced by one or two key individuals and rivals, which resulted at times in a distorted perception of the pioneer and his work . A chain reaction produced a social network of negation which might be called antipathy for the pioneer or "creator envy" . This love and envy is here not qualified as an individual characteristic ; one individual may be attracted to one type of leader and to one set of ideas and disapprove of another, but the frequent recurrence of these two structures in the sociograms suggests that we are dealing here with collective phenomena . Thus the sociogram of creative genius underwent a profound change in the course of history . He had to move from the exiled and exalted top into the middle and within the social group ; it looked like a plot aimed at the harnessing of genius . This reversal of position did not take place without vigorous protest from the side of the genius and hero-worshippers of old, only that they did not know against what to strike . The scientific method as a way to deal with the riddles of the universe was in itself a creative job of the first order in which a long line of superior men had cooperated . It is as if it would be the destiny of creative genius to destroy himself in order to give to the world the best products of his labor . The emergence and development of the scientific method and the problems of social change are closely related . Viewing the emergence of scientific method in statu nascendi has enabled us to understand some of the sociodynamic factors operating in its genesis . A similar approach may help us in understanding the meaning of social revolutions as experiments of nature . EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL REVOLUTION A social revolution has all of humanity in a test tube . If one could be a participant-actor in it and, at the same time outside of it, an observer, this might make a good beginning for a research



of revolutions in statu nascendi. The great French revolution may be called the "cradle of sociology" . It is the outstanding contribution which France has made towards the development of the social sciences . It started a chain reaction from Saint Simon, Fourier, Comte, Proudhon to Durkheim . The same distinction goes to the socialistic revolutions culminating in Russia . The Paris Commune of 1871, the Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 are the three cradles of Marxism . In spite of their mental confusions, distortions of precept and madness of leadership, these experiments of nature and history-though to a great extent unplanned and uncontrolled-did more to seduce people into thinking about the major social problems of humanity than all the Departments of Sociology since established . But what has such irrational thing as a social revolution to do with thinking and science? The explanation is simple : in the emergent phase of a revolution humanity is in a highly productive phase ; similar to a man of genius in a state of inspiration, ideas which have been dormant come suddenly to the fore and form new, exciting and creative constellations ; similar to a mental patient in the sudden outbreak of an acute phase, or the outpouring of elevating ideas and actions in the initial phases of a new religion . I played with the idea of putting revolutions on an experimental basis . They seemed to be much more rewarding for gaining knowledge than the writing of comprehensive sociological systems and scholarly critiques of revolutions . It appeared to me also that making revolutions on a very small scale would be more advantageous than the global ones . They could be more concentrated and thoroughgoing, the phenomena could be studied as if under the microscope . It would be the quickest and most direct way of learning about problems which look very different post mortem ; they look like every other corpse after life has vanished . What I dreaded most, however, was to fall into the abyss of makebelieve and the artificiality of contrived experiment . The small revolution had to be as real as the global one . In the course of years several opportunities offered themselves, communities of people who were willing to engage themselves in a total change of their social relationships, a cooperative revolution, and I was able to see with my own eyes how a society can be changed and what happens after the change is accomplished . In the course



of microscopic experiments I encountered many of the problems which have been described about revolutions on a big scale, the idea stage, the propaganda stage and the stage of violent action ; the various types of social revolution, the Christian kind of "introverted action", accompanied by a minimum of social involvement, the Marxist type of "extroverted action", accompanied by a high degree of social involvement, the "all out" type of revolution as in the sociometric scheme . (In the Marxist revolution only the working classes are "all out", the bourgeoisie is on the defense .) In the microscopic forms as in the global ones the existing social order is confronted by a new one . The existing order is rejected by the prophet of the new order or by the majority of the revolutionary group . The new social order must be visualized with a reasonable degree of clarity and intensively wanted by the prophet (in the religious case) or the leaders of the group (in the social case) in order for such a revolutionary experiment to become meaningful and effective . If these conditions exist the crucial problem for the leaders is how to get the masses ready for action and for the acceptance of the new order ; how to mobilize the spontaneity of the masses, to turn them into spontaneous actors in behalf of the project of replacing the existing social order . Some methods of "warming up" are indispensable to get them ready . We see here three categories operating which sociometry has pointed out with particular emphasis : the category of creativity, a clear vision of the new order ; the category of spontaneity, the masses arousing themselves and being aroused to make the visionary order a reality and the category of the warming up, to get the prophet or the leaders and the masses ready for action . I tried to clarify in my mind what the modus vivendi of a social revolution might be and arrived at the following tentative hypotheses : a) it is the degree of the impact of the social groups as historical forces upon the current situation ; b) the degree to which the smallest functional units of society, the socio-atomic structures are directly affected by the political rebellion and integrated into the official sect or party organization ; c) the degree to which the leader or leaders of revolution are "intuitive" sociometrists-adequately able to gauge the sociodynamic forces operating in the immediate present within the population involved -thus the chances for a successful revolution rise and fall . This



applies to every type of revolution whether religious or political, bourgeois or proletarian . The Christian revolution tried to bring certain religious values and intellectual properties of the Jewish intelligentsia, the Pharisees, and of a few, exclusive saints to poor and rich alike, to Jews and non-Jews alike, to all people of all nations . However lofty and mystical the Scriptures are, there are many clues which can be used to draw sociometric and role diagrams of personal and ideological forces criss-crossing the emerging Christian revolution . If leaders like Jesus of Nazareth and Saint Paul would not have had a clairvoyant's sense for the actual forces operating at the moment, the potentialities of the social unrest within the masses might have taken a different course, a military or political revolution might have succeeded instead of the religious one . The imagination of the leaders must have been sensitive to the now and here forces in order to transform the potential into real achievement . The American revolution of 1776 proclaimed : "All men are created equal" and the French revolution raised the banner of : "Egalite, Liberte, Fraternite" . These two revolutions tried to extend the influence of the many and reinforced the principle of universality . At first sight the Russian revolution of 1917 with its "Dictatorship" of the Proletariat may seem to be of a different order . Like Marx, Lenin was hardly aware of the sociometric nature of society, but he was convinced that the economic forces of the class struggle were pushing human society inevitably towards a socialistic form of government. He felt that he had the mission at this moment of history to bring to conclusion, as it were, this unavoidable experiment of Nature . But there were two Lenins, the loyal servant of dialectic materialism and the other, the practical Lenin, besieged by enormous difficulties and more than ever by the realization that many of the communist promises are impossible to attain . He recognized that there were not two classes sharply separated, fighting each other-as it is with the armies of two states at war-but that there were innumerable shades and degree of class distinctions . Class is sociometrically not only a specially qualified social group, it has a quantitative distribution . Social classes like bourgeoisie and proletariat are metasociological constructs, the tangible thing is the "party organization" . He had to make a decision to win for the party with whose cause he had



identified his life . Like a general he began to survey the present field of action before him . Without an intuitive, quasi-sociometric analysis of the total situation in Russia from day to day and without letting his insight move his decisions, the opportunity for a successful revolution might have gone astray, notwithstanding that ideal political conditions for victory existed . In his mind he drew the picture of the sociograms of the persons and groups and ideological and military forces operating for or against him and his people and then he started the proletarian war which preceded the proletarian dictatorship . He may have said to himself : "The dictatorship of the bourgeoisie is ruthless, tyrannical and murderous when it comes to suppressing the working class . Therefore, the war of the proletariat cannot be won by soft talk, it will have to use warlike weapons ; it will have to be equally ruthless, tyrannical and terroristic ." What bolstered Lenin's courage to lead a social revolution with all its brutalities was full of ethical and moral implications : "It is true," he may have said to himself in moments of honest cynicism, "that we are merely reversing the order of who is suppressing whom, reversing one government of terrorism and suppression with another, but at least the government which will suppress from now on represents the producing masses, the many against the few ." A sort of ethical motive, the idea of universal participation, which we found implied in the development of scientific method apparently also plays a role in the makings of social revolutions . There is a similarity in sociometric position between Lenin, the Tartar, the tribune of the masses bringing political power to the people, and Prometheus, the tribune of science, bringing scientific power to them .

THE BASIC LANGUAGE The phenomenon of creator envy was not without its good social points . It helped to deliver the scientific method . The phenomenon of social revolution has had its good points too, it stimulated the critique and re-evaluation of experimental method of social science. There is another shackle which mankind did not accept but with profound misgivings, that is language . The dominance



of language in our culture is so all-pervasive that we are inclined to forget that we are not language-born, but bred into it . Man is born a sound-making, pantomimic autistic actor . Language, perhaps the most important of his social inventions is only gradually absorbed by the infant who gives in to the enormous pressure of the cultural carriers around him ; parallel with a spontaneous acceptance and acting out a considerable "resistance against language" can be observed . The baby languages resist the emergence of organized language and leave their mark upon it ; but also the delayed development of speech, stammering and stuttering should be counted into the "anti-language syndrome" of the infant . The bizarre mutism of catatonic patients and the worship of silence as a greater virtue than speech in the folklore of many cultures are also manifestations of this resistance . The over-estimation of language involvement had reached its climax in our century with the idea of psychoanalytic therapy, the idea that by talking what is on your mind the material of the psyche and even of the socius is laid bare, the idea that language acts upon them like a sponge, absorbing their essence . As a matter of fact, the resistance against language suggests the opposite, that considerable parts of psyche and socius developed outside the domain of language and that they still develop outside of it . The effort of some writers to give social psychology a foundation by means of the socially significant symbols of language badly needs correction . Observation of infants and of mental patients indicate that there are two kinds of gestures, "pro"semantic and "anti"semantic, empathetic to and contrary to language formation . The answer to this dilemma is not in mere language analysis showing off its contradictions to logic and reducing expression to logical barrenness in the sense of the semanticists . The answer is also not in the classification of language as a demonic partition of behavior, making this partition the source of all mental evil in the sense of phylo-analysis . The answer is neither in logic nor in metapsychology but in the development of experimental methods which deal directly with the action patterns of men, from the most primitive to the most complex, a study not only from the languages down, but from the act up . The myth of the Tower of Babel is a prophetic anticipation of this problem . The Lord said : "And the whole earth was of one



language and of one speech . . . . Let us go down and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech."* Let us imagine for a moment that the confusion of the tongues would have gone on unlimited, that man, after being scattered upon the face of the earth, would not have developed local languages to supersede the one universal language he originally had, according to the myth . How confusing would this confusion have been? If the grammatical language is a later stage of communicative behavior the question remains : how much would man have been able to do with the resources of his "action residua" alone? What language was this which, according to the Scriptures was the "universal" one? The language meant here must have been one more natural and more primitive than the languages of which we know, an "infra" language, one which can be spoken without learning it, a language which flows naturally and spontaneously from all lips . The baby languages are spontaneous language formations, of an autistic character . Although they differ from the organized language of the adult, they have a structure of their own which is more actional than verbal, closer to the spontaneous act than to the frozen word . The language to which the Scriptures refer in the Babel myth "And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech" must have existed before man developed the local, concrete languages of our more recent cultures ; it must have been a pre-social, universal language, a universal baby-like language at a time when the adult development of speech was still inarticulate ; they may not have had then at their disposal but a form of actional phonetic guttural speech which, however unformed, uneven, full of guesswork, required people to "feel into each other" rather than to think and talk with each other . It is what I once called the basic language or primordial language . t Basic language is a spontaneous formation of words, it is void of the mutually significant language symbols . Feelings are linked to phonetic sounds and to gestures . The language has no logical * The Bible, quoted from the authorized St . James version, National Bible Press, Philadelphia, p . 15. t See J . L . Moreno, "Interpersonal Therapy and the Psyehopathology of Interpersonal Relations," p . 52, Sociometry, Vol. 1, 1937 ; also Group Psychotherapy, Vol. III, No . 3, p . 256, 1950 .



grammatical structure . It seems meaningless to an outsider who is not involved but the gestures and the feelings which accompany the sounds provide them with a dramatic and vivid character . The words are free combinations of vowels and consonants . It is an "unlearned" language and differs from the learnable languages like English, Chinese or Esperanto, for instance . It was found helpful in giving stutterers, aphasics, certain deteriorated schizophrenics and senile patients the experience of sound communication . It is the matrix out of which and upon which our grammatical and organized languages grew . The spontaneous use of the basic language is not only helpful to infants before they learn to speak their mother tongue, but to all humans in the course of certain neuropsychiatric disturbances during which they have either lost the function of speech, like an aphasia, or are fearful of it, like in certain mental disorders . The basic language has cathartic value as a reservoir of unlimited spontaneity expression, uninhibited by the barriers of official languages. The polarity between spontaneity and cultural conserves, as in spontaneous drama versus the drama conserve, the spontaneous state of courtship versus the organized situation of marriage, reappears here in the area of language . We can imagine that in the phylogenesis of languages infra-forms correspond to the baby languages in their ontogenesis . The question came up as to the dynamic relationship of baby language to the grammatically structured one of the socius . If we could answer this we might be in a better position to understand the function of the ancient micro-languages in the development of speech . A ray of light was thrown upon this problem in the course of treating stutterers by means of psychodramatic techniques . We were able to relate speech disorders to three sources : a) physical deficiency ; b) intra language deficiency ; the speech defect emerges "within" the structured, grammatic language and the roles in which the individual operates ; c) pre-language deficiency ; the speech disorder appears already "before" the infant speaks his mother tongue, his performance neurosis appears within the framework of his autistic baby language, either because of a refusal to accept the language of adults or because of deficiency in the relationship to the adult auxiliary egos around him . We see, therefore, in the basic language test



that there are individuals who stutter in their mother tongue but do not stutter in the basic language . Then there are those who, although they do not stutter in the basic language, as there is nothing to stutter in, show a muffled, inarticulate and painful way of using it. It may become the objective of the psychodramatic therapist to teach the stutterer not only how to speak in his mother tongue but to teach him how to use again his baby language, and so to bring all the stages in the evolution of speech into a better balanced integration . A universal language for all people on earth may never be entirely adequate until all the shades of the rhythmic, actional microlanguages are brought into a synthesis . In order to prevent stuttering in later life the speech therapist of the future may pay attention to speech behavior of the infant preliminary to learning the official language of his culture . Sociometry has gained a respectful hearing for its discovery of the unofficial, invisible structures of human groups and because it has demonstrated the powerful effect they have upon human conduct . It has also carried the argument that a profound relief from the current global social tension can be attained by integrating the psychosocial underground into social reality . Language is one of the dominant social institutions of mankind . The discovery of the infra languages and the basic language technique may become of similar importance for the science of communication as the discovery of the tele, social atom and network has been for the formation of groups . They can serve as creative antidotes to a logically and emotionally overstuffed civilization . The kiss, the embrace, the handshake, the "magic" touch of the hand, the looking into each other's eyes, the signs and gestures of love and friendship, of longing and despair, of pain and misery, the rhythm of the body in motion, at work, in dance, walking and in song, in plays and games, have potentialities which have been only partially unharnessed . The frozen forms of language and arts have held them back and have not permitted them to grow and develop and lend life a new richness : a spontaneous-creative cultural order. There are human situations of such universality as to cause our social symbols and customs, our cultural standards to be suddenly transcended ; "we" experiences become possible without their direct aid . I remember a man and a woman in love, one from an African culture, the other from a Nordic one, who



could not speak to each other except by unheard-of sounds, the look in their eyes, the touch of their hands, the rhythms of their bodies acting in unison . Who has not seen a mother talking to her infant, a few weeks old, taking the part of the baby as well as her own in perfect harmony . Here the logical-emotional languages of our culture would rather interfere than aid . Last not least, I recall my recent journey to Paris, when I found myself before large French audiences to whom I talked in English . I was astounded at the amount of appreciation and enthusiasm which met me and assumed for a moment that they all understood English well . I was surprised to hear afterwards that they understood me, not by understanding English, but by watching the expression of my eyes and hands and legs and a certain musical quality of the sounds I made, and particularly because language did not interfere with their direct observation of my actions . We have been taught, and believed it, that peace will come to men when they understand one another . This should be easy, but it is not . Languages bring not only understanding, they frequently increase misunderstanding . A greater message has come to us from the old myth of the confusion of the tongues, that peace will not come to men only through understanding ; peace will come to men in the distant future when they learn to get along although they do not understand one another .


DOCTRINE OF SPONTANEITY-CREATIVITY The cornerstones of sociometric conceptualization are the universal concepts of spontaneity and creativity . Sociometry has taken these concepts from the metaphysical and philosophical level and brought them to empirical test by means of sociometric method . A presentation of these concepts is the first step within the sociometric system . Spontaneity and creativity are not identical or similar processes . They are different categories, although strategically linked . In the case of Man his s may be diametrically opposite to his c ; an individual may have a high degree of spontaneity but be entirely uncreative, a spontaneous idiot . Another individual may have a high degree of creativity but be entirely without spontaneity, a creator "without arms" . God is an exceptional case because in God all spontaneity has become creativity . He is one case in which spontaneity and creativity are identical . At least, in the world of our experience we may never encounter pure spontaneity or pure cultural conserves, they are functions of one another. The universe is infinite creativity . The visible definition of creativity is the "child ." Spontaneity by itself can never produce a child but it can help enormously in its delivery . The universe is filled with the products of spontaneity-creativity interaction, as a) the effort which goes into the birth and rearing of new babies, b) the effort which goes into the creation of new works of art, "cultural conserves" ; of new social institutions, social conserves and stereotypes ; of technological inventions, robots and machines, and c) the effort which goes into the creation of new social orders. Spontaneity can enter the creatively endowed individual and evoke a response . There were many more Michelangelos born than the one who painted the great paintings, many more Beethovens born than the one who wrote the great symphonies, and many more Christs born than the one who became Jesus of Nazareth . What they have in common are creativity and the creative ideas . What separates them is the spontaneity which, in the successful cases, enables the carrier to take full command of his resources, whereas the failures are at a loss with all their treasures ; 39



they suffer from deficiencies in their warming-up process . Creativity without spontaneity becomes lifeless ; its living intensity increases and decreases in proportion to the amount of spontaneity in which it partakes . Spontaneity without creativity is empty and runs abortive. Spontaneity and creativity are thus categories o f

a different order ; creativity belongs to the categories o f substance -it is the arch substance-spontaneity to the categories o f catalyzer-it is the arch catalyzer .

The fate of a culture is decided by the creativity of its carriers . But creativity as a scientific frame of reference has never been established and so a basis for a critique of deviations has been missing. If a disease of the creative functions has afflicted the primary group, the creative men of the human race, then it is of supreme importance that the principle of creativity be redefined and that its perverted forms be compared with creativity in its original states . There are works which survive their creators and eventually dominate men's patterns of culture . They survive because of certain technological processes which conserve them . These conserves may enter into the flesh of the artist and control him from within, as, for instance, in the actor, or they provide technological forms with a content, for instance, books . We can visualize a period of civilization before they were discovered . There are cultural conserves underlying all forms of creative activitiesthe alphabet conserve, the number conserve, the language conserve, and musical notations . These conserves determine our forms of creative expression . They may operate at one time as a disciplining force-at another time, as a hindrance . It is possible to reconstruct the situation of creativity at a time prior to the conserves which dominate our culture. The pre-conserve man,* the man of the first universe, had no musical notations with which he could project the musical experiences of his mind, no alphabetic notations with which he could project his words and thoughts into writing . He had no mathematical notations which became the basic language of science. Before he had selected from the inarticulate mass of sounds and vowels which developed into our * Pre-conserve man and first universe are relative concepts, considering the thousands of varieties of culture through which mankind has passed ; every preconserve man was a conserve man to an earlier one and every first universe was a second universe to a still earlier universe, and so ad infinitum.



languages he must have had a relation to the process of creativity different from modern man, if not in the source itself, certainly in projection and expression . When we removed, by a process of deconserving, one conserve after another from an actor, and nothing remained but his naked personality, the pre-conserve man came closer to our understanding . He must have been guided by the warming-up process inherent in his own organism, his master tool, isolated in space, unspecialized yet, but working as a totality, projecting into facial expressions, sounds, movements, the vision of his mind . A sort of psychodrama may have been the common denominator of all sorts of cultural conserves in which culture has gradually specialized itself . The sounds uttered by him originally, a simple device for making a life situation as expressive as possible, developed gradually into the phonetic residuum of the first alphabet which was selected in preference to other sounds . We find a hangover of the pre-conserve technique of the psychodrama in the preparatory phase of every individual work of culture . The inspirations which lead a creative man to produce a work of culture are spontaneous . The more original and profound the problem is which a genius sets himself the more is he compelled to use, like the pre-conserve man, his own personality as an experimental tool and the situation around him as raw material . The struggle with the cultural conserves is profoundly characteristic of our whole culture ; it expresses itself in various forms of trying to escape from them . The effort to escape from the conserved world appears like an attempt to return to paradise lost, the first universe of man, which has been substituted step-by-step and overlapped by the second universe in which we live today . It is probable that all cultural conserves are the final projections of the tremendous abstractions which man's conceptual mind developed in a struggle for a superior existence . Gradually abstraction led from the pictures of things to the letters of the modern alphabet and to the numbers of arithmetic . The gradual abstraction and differentiation of sounds laid the ground for musical notations . But what must have been common to the Beethoven of a pre-conserve culture and the Beethoven of our time is the spontaneity level o f creation . However, it was then unchanged by the devices which dominate our culture and it was



perhaps for that reason more powerful--on the other hand, less articulate, and less disciplined than our products today . Spontaneity operates in the present, now and here ; it propels the individual towards an adequate response to a new situation or a new response to an old situation . It is strategically linked in two opposite directions, to automatism and reflexivity, as well as to productivity and creativity . It is, in its evolution, older than libido, memory or intelligence . Although the most universal and evolutionarily the oldest, it is the least developed among the factors operating in Man's world ; it is most frequently discouraged and restrained by cultural devices . A great deal of Man's psycho- and socio-pathology can be ascribed to the insufficient development of spontaneity . Spontaneity "training" is therefore the most auspicious skill to be taught to therapists in all our institutions of learning and it is his task to teach his clients how to be more spontaneous without becoming excessive . There is ample evidence that the spontaneity of the infant has "something to do" with his arrival in this world . During pregnancy he warms up to the act of birth . The length of gestation is largely determined by the genotype of the foetus and not by the dam of the carrying individual . The infant wants to be born . Birth is a primary and creative process . It is positive before it is negative, it is healthy before it is pathological, it is a victory before it is a trauma. Anxiety results from "loss" of spontaneity .* Spontaneity propels a variable degree of satisfactory response which an individual manifests in a situation of variable degree of novelty . The warming up process is the operational expression of spontaneity . Spontaneity and warming up process operate on all levels of human relations, eating, walking, sleeping, sexual intercourse, social communication, creativity, in religious self realization and asceticism . The place of the s factor in a universal theory of spontaneity is an important theoretical question . Does the s factor emerge only in the human group or can the s hypothesis be extended within certain limits to non-human groups and to the lower animals and plants? How can the existence of the s factor be reconciled with the idea of a mechanical law abiding universe, as, for instance, with the law of the conservation of energy? The idea of * For a discussion of the relation of anxiety to spontaneity, see p. 336-337.



the conservation o f energy has been the "unconscious" model o f many social and psychological theories, as the psychoanalytic theory of the libido . In accordance with this theory Freud thought that, if the sexual impulse does not find satisfaction in its direct aim, it must displace its unapplied energy elsewhere. It must, he thought, attach itself to a pathological locus or find a way out in sublimation . He could not conceive of this unapplied effect vanishing because he was biased by the physical idea of the conservation of energy . If we, too, were to follow here this precept of the energy pattern, and would neglect the perennial inconsistencies in the development of physical and mental phenomena, we would have to consider spontaneity as a psychological energya quantity distributing itself within a field-which, if it cannot find actualization in one direction, would flow in another direction in order to maintain its volume and attain equilibrium . We should have to assume that an individual has a certain amount of spontaneity stored up to which he adds and which he spends as he goes on living. As he lives he draws from this reservoir . He may use it all or even overdraw . Such an interpretation is, however, unsatisfactory according to spontaneity research, at least on the level of human creativity . The following theory is offered . The individual is not endowed with a reservoir of spontaneity, in the sense of a given, stable volume or quantity . Spontaneity is (or is not) available in varying degrees of readiness, from zero to maximum, operating like a catalyzer . Thus he has, when faced with a novel situation, no alternative but to use the s factor as a guide or searchlight, prompting him as to which emotions, thoughts and actions are most appropriate . At times he has to invoke more spontaneity and at other times less, in accord with the requirements of the situation or task . He should be careful not to produce less than the exact amount of spontaneity needed -for if this were to happen he would need a "reservoir" from which to draw . Likewise he should be careful not to produce more than the situation calls for because the surplus might tempt him to store it, to establish a reservoir, conserving it for future tasks as if it were energy, thus completing a vicious circle which ends in the deterioration of spontaneity and the development of cultural conserves . Spontaneity functions only in the moment of its emergence just as, metaphorically speaking, light is turned



on in a room, and all parts of it become distinct . When the light is turned off in a room, the basic structure remains the same, but a fundamental quality has disappeared . The physical law of the conservation of energy was accepted during the second half of the nineteenth century in many quarters as a universal axiom . Many scholars regarded energy in all its manifestations as though it would be a volume of water in a glass . If the water disappeared entirely or in part, it could not have vanished . It must have been consumed, spilled or transformed into an equivalent. They assumed that the volume of energy which it originally had must have been constant at any point of the process . Freud likewise speculated with the assumption that libido energy is to remain constant . If therefore the flow of libido energy is interrupted and inhibited from its aim, the dammed up energy must flow elsewhere and find new outlets, i.e., as aggression, substitution, projection, regression or sublimation . These phenomena which appear on the surface apparently unrelated could now be expressed in terms of a single principle, libido energy. In such a closed psychodynamic or sociodynamic system there is no place for spontaneity . If libido energy must remain constant socio-psychological determinisin is absolute . As a factor like spontaneity is not admitted to operate the psychodynamic or socio-dynamic factors causing a behavior manifestation-if they cannot be traced to recent events-must be deferred farther and farther to an elusive past . The findings of spontaneity research had made such forced systems of intellectualization unnecessary . The unity and universality of explanation which they offered has become too high a price to pay . It led to over-simplification of interpretation and to a dangerous inertia hindering the development of new methods of fact finding and experimentation . As long as spontaneity was a vague, mystic and sacred notion such rigid systems could prosper almost undisputed, but with its inevitable emergence as a vigorous concept, as a clearly discernible and measurable agent, the tide began to turn in favor of more flexible systems. The principle which set sociometry into motion is the twin concept of spontaneity and creativity, not as abstractions but as a function in actual human beings and in their relationships . Applied to social phenomena it made clear that human beings do not



behave like dolls, but are endowed in various degrees with initiative and spontaneity . The so-called social structure resulting from the interaction of two and a half thousand million individuals is not open to perception . It is not "given" like an immense visual configuration-for example like the geographical configuration of the globe, but it is every moment submerged and changed by interindividual and collective factors . If there is any primary principle in the mental and social universe, it is found in this twin concept which has its most tangible reality in the interplay between person and person, between person and things, between person and work, between society and society, between society and the whole -of mankind . The fact that spontaneity and creativity can operate in our mental universe and evoke levels of organized expression which are not fully traceable to preceding determinants, causes us to recommend the abandonment or re f ormulation o f all current psychological and sociological theories, openly or tacitly based upon psychoanalytic doctrine, for example, the theories o f frustration, projection, substitution and sublimation . These theories have to be rewritten, retested and based on spontaneity-creativity formulation .

In spontaneity theory energy as an organized system of psychological forces is not entirely given up . It reappears in the form of the cultural conserve . But instead of being the fountainhead, at the beginning of every process such as libido, it is at the end of a process, an end product . It is evaluated in its relativity, not as an ultimate form but as an intermediate product from time to time rearranged, re-shaped or entirely broken up by new spontaneity factors acting upon them . It is in the interaction between spontaneity-creativity and the cultural conserve that the existence .of the s factor can be somewhat reconciled with the idea of a lawabiding universe, as for instance with the law of the conservation of energy. The canon of creativity has four phases : creativity, spontaneity, warming up process and conserve (See diagram, p . 46) . Spontaneity is the catalyzer . Creativity is the elementary X, it is'without any specialized connotation, the X which may be recognized by its acts . In order to become effective, it (the sleeping beauty) needs a catalyzer-spontaneity . The operational manifestation of



S-Spontaneity, C-Creativity, CC-Cultural (or any) Conserve (for instance, a biological conserve, i.e., an animal organism, or a cultural conserve, i.e., a book, a motion picture, or a robot, i .e ., a calculating machine) ; W-Warming up is the "operational" expression of spontaneity . The circle represents the field of operations between S, C and CC . Operation I : Spontaneity arouses Creativity, C . S >C. Operation II : Creativity is receptive to Spontaneity. S C-> > CC. Operation IV : Conserves (CC) would accumulate indefinitely and remain "in

cold storage." They need to be reborn, the catalyzer Spontaneity revitalizes them . CC-> > >'S-> > >CC . S does not operate in a vacuum, it moves either towards Creativity or towards Conserves .

Total Operation

Spontaneity-creativity-warming up-act< actor conserve



the interacting spontaneity-creativity is the warming up process . As far as is known the only products of such interactions are the conserves. The universe is infinite creativity . But what is spontaneity? Is it a kind of energy? If it is energy it is unconservable, if the meaning of spontaneity should be kept consistent . We must, therefore, differentiate between two varieties of energy, conservable and unconservable energy. There is an energy which is conservable in the form of "cultural" conserves, which can be saved up, which can be spent at will in selected parts and used at different points in time ; it is like a robot at the disposal of its owner . There is another form of energy which emerges and which is spent in a moment, which must emerge to be spent and which must be spent to make place for emergence, like the life of some animals which are born and die in the love-act . It is a truism to say that the universe cannot exist without physical and mental energy which can be preserved. But it is more important to realize that without the other kind of energy, the unconservable one-or spontaneity-the creativity of the universe could not start and could not run, it would come to a standstill .

There is apparently little spontaneity in the universe, or, at least, if there is any abundance of it only a small particle is available to man, hardly enough to keep him surviving . In the past he has done everything to discourage its development . He could not rely upon the instability and insecurity of the moment, with an organism which was not ready to deal with it adequately ; he encouraged the development of devices as intelligence, memory, social and cultural conserves, which would give him the needed support with the result that he gradually became the slave of his own crutches . If there is a neurological localization of the spontaneity-creativity process it is the least developed function of man's nervous system . The difficulty is that one cannot store spontaneity, one either is spontaneous at a given moment or one is not . If spontaneity is such an important factor for man's world why is it so little developed? The answer is : man fears spontaneity, just like his ancestor in the jungle feared fire ; he feared fire until he learned how to make it. Man will fear spontaneity until he will learn how to train it .



When the nineteenth century came to an end and the final accounting was made, what emerged as its greatest contribution to the mental and social sciences was to many minds the idea of the unconscious and its cathexes . When the twentieth century will close its doors that which I believe will come out as the greatest achievement is the idea of spontaneity and creativity, and the significant, indelible link between them . It may be said that the efforts of the two centuries complement one another . I f the

nineteenth century looked for the "lowest" common denominator o f mankind, the unconscious, the twentieth century discovered, or rediscovered its "highest" common denominator-spontaneity and creativity .

FOUNDATIONS OF SOCIOMETRY Sociometry aspires to be a science within its own right . It is the indispensable prologue for all the social sciences . Without giving up the vision of totality by an inch, it has retreated from the maximum to the minimum, to the social atoms and molecules . It can therefore be called a sociology of the microscopic dynamic events, regardless of the size of the social group to which it is applied, small or large . The result of sociometric development has been that the investigation of the smallest social aggregates has become more interesting than that of the large ones . For the future development of sociometry it may be desirable to separate it as a special discipline and to consider it as a microscopic and microdynamic science underlying all social sciences . It has several subdivisions like microsociology, microanthropology, microeconomics, microsociatry, microecology . It is not merely a slogan indicating a special type of research, a single method or a number of techniques . Its present stage of development is still embryonic and scattered but there can be no question as to the potentialities of the new science . For the future progress of the social sciences it is of the greatest importance that a science of sociometry is set up and delineated, and its relation to other social sciences defined . Its range and boundaries, its operations and objectives are already more sharply visible than the same references in sociology or



anthropology. It does not supplant and it must not overlap with anthropology or economics, for instance, but their findings on the overt, macroscopic level may receive a new interpretation from the point of view of sociometric research . The old definitions of sociology : "Science of Society" and "Science of Social Phenomena" did not need any further specification until the development of social microscopy and the discovery o f the sociometric matrix suggested the division between macroscopic and microscopic social disciplines . Before this there did not exist any dynamic, material reason to digress from Comte's opinion that sociology is a unitary science of society . The logico-methodological argument of Georg Simmel and Leopold von Wiese in favor of separating sociology from other social science specialties as, for instance, historical sociology and social philosophy, was a necessary step to clear the way through the jungle of disciplines . But these divisions occurred, metaphorically speaking, on the floors above ; the basem*nt underneath remained untouched by them . This time a division of the social sciences became urgent in the vertical dimension . For every macroscopic social discipline a microscopic social discipline could be envisioned, microsociology versus macrosociology, microanthropology versus macroanthropology, microeconomics versus macroeconomics, microecology versus macroecology, etc . The final arbiter for such drastic division is the productivity it has for research. In other sciences division proved fruitful for the advancement of knowledge as between anatomy and histology or physics and chemistry. By putting together all the microscopic social sciences into one block the focus of the social investigator will be more sharpened in the choice of hypotheses and experimental design and in giving these areas the systematic attention they deserve. The old definition of sociology should, therefore, give place to another which is more in accord with what sociologists actually deal with-the science o f the macroscopic systems o f human society, their description and measurement . The resistance in some quarters against sociometric theory and terminology is largely due to its claim of representing a new science ; but it did this because it could not see how the new outlook and the new discoveries could be incorporated into the old frame-



work of concepts of the social sciences without undue sacrifice of clarity and order . When, out of new empirical and experimental evidence new concept dynamically arises, it is against the spirit of science to force it into an outworn and limited framework of classification and interpretation, out of reverence for tradition . What is relevant to new concept goes also for new terminology ; with new concept and new evidence appropriate terms logically arise . The recommendation of academic sociologists to adapt new constructs to old terms and phrases as "social process", "social statics", "social dynamics", etc ., is not easily accomplished. Properly coined terms in a new discipline help the advance of knowledge and stir up the imagination of the investigator . The matter is entirely different when a new term and meaning, for instance, "actor" is used for an old term and meaning as "organism" ; or a new term and meaning "act" is used for an old term and meaning "behavior" ; then the change is unwarranted . Such behavior is not new in the history of science ; it reminds one of the period when chemistry was emerging as a new discipline . The "operations" which characterized the new science of chemistry were rapidly accepted but antiquated interpretations, as the phlogiston theory, were preferred. Similarly, one of the difficulties in the development of sociometry has been the rapid assimilation of its techniques, operations and methods, and the parallel ignorance of and resistance against its theories . This has proven to be unfortunate, not only for the formulation of significant hypotheses, but also for the further refinement of the techniques themselves . One could follow with amusem*nt how rapidly sociometric techniques such as the sociogram, the sociometric test, small group analysis, role playing, psychodrama and sociodrama were taken for granted as techniques, but their theoretical background, the concepts of the actor in situ, the alter or auxiliary ego, spontaneity, creativity, tele, warming up, social atom, psychosocial networks of communication, sociodynamic effect, etc ., were taken lightly, ignored or smuggled into literature without reference to the source . This would not be so serious if these hypotheses would have developed independently from sociometric techniques, but as it is they developed and they were imposed by empirical evidence ; they have been the result of rigorous thinking in working through the material gathered . This circ*mstance is unfortunate for yet an-



other reason . The new system of theories and concepts do not only give important clues for significant hypotheses, they are also important prerequisites for the proper use of the techniques and for the setting up of productive experiments . Sociometry is to a large extent a classificatory science, and generalizations can be made on the basis of such classifications . Geography and geology are examples of other classificatory sciences . Their counterpart within sociometry is psychological or sociometric geography . Some day a psychological geography of our planetary human population will be drawn without any reference to outside criteria . In fact, as soon as the whole field can be tackled as a unit, the cause-effect relation as well as any other relation may be visible ; then there will not be any criterion left outside of it and the experimental method will not be necessary for proof. Sociometry deals with the mathematical study of psychological properties of populations, the experimental technique of and the results obtained by application of quantitative methods . This is undertaken through methods which inquire into the evolution and organization of groups and the position of individuals within them . One of its special concerns is to ascertain the quantity and expansion of the psychological currents as they pervade populations . My first definition of sociometry was, in accordance with its etymology, from the Latin and Greek, but the emphasis was laid not only on the second half of the term, i.e ., on "metrum," meaning measure, but also on the first half, i.e ., on "socius," meaning companion . The old dychotomy, qualitative versus quantitative is resolved, within the sociometric method, in a new way . The qualitative aspect of social structure is not destroyed or forgotten, it is integrated into the quantitative operations, it acts from within . The two aspects of structure are treated in combination and as a unit . Both principles, it seemed to me, had been neglected, but the "socius" aspect had been omitted from deeper analysis far more then the "metrum" aspect . The "companion," even as a problem, was unrecognized . The measurement of interpersonal relations as well as the experimental production of social interaction have never been seriously tackled . What remains of a



society to be investigated if the individuals themselves and the relationships between them are considered in a fragmentary or wholesale fashion? Or, to put it in a positive way, the individuals themselves and the interrelations between them must be treated as the nuclear structure of every social situation . The phrase sociometry has a linguistic relatedness in construction to other, traditional scientific terms : biology, biometry ; psychology, psychometry ; sociology, sociometry . From the point of view of systematics it is preparatory to topical fields as sociology, anthropology, social psychology, social psychiatry . It is concerned with the "socius" and "metric" problems common to all social fields . It has developed three departments of research a) dynamic, or revolutionary sociometry, engaged in problems of social change ; b) diagnostic sociometry, engaged in social classification ; and c) mathematical sociometry . Sociometry starts practically as soon as we are in a position to study social structure as a whole and its parts at the same time . This was impossible as long as the problem of the individual was still a main concern, as with an individual's relation and adjustment to the group . Once the full social structure could be seen as a totality it could be studied in its minute detail . We thus became able to describe sociometric facts (descriptive sociometry) and to consider the function of specific structures, the effect of some parts upon others (dynamic sociometry) . Viewing the social structure of a certain community as a whole, related to a certain locality, with a certain physical geography, a township filled with homes, schools, workshops, the interrelations between their inhabitants in these situations, we arrive at the concept of the sociometric geography of a community . Viewing the detailed structure of a community we see the concrete position of every individual in it, also, a nucleus of relations around every individual which is "thicker" around some individuals, "thinner" around others . This nucleus of relations is the small social structure in a community, a social atom . From the point of view of a descriptive sociometry, the social atom is a fact, not a concept, just as in anatomy the blood vessel system, for instance, is first of all a descriptive fact . It attained conceptual significance as soon as the study of the development of social atoms suggested that



they have an important function in the formation of human society . Whereas certain parts of these social atoms seem to remain buried between the individuals participating, certain parts link themselves with parts of other social atoms and these with parts of other social atoms again, forming complex chains of interrelations which are called, in terms of descriptive sociometry, sociometric networks. The older and wider the network spreads the less significant seems to be the individual contribution toward it . From the point of view of dynamic sociometry these networks have the function of shaping social tradition and public opinion . It is different and more difficult, however, to describe the process which attracts individuals to one another or which repels them, that flow of feeling of which the social atom and the networks are apparently composed . This process may be conceived as tele . Tele is two-way empathy, like a telephone it has two ends .* We are used to the notion that feelings emerge within the individual organism and that they become attached more strongly or more weakly to persons or things in the immediate environment . We have been in the habit of thinking not only that these totalities of feelings spring up from the individual organism exclusively, from one of its parts or from the organism as a whole, but that these physical and mental states after having emerged reside forever within this organism . The feeling relation to a person or an object has been called attachment or fixation but these attachments or fixations were considered purely as individual projections . This was in accord with the materialistic concept of the individual organism, with its unity, and, we can perhaps say, with its microcosmic independence . The hypothesis that feelings, emotions or ideas can "leave" or "enter" the organism appeared inconsistent with this concept . The claims of parapsychology were easily discarded as unfounded by scientific evidence . The claims of collectivistic folk unity of a people appeared romantic and mystical . This resistance against any attempt to break the sacred unity of the individual has one of its roots in the idea that feelings, emotions, ideas must reside in some structure within which they can emerge or vanish, and within which they can function or disappear . If these feelings, emotions and ideas "leave" the organism, where then can they reside? When we found that social atoms and networks have a per* For a discussion of the position of tele within the sociometric system, see p . 325-328 .



sistent structure and that they develop in a certain order we had extra individual structures-and probably there are many more to be discovered-in which this flow can reside . These may be conceived as two-way or multiple-way structures. One-way or projected feelings do not make sense sociometrically. They require the complementation of "retrojected" feelings, at least, potentially . This has been studied particularly through sociometric perception tests . One part does not exist without the other . It is a continuum . We must assume at present, until further knowledge forces us to modify and refine this concept, that some real process in one's life situation is sensitive and corresponds to some real process in another person's life situation and that there are numerous degrees, positive, negative and neutral, of these interpersonal sensitivities . The tele between any two individuals may be potential . It may never become active unless these individuals are brought into proximity or unless their feelings and ideas meet at a distance through some channel, for instance, the networks . These distance or tele effects have been found to be complex sociometric structures produced by a long chain of individuals each with a different degree of sensitivity for the same tele, ranging from total indifference to a maximum response . A social atom is thus composed of numerous tele structures ; social atoms are again parts of still a larger pattern, the sociometric networks which bind or separate large groups of individuals due to their tele relationships . Sociometric networks are parts of a still larger unit, the sociometric geography of a community . A community is again part of the largest configuration, the sociometric totality of human society itself.


Sociometry cuts through all social sciences as it deals with social phenomena at a deep level where they merge or more precisely be f ore they "e"merge into "psychological," "sociological," "anthropological," or "economic" phenomena . This should by no means indicate that these departments do not attain usefulness and



meaning on the macroscopic level of their emergence on which the differences between them become articulate and distinct . Sociometry and Psychology The sociometrist takes the position that as long as we as experimenters draw from every individual the responses and materials needed, we are inclined-because of our nearness to the individual-to conceive the tele as flowing out of him towards other individuals and objects . This is certainly correct on the individual-psychological level, in the preparatory phase of sociometric exploration . But as soon as we transfer these responses to the sociometric level and study them not singly but in their interrelations, important methodological reasons suggest that we conceive this flowing feeling, the tele, as an inter-personal or more accurately and broadly speaking, "as a sociometric structure ." Sociometry and Sociology The sociometric experiment does not base its discoveries upon the interview or "questionnaire" method (a frequent misunderstanding) ; it is an action method, an action practice . The sociometric researcher assumes the position of the "status nascendi" in research ; he is interiorating the experimental method, a participating actor. He insists on sticking to the material inquiry and does not permit himself to step out into the logical part unless he can safely do so. He tries to measure what can be measured, to validate what can be validated, but he disdains measurement and validation for their own sakes . According to Sociometry, social systems are attraction-repulsion-neutrality systems . Human preferential systems cannot be examined adequately by the old methods of fact-finding objectively as statistical methods and observational methods, but the methods themselves and the instruments derived from them have to undergo a process of subjectification in order to return to the researcher endowed with a more profound objectivity, having gained a grasp of the social processes on the depth level . This new sociometric objectivity owes a great deal to sociomicroscopic studies . By sociomicroscopic configurations we do not mean only the informal small groups, but the dynamic social



units of which they are comprised, the pattern variants of social atoms, the clustering of social atoms into larger associations invisible to the eye of the human observer (social molecules), psychosocial networks, the clustering of numerous such networks into more comprehensive formations ; finally the study of dyads, triangles, quadrangles, pentagons, and chains of persons . We assumed that the study of these primary atomic structures of human relations is the preliminary and indispensable groundwork to most macrosociological investigations . Sociometry and Anthropology The real data of a sociometric anthropology have died with the people after a cultural system has perished . If the cultural system is still in existence, a sociometric method should be applied to it in order to tap the actual dynamic processes operating within it . A sociometrically oriented anthropologist studying the family system of a culture would utilize two guiding hypotheses : (1) the existence of "informal" group structures surrounding the official family setting like a social aura ; (2) the existence of "sub"-family forms of social . organizations, forms of association including various individuals and structural relations but which may have never crystallized . The micro-anthropologist may arrive at the generalization that there is a universal sociometric matrix with many varieties of structures underlying all known and potential family associations, an interweaving and crossing of numerous sociatomic and culturalatomic processes, but not necessarily identical with the family of one type or another as a social group . An interesting example of the sociometric approach to anthropology may be illustrated in the following example . Let us examine two different family cultural structures : (1) In an Islamic culture, a harem, consisting of twelve individuals of a single family unit, and (2) in our American setting a comparable group of twelve individuals organized into six family units of two . The Islamic group's official role structure may be identified as the male head of the household, six wives and five servants (eunuchs), comprising one household. The American group's official role structure may be identified as six husband-wife relationships com-



prising six families. The official institutional structures which exist externally within these two cultural systems are profoundly different from a structural point of view, due to the different dynamics of harem polygamy as compared to American monogamy . Each institutional setting imposes entirely different roles upon the individual members of the two different systems . Each system exhibits to the casual observer a considerable degree of stability and conformity to the official societal roles .

The application of sociometric techniques to the two different household systems revealed the following : in the harem sociogram the male household head is the center of all the female attractions . In the American sociogram one male is the center of all feminine attraction similar to the male household head of the harem . It is demonstrated that two diametrically opposed institutional structures, which externally present two entirely different "official" patterns may produce identically similar "sociometric" structures . This points out the sociometric-matrix which a microscopically oriented anthropology would reveal to the investigator . Sociometry turned the attention of the Psychologist, Sociologist and the Anthropologist away from marginal primitive social systems to the present societies in which they are participant actors as well as observers . The responsible domain of social science requires expansion to include the immediate and practical structuring and guidance of present day human society on all its levels from the physical up to the societal plane . This job may have to begin by cleaning up our research shelves and laboratories, and concentrating all our efforts upon a few strategically selected points . The weakest spot in the armor of present day society and culture is its ignorance of its own social structure, especially of the small local structures in which people actually spend their lives . The time has come for sociometry to move from the closed into the "open" community . By means of practical, direct and immediate demonstrations of the usefulness of the sociometric methods faith in science can be regained and cemented . By such means can science be "saved" and put to full use . With the cooperation of "all" the people we should be able to create a social order worthy of the highest aspirations of our times . This is the meaning of revolutionary, dynamic sociometry .


WHO SHALL SURVIVE? Sociometry and Economics

It is beyond the province of this discussion to deal with all the intricacies of modern economics and their relation to sociometry . This note on the relation of sociometry to Marxian economics is presented because of its importance within the framework of the dialectics of sociometry . Mankind cannot live from creativity, spontaneity and freedom alone ; it needs material foundations . There are three factors in general economics, 1) the natural resources (n), 2) the genesis of production (c) and 3) the finished product (p) . A great deal of emphasis has been placed, especially since Marxism entered the arena of economics, upon the question : "To whom does the finished product belong?" The capitalist says : "It belongs to me, I bought the machines, I bought the materials and I have hired the men and paid them wages for their labor ." The worker says "It belongs to us, the profits you make belong to us, they are the fruits of our labor . The machines you bought have been built by the labor of our comrades nearby, they belong to them . No one had a right to sell them to you, it was outright robbery, the contract between one capitalist and another, it is null and void . The factory here has been built by other comrades, it belongs rightly to them and to us" and so, on goes the argument, endlessly . But no one stops and thinks and asks the more fundamental question : "What are the forces underlying a universal system of creative economics?" In order to answer this question we have to analyze the situation before production begins, and define the locus and status nascendi preceding all production . What is it that is necessary to have on hand before production of goods is possible? First, there must be in existence the natural resources (n) of the planet, the mountains and the rivers, the mines in the depth of the earth and the unleashed elements of the atmosphere . They are there before they are touched by any labor, before they are discovered by any man and they would be there even if mankind would not exist . Next to the natural resources are the generators of production, the creative ideas (c) . They are the fountainhead of all technical and social inventions, of the instruments and the blueprints ; without them the processes of production could not be contemplated. Without creative ideas the most abundant natural resources of all the universe could go on for eternities unharnessed . Then there



is another factor in the genesis which must exist before any production can start . It is spontaneity, that all-pervasive plastic element which begins to warm up out imagination as soon as the natural resources and the creative idea meet . These three phenomena, natural resources, creativity and spontaneity pre-exist and condition the labor process . They belong to the universe . They do not belong to the capitalist class, they do not belong to the labor class, they do not belong to any particular individual or any particular group . They are universalia . What the worker puts into the process is his labor and the time which is spent working. (n+c+s=u ;1+g+t=h ;u+h=p) . (n is natural resources ; c is creativity ; s is spontaneity ; u is universe ; 1 is labor ; g is group ; t is time ; h is human ; p is product .) Marx, by reducing his analysis of merchandise and production to the part which labor puts into it, has left out, perhaps unconsciously, the deeper forces without which the labor process itself could not be realized . The capitalist as well as the Marxistic view of the labor process are both derivatives and functions of a more universal system of creative economics .

ONTOLOGY OF SOCIOMETRIC THEORY Every science refers to a constellation of facts and the means of their measurement . Without adequate means of how to discover the facts and without adequate means of measurement a science does not exist. The preliminary step in the development of every science is to realize the conditions under which the significant facts emerge . How to accomplish this differs from science to science. How to realize the conditions under which physical and biological facts emerge is comparatively well known . The problem of creating the conditions under which the significant facts of human relations emerge is far more complicated. It requires nothing short of a revolutionary method . The reasons why there should be such a great difference between the preliminaries required for the social sciences as compared with the physical sciences are not immediately obvious . In the physical sciences, since the subjects are inanimate, most of the emphasis has been



placed upon the mechanical, physical aspects of the situation . We do not expect the subjects, stone, water, fire, earth or planets, suns and stars to contribute anything themselves to the study of their own selves ; except in the mythologies, we do not ascribe to them any soul or personality, or at least, we do not do it anymore . Therefore, the metaphysical relations which might exist between the planets and stars, to each other, as mythological soulbearing actors, do not concern the science of physics . This problem does not change much when it comes to nonhuman organisms, e.g ., in experiments with rats, guinea pigs and the like . The social investigator, the one who sets up the experiment and interprets the data, is a human being and not a guinea pig or a rat . The rats or guinea pigs, so to speak, have no part in such experiments as actors in their own behalf . All such experimental designs are human designs and not designs of guinea pigs or rats . If a poetic mind a la Swift could describe how rats feel about each other and what the experiments which men make on them mean to them, it would probably be within our artistic comprehension but outside of our scientific comprehension. One could say here that we are trying to measure the behavior of rats as it "is" to us and not what rats feel it is, but this does not change the methodical difficulty which we encounter when we apply the same techniques of observation to the relationships of men among themselves . With animal societies one can take the stand that they are given and preordained, just like the individual animal organisms are, but human society is not automatically given and preordained. Although deeply related to physical and biological conditions, it has a structure whose creation and development is initiated and can be studied from within . The internal, material structure of the group is only in rare instances visible on the surface of social interaction ; and if it is so, no one knows for certain that the surface structure is the duplicate of the depth structure . In order, therefore, to produce conditions by means of which the depth structure may become visible-operationally-the "organisms" of the group have to turn into "actors ;" they have to emerge presently in behalf of a common goal, a point of reference (criterion), and the "environment" or "field" has to turn into specific, action-filled situations, charged with motivating provocations . As even our most minute



observations of the interaction may be incomplete, meaningless or useless to the actors, we must get our actors to act as they would when engaged in real living . The organism in the field becomes "the actor in situ ." Whole cultures can be "acted out" piecemeal in the experimental settings of axiodrama and sociodrama, with protagonists as creators and interpreters .

In undertaking research on the levels of warming up of the person it is profitable to view the process from the top down first is the actor, then the organism, and then the act . You cannot produce acts unless you have an organism, and you cannot make your organism productive unless it becomes an actor . You cannot study the actor in reverse if he is unable to act in reverse . You cannot study him but along the lines of his productivity emerging at the time of your study . If you induce him-for research reasons-to warm up in a direction for which he is not ready or which is contrary to his inclinations, you introduce an element o f artificiality into your "control" which cannot be ironed out adequately by inferential and logical argumentation . The human actor may lose his spontaneity in an instant, and a few moments later he may have a hard time to recall the experience during the act . In order to be adequate in a particular act he should begin to warm up as near to the act as possible and the experimenter ought to know when he begins to warm up . (Rule of the warming up process or active productivity .) In the warming up process of the group it is best to view all the coactors in situ and to view them in the direction of their productivity . In order to view them you have to move with them, but how can you move with them unless you, the experimenter, are a part of the movement, a coactor? The safest way to be in the warming up process yourself is to become a member of the group . (Rule of "coaction" of the researcher with group .) But by becoming a member of the group you are robbed of your role of the investigator who is to be outside of it, projecting, creating, and manipulating the experiment . You cannot be a genuine member and simultaneously a "secret agent" of the experimental method . The way out is to give every member o f the group "research status," to make them all experimenters and as each is carrying on his "own experiment" there are a hundred experiments and a coordination of each single experiment with every other is re-



quired. Sociometry is the sociology of the people, by the people, and for the people ; here this axiom is applied to social research itself . (Rule of universal participation in action .) But the experimenter, by giving up his identity-what has he gained for the logical part of his inquiry? At first sight it does not seem that he has gained anything . It does not seem that he can set up, in order to prove a hypothesis, two controlled contrasting situations more easily than he could before . But he has gained something he is having experience, experience in situ ; he is learning . As a dialectic movement toward a genuine socioexperimental method of the future he is making slow but real progress . Instead of hurrying to test a hypothesis by quickly constructing a control group versus an experimental group, a pseudo-experiment with pseudo-results, he takes his time for thinking his new situation through . A hypothesis might still be true although never validated, and vice versa . It is better to wait until it can be truly validated instead of unvalidated by validating it prematurely . As time goes on he may become better adjusted to his double role, since he shares it with every member of his group . But when he plans an experiment he may watch his step and not impose it too hastily on the group . Indeed, he should not assume the allures of an experimenter more than any other member. Living in the group he will soon discover that there is a deep discrepancy between the official and secret needs, official and secret value systems . (Rule of dynamic difference in group structure, peripheral versus central .) He will also soon discover that the individuals are driven at times by private, at other times by collective aspirations, which break up the group into another line of cleavage. (Group cleavage produced by psycho- and sociostructuring) . Before any experimental design or any social program is proposed he has to take into account the actual constitution of the group . In order to give every member adequate motivation to participate spontaneously, every participant should feel about the experiment that "it is his own cause, and not for the one who promotes the ideathe tester, the employer, or any other power agent ." As his learning expands to knowing how to bore with research ideas from within he may get the idea of being a member of two or more groups, one serving as a control of the other . This should not be an experiment of nature without the conscious participation of the actors,



but one consciously and systematically created and projected by the total group. All this, of course, could only happen if the warming up process of all human characters and all participating groups coalesce naturally into an experiment . (Rule of "gradual" inclusion of all extraneous criteria .) There are many steps and more barriers which a sensitive crew of coexperimenters might encounter on the way to a scientific utopia . However little or far they advance they never fool themselves and never fool others ; they prefer the "slow" dialectic process of the sociometric experiment in situ to social experiments which are based on inference and logic only or the social revolutions of mass action which do not know when to start and when to end .

THE STATUS OF SCIENCE AND THE HIERARCHY OF THE SCIENCES This leads us to a consideration of the position and meaning of science itself . The construction of a higher domain of inquiry, of a "superscience" which may be neither metaphysics nor religion, is a postulate of our critical faculties . Such an inquiry would have the task to explore the logical limits of science and should not reduce its authority . The chief attribute of science should be that it is always ready to study itself and to disagree with itself . Comte's Hierarchy of the Sciences, 1) mathematics, 2 ) astronomy, 3) physics, 4) chemistry, 5) biology, and 6) sociology, has become obsolete. His assumption that all sciences can be treated by the same basic methodology is an error . The social sciences need-at least in their crucial dimension-different methods of approach. The crux of the ontology of science is the status of the "research objects ." Their status is not uniform in all sciences . There is a group of sciences like astronomy, physics, chemistry and biology in which the research objects are always mere "objects ." Their actions speak for themselves and the generalizations concluded from them are not threatened by any metaphysical protest or social revolution of their kind . Then there is another group of sciences, the social sciences .



It is because of a chronic inertia in their development that sociometry has raised the question : how are social sciences possible f It has found that the social sciences like psychology, sociology and anthropology require that its objects be given "research status" and a certain degree of scientific authority in order to raise their level from a pseudo objective discipline to a science which operates on the highest level of its material dynamics. It accomplishes this aim by considering the research objects not only as objects but also as research actors, not only as objects of observation and manipulation but as co-scientists and coproducers in the experimental design they are going to set up . The differentiation between an organism-in-environment and an actor-in-situ is useful for the following reasons . The hom*ometrum shares the classification "organism" with all research objects which can be subjected to the same methods, observation, experimentation, comparison and historical study . But as actor in situ he is unique in the social sciences, not because of any particular superiority as compared with non-humans, only because of these new methods which make it possible for him to set up his own frames of reference, create his own experimental designs, and be able to use the conclusions drawn from them to enlarge his knowledge about his own society .

THEORY OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS The theory of interpersonal relations is based upon the "primary dyad," the idea and experience of the meeting of two actors, the concrete-situational event preliminary to all interpersonal relations . The limiting factor in the individual centered psychologies and mass centered sociologies is the non-presence of the "other actor ." The socius, except as an abstraction, it left out from direct contact, active combat and communication . The corrective for this dilemma-enhanced and produced by gadgets entering between, or robots taking the place of the actors -is the return to the original meeting, the event preceding but foreboding "zwischen-menschliche Beziehungen" or interpersonal relationships . The German "zwischen-menachlich" and the Eng-



lish "interpersonal" are anaemic notions compared with the living fact of "meeting" . They are the semantic end-products after many stages of intellectual distortions and blood letting for the sake of a technical term useful in scientific language . It is dangerous for science to forget the origin of words, especially of the key words in their own scientific vocabulary . The modern fear of language has resulted in semanticism ;-instead of compensating for itself by escape into less sensuous and less tangible logical symbols and algebraic formulae-it may find a saner way out by turning every key word they use back to its status nascendi.

"Meeting" means more than a vague interpersonal relation . It means that two or more actors meet, but not only to face one another, but to live and experience each other, as actors each in his own right, not like a "professional" contrived meeting, a caseworker or a physician or a participant observer and their clients characterized by the "unequal" status of the participants, but a meeting of two people . In a meeting the two persons are there in space, with all their strengths and all their weaknesses, two human actors seething with spontaneity only partly conscious of their mutual aims . Only people who meet one another can form a natural group and start an actual society of human beings . There are several dividing lines between sociometric and nonsociometric methodology, with regard to interpersonal relationships . The first dividing line is the distinction between one-way and two-way relations between actors . The one-way relation in itself, that is, separated from the actual or possible responses of other actors, is outside of the sociometric domain . One million individuals, each treated as a separate monad, each the source of innumerable outgoing relations, add up to a sum of individuals, but they do not form a unit of people, a group in a sociometric sense . Individuals as isolated organic units plus their one-way projections are study objects of the psychological and the sociopsychological disciplines . Sociometry separates from its immediate range of research activities all psychology of the single individual, psychometry, psychoanalysis, and the so-called projection techniques . They are sub-fields of psychology . Individuals with their one-way relations and projections are sociometric study objects only if they are viewed and analyzed as fragments or parts of a total human social structure .



The second dividing line between sociometric and non-sociometric methodology is the division between one-way role and twoway role relations. From the point of view of a psychologist for instance, a one-way relationship is the cardinal feature of the psychoanalytic situation . There is only one person for whom the role is made to order, the patient . If he would turn into an actor, stand up and assume the role of the analyst and fight with him, it would soon bring the meaning of the psychoanalytic situation to absurdity and to an end . But from the point of view of the meeting it would develop into something which is certainly more human and perhaps more salutary than a psychoanalytic situation -into a meeting between two people, each with his various roles and aspirations . It would develop into a dramatic encounter, a phenomenon which with some modifications I later called the psychodramatic situation . Looking backwards to my first book, it is now clear that from the idea of the meeting, the encounter between author and reader, preacher and follower, husband and wife, each in his "role," it was only a short step from putting them on a stage on which they can battle their relationship out, unhindered by the threats and anxieties of their real life situation . This is how the idea of the psychodrama was born . A third dividing line between sociometric and non-sociometric methodology is the emphasis upon the psycho-social organization of the group and the way it functions . Organization and function of a group appear to be closely related . An illustration is the relation of leadership to the organization of the group. The number of imposed "leaders" are few and remain unchanged as long as the boss is in power, or they are changed more or less arbitrarily . In spontaneously and democratically organized groups the leadership process is set free to express itself . Far more individuals are given a chance to take part in the leadership process and far more have an opportunity to function in leadership positions for a certain time . The fact that a larger number of individuals can take part in the leadership process, makes the struggle for leadership in a democracy far more violent and extensive than in a regimented society. A fear of leadership may suggest checks and balances against any leadership-in the name of democracy . Sociometric findings explain why there are often on the European continent schools in science, the arts and politics, each with a strong



leader on top . Feudal and autocratic societies encourage this type of structure . Strong leaders of more or less rigidly controlled groups of this kind cannot be easily unseated by spontaneous changes in the group . They maintain their power beyond the sociometric saturation point for their ruling . They provide good soil for cultism . On the North American continent the situation is quite different . A democratically minded society encourages the development of comparatively larger number of sects but leadership is weak, sub-leaders are preferred . Strong leadership does not develop so easily because it has more hindrances to overcome from within-many other individuals in the group are pressing for their own leadership position, the group being more spontaneously structured. A fourth dividing line between sociometric and non-sociometric methodology is the emphasis on measurement of interpersonal and intergroup relations . The empirical system of two-way relations introduced by sociometry marked a new phase in the development of the social sciences . Sociometry introduced an approach to the measurement of phenomena such as interpersonal relations, interrole relations, emotional currents, spontaneity and creativity, which had been considered in the past as outside of the domain of measurement .

The fifth dividing line between sociometric and non-sociometric methodology is the emphasis in sociometry upon the activated relation between the individual components (members) to the structure and the function of the .group ; in other words, the emphasis upon their spontaneity and the warming up process between them . There is no durable structure of a group if it does not correspond to its functioning and no function can be adequate if it is not upheld by the initiative and enthusiasm of the individual members . The idea of the meeting hides the seed of two concepts each at the opposite ends of a scale, the concept of spontaneity and the concept of the doll . An illustration is the relation between the author of a "book" and his reader . In the pre-book era the prophet, the forerunner of the author, could not help but meet his friends or followers face to face . But the reader is absent from the primary situation, the author can make him a helpless target . The same is in principle true about millions of radio listeners listening to a speaker. As in the case of readers, their "counter-



spontaneity" is reduced to a minimum, their opportunity to counter with their own spontaneities is made difficult or impossible. This situation is best symbolized by a doll which is exposed to the aggressiveness of a child . In the world of the infant the doll is the symbol for all human beings who are deprived of their spontaneity, or better, who are in a position of being unable to counter with it . Whereas the book is a representative of a cultural conserve, the doll, because of its intentional semblance to human beings or humanized animals, represents the mechanical being, the robot, the "zoomaton ." They are beings who can be loved and hated in excess and who cannot love or fight back, who can be destroyed without a murmur, in other words dolls are like individuals who have lost all their spontaneity . This dead-aliveness of the doll should become an earnest concern to parents and educators, as we are placing it not into a museum, but into the hands of our children . Dolls become their best comrades, memories to which they return in their adolescent phantasies . Toys such as dolls are inanimate objects and the child can create the roles of master and slave. The dolls cannot fight back if and when the child exerts his physical strength by mishandling or destroying the doll . This is contrary to the very principle of democracy . Children get used to "easy" spontaneity .

The difficulty can be surmounted. Our homes and nursery schools should replace many of their doll equipments by auxiliary egos, real individuals, who take the "part" of dolls . The individuals portraying doll roles and fantastic situations are trained to reduce their own and permit the child a greater amount of spontaneity than in real situations, but behind the doll playing subject there is a real, feeling person . The child will learn by the auxiliary ego technique what he cannot learn by the doll playing technique-that there are limits to the extremes of love just as well as to the extremes of hate .

The function of dolls in the early life of children must undergo a revision . I do not wish to warn against their discrete use . Their reckless application cannot be but harmful . Sociometry would be meaningless and could not be applied to a society of dolls . Every individual doll is isolated from the other . They do not form a social structure . It cannot be explored because it does not exist . In a human society the opposite is true . Because every individual



flows over with spontaneity, spontaneity flows between individuals . There is so much social structure that many essential parts cannot be seen . It cannot be explored but in the degree in which the spontaneous interest is aroused, and it cannot be changed but in the degree in which its participants cooperate in the project .

THE THEORY OF THE ATOM IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Human society has an atomic structure which is analogous to the atomic structure of matter . Atom is derived from a Greek word "atomos" meaning "any very small thing ." The term was introduced into scientific language by Democritos . He used it to indicate the smallest particles in the physical universe . Physicists have no priority on the terms ; many words introduced by early philosophers describing physical phenomena as gravitation, atom, attraction, saturation, have a poetic-symbolic character ; they are metaphors for psycho-social experiences and belong rightly in our social vocabulary, whence they have been taken . We may learn more about the meaning of atomic structure from sociometric studies than we ever learned from physics . There are two significant microscopic formations of the atom, the social atom and the cultural atom . Their existence has been brought to empirical test by means of social microscopy . A pattern of attractions, repulsions and indifferences can be discerned on the threshold between individual and group . This pattern is called the "social atom" . It is the smallest functional unit within the social group . Every person is positively or negatively related to an indefinite number of socii, who in turn may be related to him positively or negatively . Besides these two-way relations there are one-way relations observable. Some socii are related to the central person and unknown to him, and he may be related to some socii unknown to them. It is this total configuration which comprises the social atom . An individuall has from birth a structure of relationships around him, mother, father, grandmother and other members of his early environment . The volume of the social atom



is in continuous expansion as we grow up ; it is within it that we live most concretely. Every individual, just as he is the focus of numerous attractions and repulsions, also appears as the focus of numerous roles which are related to the roles of other individuals . Just as he has at all times a set of friends and a set of enemies, he also has a range of roles and a range of counter-roles . They are in various stages of development . The tangible aspects of what is known as "ego" are the roles in which he operates . The focal pattern of role-relations around an individual is called his cultural atom. We are here coining a new term, "cultural atom", since we know of no other which expressed this peculiar phenomenon of role relationships . Obviously, the term is selected as an analogue to the term "social atom" . The use of the word "atom" here can be justified if we consider a cultural atom as the smallest functional unit within a cultural pattern . The adjective "cultural" can be justified when we consider roles and relationships between roles as the most significant development within any specific culture . The socioatomic organization of a group cannot be separated from its cultural-atomic organization . The social and cultural atom are manifestations of the same social reality .

SOCIOMETRIC FRAMES OF REFERENCE There is some confusion in sociometric work in regard to the frames of reference . The experiences, feelings, choices and decisions of the individuals forming a certain social aggregate are one class of facts to which we refer . They are a psychological frame of reference . The social situations-families, churches, industrial units-in which these social aggregates take part are another class of facts to which we refer. They are a sociological frame of reference . Similarly, a cultural frame of reference, a biological frame of reference, an ecological frame of reference and others can be discerned as affecting social structure . Methodical scrutiny shows that none of these classes of facts is separable from another . The facts that belong to these realms are raw, preparatory materials, but not the frame of sociometric



reference itself . The reference which is sociometrically valid is the composite of individual and symbolic responses which represents the living social aggregates, into the weaving of which many factors have contributed .

It is undeniable that the social configurations as portrayed in our sociograms are elementary and rough in texture compared with the complex relationships, rhythms and tempos operating within a living social aggregate. With the devising of new sociometric techniques and with the improvement of the present instruments, the more subtle and more mature processes the economic milieu, the religious milieu, the cultural milieu, which operate within social aggregates-will be made increasingly comprehensible. It is our contention that these entities, economy, religion, or culture, whatever the logic of their existence may be, cannot be so impersonal as to exist independent of the societies in which the persons actually think, live and act . These processes must express themselves within living social aggregates although their interaction may be more difficult to trace . It is to the comprehension of these richly textured, integrated and fully matured configurations that sociometric work aspires . As the object of sociometric study is not a single series of data, a series of psychological data, a series of sociological data, of cultural or biological data, but the whole configuration in which they are interwoven, the ultimate sociometric frame of reference could be neither of these series of data exclusively, but the social configurations in which they are interwoven as a whole . Sociometrically Oriented Experimental Method The experimental method in science was given its authoritative formulation by John Stuart Mill, whose system of logic owes many valuable thoughts to Comte . The model of how the findings of the social sciences should be validated was taken by Mill from the physical sciences . He came to the exasperating conclusion that the experimental method cannot be applied to the social sciences, their subject matter being too complex . The question raised here is whether he did not start with a false premise, whether the model he held authorita-



tively before the social sciences was not the wrong one . In the generation when the two theorists, Comte and Mill constructed their universal systems of experimental method Karl Marx was busy building his own . His system had a different slant . He was a theorist and a thinker of practice . One who is versed in sociometric methods could venture to say that he was unconsciously following a model of experimental method more indigenous to the social sciences, a model of social actors in a world of action . But there is no trace to be found of the Marxistic kind of logic in the system of logic of Mill . It should not be implied here that Marx was interested in experimental method per se. He was not interested in the type of precision and validation for which the experimental method stands . But he was interested in significant methods which work in practice and are borne out by "experiments of nature." The experimental method should, therefore, discern two parts,

a material part and a logical part . Mill's canon deals exclusively

with the logical part, or as he calls them, the methods of experimental inquiry . They were designed to be methods of discovering causal connections and methods of conclusive proof . He differentiated between the method of agreement, the method of difference, the joint method of agreement and difference, the method of concomitant variation and the method of residues . It is due to the apparently invincible pathos of the logical expose of the experimental methods that they have become sacred to all worshippers of science. They rest on the dogma of the uniformity of nature or, in Mill's own words, "There are such things in nature as parallel cases, that what happens once, will, under a sufficient degree of similarity of circ*mstances, happen again ." The uniformity of nature, he says, is the "ultimate major premise of all inductions ." The logical aspects of experimentation have been stressed abundantly, from Francis Bacon to Mill and up to our own time ; the material part has been so sadly neglected that the development of the social sciences has been seriously crippled and with it the possibility of providing the total of human society with more rigorous and adequate instruments of social change than are available . It has become, therefore, an important task of the sociological thought of our own century to correct the most



flagrant error of methodical insight which has made social research trivial and confusing while deteriorating its outlook . The experimental situation in its broadest meaning consists of three phases : (a) the material part, that is, the matter for whose study an experiment is designed ; (b) the logical part, that is, the methods constructed in order to test the validity of an hypothesis or of a universal law ; and (c) the relationship between the material of the experiment and the logico-experimental part of the procedure . In the physical sciences and, to a degree, in the biological sciences the material target of the experimental method does not matter so much as in the social sciences . The dynamic logic of social relations is particularly intricate and has remained unconscious with Man because of his maximal proximity and involvement in his own situation . For millennia, therefore, the activities of human society have been a greater mystery to him than every other part of the universe . Because of their greater distance from him he could see the movement of the stars and planets, or the life of the plants and animals more objectively . It takes enormous sacrifice and discipline to view and accept himself as he is as an individual man, the structure of the individual psyche, its psycho-dynamics ; but the degree of invisibility of the structure of human society, of its sociodynamics is much greater than that of the single individual . The effort of becoming objective toward the socius encounters many more obstacles than to be objective toward his own individual mind . The involvement of the ego he can still grasp, perhaps he can pretend to know it because it operates within him . The involvements of the socius, however, he cannot pretend to know as it operates outside of him, but it is an outside to which he is inescapably tied . Science of Action A science of action rests upon the fundamental difference between the world of organism and the world of actors, the organism-in-environment versus the actors in situ . The organism is an abstraction, an abstraction from the actor, and behavior is an abstraction, an abstraction from the act . We should keep, for methodological reasons, the actorial system of the human group distinct from its behavioral system . A science of action which postulates that organism equals actor



and behavior equals action is a science of action in name only . The equalization of actor and organism is not merely a matter of semantics, it is a perversion of significant terms and further a crucial block in the advancement of an experimental methodology in the social sciences . How does a social experiment start? It does not start with organisms, behaviors and cathexes ; such is the view of observers and spectators . It starts with "you" and "me," with meetings and encounters, with actors and counteractors . It does not start with "he" and "she," with "interpersonal relations" and the world of the "outsiders ." A science of action begins with two verbs,-to be and to create, and with three nouns, actors, spontaneity and creativity . A collective of actors has a different meaning than a collectivity of organisms, it is a "we," not a "they," it is a "creatocracy," not a universe of interacting organisms. It is urgent that the relation between organism and behavior on one hand and between actor and action on the other be clearly differentiated . The actor's "actings out" and the "data" or interpretations of the obsever should not be treated as if they were identical-they may be supplementary but they are not identical. An actionn matrix registers acts and events . A behavior matrix registers "observations" o f acts and events . The actor must become an observer of himself and an actor towards the observer, i.e ., the observer must become an actor towards the observed and an observer of himself ; one must co-act with the other, a meeting is taking place . In an ongoing socio-psychodrama the subjective view of the actor and the objective view of the co-actor are one, they are on the same plane . Indeed, as alter or auxiliary egos to each other on the plane of action the degree of their reciprocal subjectivities and objectivities are continuously in a process of mixture ; A acts towards B, B acts towards A ; A observes himself as he acts towards B, B observes himself as he acts towards A ; A observes A, B observes B ; A observes A and B, B observes B and A ; A acts towards C, A acts towards B and C, C acts towards B and A, etc . A genuine theory of action and actors deals with actorial categories and interaction potentials like spontaneity, creativity, the warm up, the moment, the meeting, alter or auxiliary ego and other categories which express the coexperiential level of an actor's world on the level of action. The actorial system is based on a consensus which exists only



within the collectivity of actors . This secret, internal consensus can be "objectified" with the research aid of the actors and used by the observers of the behavior of such a collectivity of actors to supplement and amplify the system they are developing from behavioral cues . Frequently even the aid of the actors is not sufficient, the observers have to become "subjectified" and to turn into members of the actorial collectivity themselves in order to get the cues from the inside, from their own existential participation in the process . The collectivity of actors is also not identical with the point of view of any individual actors, just as the collectivity of interacting organisms is not identical with the behavior of any individual organism. A total systematization of a theory of action as a social system is a formidable task but it requires, before theorizing, some existential prerequisite, for instance, a living and reflecting through a long series o f psychoand sociodramatic sessions, dealing with a variety o f socio-cultural contexts. A psychoanalytic experience on a couch is not sufficient . The theoretical god has to come down from his high horse and become a co-actor, either on the sociodramatic or on the "socio" existential level . A system of personality-of society and culture cannot emerge without being founded on a theory of spontaneity and creativity . Theory of Roles* Every role is a fusion of private and collective elements ; it is composed of two parts, its collective denominators and its individual differentials. It may be useful to differentiate between role-taking-which is the taking of a finished, fully established role which does not permit the individual any variation, any degree of freedom-role playing-which permits the individual some degree of freedom-and role creating-which permits the individual a high degree of freedom, as for instance, the spontaneity player. The tangible aspects o f what is known as "ego" are the roles in which it operates. Roles and relationships between roles are the most significant development within any specific culture . Working with the "role" as a point of reference appears to be a methodological advantage as compared with "personality" or "ego ." These are less concrete and wrapped up in metapsychological mystery. * See also "Two Schools of Role Theory," p . 688-691.



Role emergence is prior to the emergence of the self . Roles do not emerge from the self, but the self may emerge from roles . The hypothesis upheld by many that the genesis of role emergence and the genesis of language are one and the same is not tenable according to experimental role research . Long before languagelinked roles emerge in the child's world, "psychosomatic roles" operate effectively (for instance, the role of the eater, the sleeper and the walker) . There is considerable psychic resistance against the intrusion of language in infants and even some resistance against gestural infiltration . There is no reason to assume that the language-free areas are non-human . There is overwhelming evidence that these silent areas are co-existent with the vocal ones on the human level and have great potentialities for independent growth . There may be forms of social communication without gestural involvement . The tele phenomenon operates in all dimensions of communication and it is therefore an error to reduce it to a mere reflection and correspondent of the communication process via language . The roles of the mother, the son, the daughter, the teacher, the negro, the Christian, etc ., are social roles ; the roles of a mother, a teacher, a Negro, a Christian, etc ., are psychodramatic roles . The term role itself comes from the language of the stage . Role playing may be considered as an experimental procedure, a method of learning to perform roles more adequately. The present popularity of the term and concept derives from the value it has proven to have as a training device in various social, occupational and vocational activities, and resulted from the initiative which the author has taken in developing them . It is through the study of roles in action that new knowledge about roles developed . In contrast with role playing, role taking is an attitude already frozen in the behavior of the person. Role playing is an act, a spontaneous playing ; role taking is a finished product, a role conserve . A simple method of measuring roles is to use as a norm permanently established processes which do not permit any change, role conserves like Shakespeare's Hamlet or Othello, Goethe's Faust or Byron's Don Juan. If a number of performers are given the instruction to use the Hamlet text either literally as it is given by Shakespeare, or to change it freely in the course of the performance, some will prefer the original text, others may ad lib



into the text smaller or major changes . These deviations represent the degrees of freedom of the particular performer which can be ascribed to the operation of an s factor . Their additions or substitutions may be within or far below the Shakespearean level of expression . A scale of Hamlet versions would result, the original Shakespeare version being on one end of the scale, a fully transformed personalized text on the other . Another method of measurement uses as norms social roles which are rigidly prescribed by social and legalistic customs and forms. Illustrations for this are social roles as the policeman, the judge, the physician and so forth . They are roles or social stereotypes and differ from role conserves as the sequence of situations, the text of their speeches, are not rigidly outlined . No Shakespeare has written "their" lines and actions in advance. A varying degree of spontaneity is permitted, indeed, it is expected from them . A policeman, for instance, may be required to represent the authority of the law in every situation into which he enters, but he may be required to act differently in varying situations . In fact, without some degree of spontaneity his words and actions may have fatal consequences for him and his fellow citizens . Placing a number of policemen, therefore, into a number of standard life situations which require their interference would result in a scale . On one end of the scale will be the most adequate policeman performance in a particular situation, on the other end the most inadequate performance in the same kind of situation . Another method of measurement is to let a subject develop a role in statu nascendi, placing him into a situation which is little structured, up to situations which are highly organized. The productions of different subjects will differ greatly and will provide us with a yardstick for role measurement . Another method of measurement is to place a number of subjects unacquainted with each other into a situation which they have to meet in common . Illustration : six men of equal military rank are camping. Suddenly they see an enemy parachutist landing in the nearby forest . They have to act on the spur of the moment . A jury watches to see how the group grows in statu nascendi : it may discern a) what relationships develop between the six men ; who is taking the initiative in the first phase, in the intermediate phases, in the final phase of their interaction. Who



emerges as the "leader?" b) What action do they take towards the enemy? c) How is the situation ended and by whom? Another method is to place a number of subjects in a specific role independently and at different times, opposite the sane auxiliary ego, whose performance has been carefully prepared and highly objectified . He, the ego, can then be an instrument which measures the variations of response coming from the subjects tested . Yet another method is the study of the same role, for instance the role of the stranger, in a number of different situations . A subject taking this role is for instance first placed vis a vis a girl who happens to be his neighbor in a train ; later accosting her on the street . At a still later stage proposing marriage to a girl of a different ethnic background, and finally being fired from his job after several years of dutiful service because of his race . This series would permit the development of a scale in reference to the same role, for instance, stranger, son, worker, and so forth .

There is a consensus in all studies made that role taking and role playing have a common origin . The genesis of role development shows clearly how one grows out of the other, that role playing and role taking are two phases of the same process . It has been found in hundreds of tryouts that the process of role taking is not only cognitive and that, on the other hand, the process of role playing is not only behavior or mere acting, but that cognition, perception, behavior and action are finely interwoven and cannot be neatly separated . There are enactable and unenactable roles ; recognized and unrecognized roles ; enactment of roles before the level of their recognition ; recognition of roles before the level of their enactment ; adequate, distorted, partial and loss of role perception ; adequate, distorted, partial and inability of role enactment . There is often a discrepancy between the assessment of role behavior by observers and the assessment of such roles in action by the actors and co-actors themselves . However much taken and frozen a role has become and however much integrated it is into the perception and behavior of a certain individual, there is a weak spot in its armor ; in order to emerge in a certain moment it must pass (a) through a process of warming up, however minimal, in which the whole organism is involved, (b) a process of mimetic learning as to how



to take the role of the other-however "generalized" this "other" may be . The individual represents every time a slightly different version ; this is not possible without some minimal playing towards the role, gradually learning and struggling to approximate ithowever fragmentary, rudimentary and embryonic this role playing process might be. Role acting and role perception, role playing and role taking go hand in hand in the primary learning and conditioning process . In situ they cannot be separated . The Social Trichotomy It is of heuristic value to differentiate the social universe into three tendencies or dimensions, the external society, the sociometric matrix and the social reality . By external society I mean all tangible and visible groupings, large or small, formal or informal, of which human society consists . By the sociometric matrix I mean all sociometric structures invisible to the macroscopic eye but which become visible through the sociometric process of analysis . By social reality I mean the dynamic synthesis and interpenetration of the two . It is obvious that neither the matrix nor the external are real or can exist by themselves, one is a function of the other. As dialectic opposites they must merge in some fashion in order to produce the actual process of social living . The dynamic reason for this split is the underground existence of innumerable social constellations which impinge continuously upon external society, whose structure may vary from one cultural order to another, partly in an effort towards its disintegration, partly in an effort towards their realization and, last not least, because of the resistance which external society puts up against its substitution or change. As the profound and chronic conflict between these two tendencies is never fully resolved, the result is a synthesis in the form of what may be called the "social reality" . A position which has become axiomatic for sociometrists until proven otherwise is that the official (external) society and the sociometric (internal) matrix are not identical . The one is visible to the senses, it is macroscopic, the other is invisible, it is microscopic. In the sense of this dichotomy all groupings, whether as rigidly formalized and collectivized as an army or a church, or as casual and transitory as a meeting of people on a street-



corner, they belong, as long as they are visible to the naked macroscopic eye, to the externally structured society . One can not assume in advance that the sociogram of an army platoon, for instance, is radically different from the official structure of the platoon, rigidly imposed upon the men, or that the sociogram of a casual gathering on a streetcorner is equal or nearly equal to the actually visible formation . It is possible that in certain cultures, widely divergent from our own, the sociogram of a rigid social institution is identical with its actual social structure on the reality level. It is therefore methodically of utmost importance not to mix the sociometric position which is neutral (or let us say as neutral as possible) with the social order just existing and passing. Sociometry is equally applicable to every type of society which has emerged in the past or which might emerge in the future . The structure of the external society is comparatively easy to describe . It consists of visible, overt and observable groups ; it is made up of all the groups recognized by law as legitimate, of all the groups rejected by law as illegitimate, as well as of all the neutral groups permitted, although unclassified and unorganized . The shortest way to obtain a picture of the legitimate groups is to use the system of law ruling a particular society as a guide . In order to obtain a picture of the illegitimate groupings excursions into the underworld are effective . Illustrations of legitimate groups are : the family, the workshop, the school, the army or the church . Illustrations of informal and illegitimate groups are the casual encounter of two, the crowd, the mass, the mob, the streetcorner gangs or criminal rackets . The structure of the sociometric matrix is more difficult to recognize . Special techniques called sociometric are necessary to unearth it ; as the matrix is in continuous dynamic change the techniques have to be applied at regular intervals so as to determine the newly emerging social constellations . The sociometric matrix consists of various constellations, tele, the atom, the superatom or molecule (several atoms linked together), the "socioid" which may be defined as a cluster of atoms linked together with other clusters of atoms via inter-personal chains or networks ; the socioid is the sociometric counterpart of the external structure of a social group ; it is rarely identical with what a social group externally shows because parts of its social atoms and chains may



extend into another socioid . On the other hand, some of the external structure of a particular social group may not make sense configuratively as a part of a particular socioid but may belong to a socioid hidden within a different social group . Other constellations which can be traced within a sociometric matrix are psychosocial networks . There are in addition large sociodynamic categories which are frequently mobilized in political and revolutionary activities ; they consist of the interpenetration of numerous socioids and represent the sociometric counterpart of "social class" as bourgeoisie or proletariat ; they can be defined as sociometric structure of social classes or as "classoids" . The social reality itself is the dynamic interweaving of and interaction of the sociometric matrix with the outer, external society. The sociometric matrix does not exist by itself, just as the outer society does not exist by itself ; the latter is continuously pushed and pulled by the structure underneath . Within a sociometric system we distinguish therefore three processes, the outer reality of society, the internal reality of the sociometric matrix and the social reality itself, the historically growing, dynamic social groupings of which the actual social universe consists . If one knows the structure of the official society and the sociometric matrix he can recognize the bits and pieces which enter from the two dimensions into the synthesized forms of social reality . Social conflict and tension increases in direct proportion to the sociodynamic difference between official society and sociometric matrix .


Drama is a transliteration of the Greek $Pocua which means action, or a thing done . Psychodrama can be defined, therefore, as the science which explores the "truth" by dramatic methods . It deals with inter-personal relations and private worlds . The psychodramatic method uses mainly five instruments-the stage, the subject or actor, the director, the staff of therapeutic



aides or auxiliary egos, and the audience . The first instrument is the stage . Why a stage? It provides the actor with a living space which is multi-dimensional and flexible to the maximum . The living space of reality is often narrow and restraining, he may easily lose his equilibrium. On the stage he may find it again due to its methodology of freedom-freedom from unbearable stress and freedom for experience and expression . The stage space is an extension of life beyond the reality test of life itself . Reality and fantasy are not in conflict, but both are functions within a wider sphere-the psychodramatic world of objects, persons and events . In its logic the ghost of Hamlet's father is just as real and permitted to exist as Hamlet himself . Delusions and hallucinations are given flesh-embodiment on the stage-and an equality of status with normal sensory perceptions . The architectural design of the stage is made in accord with operational requirements. Its circular forms and levels of the stage, levels of aspiration, pointing out the vertical dimension, stimulate relief from tensions and permit mobility and flexibility of action . The locus of a psychodrama, if necessary, may be designated everywhere, wherever the subjects are, the field of battle, the classroom or the private home . The ultimate resolution of deep mental conflicts requires an objective setting, the psychodramatic theatre . The second instrument is the subject or actor . He is asked to be himself on the stage, to portray his own private world . He is told to be himself, not an actor, as the actor is compelled to sacrifice his own private self to the role imposed upon him by a playwright . Once he is warmed up to the task it is comparatively easy for the subject to give an account of his daily life in action, as no one is as much of an authority on himself as himself . He has to act freely, as things rise up in his mind ; that is why he has to be given freedom of expression, spontaneity. Next in importance to spontaneity comes the process of enactment . The verbal level is transcended and included in the level of action. There are several forms of enactment, pretending to be in a role, re-enactment or acting out a past scene, living out a problem presently pressing, creating life on the stage or testing oneself for the future . Further comes the principle of involvement . We have been brought up with the idea that, in test as well as in treatment situations, a minimum of involvement with other persons and



objects is a most desirable thing for the subject . In the psychodramatic situation all degrees of involvement take place, from a ninimum to a maximum . In addition comes the principle of .ealization . The subject is enabled not only to meet parts of himself, but the other persons who partake in his mental conflicts . These persons may be real or illusions . The reality test which is a mere word in other methods is thus actually made true on the stage. The warming up process of the subject to psychodramatic portrayal is stimulated by numerous techniques, only a few of which are mentioned here : self presentation, soliloquy, projection, interpolation of resistance, reversal of roles, double ego, mirror techniques, auxiliary world, realization and psycho-chemical techniques. The aim of these sundry techniques is not to turn the subjects into actors, but rather to stir them up to be on the stage what they are, more deeply and explicitly than they appear to be in life reality . The patient has as dramatis personae either the real people of his private world, his wife, his father, his child, etc ., or actors portraying them, auxiliary egos . The third instrument is the director . He has three functions : producer, counsellor and analyst . As producer he has to be on the alert to turn every clue which the subject offers into dramatic action, to make the line of production one with the life line of the subject, and never to let the production lose rapport with the audience . As director attacking and shocking the subject is at times just as permissible as laughing and joking with him ; at times he may become indirect and passive and for all practical purposes the session seems to be run by the subject . As analyst he may complement his own interpretation by responses coming from informants in the audience, husband, parents, children, friends or neighbors . The fourth instrument is a staff of auxiliary egos . These auxiliary egos or participant actors have a double significance . They are extensions of the director, exploratory and guiding, but they are also extensions of the subject, portraying the actual or imagined personae of their life drama . The functions of the auxiliary ego are threefold : the function of the actor, portraying roles required by the subject's world ; the function of the counsellor, guiding the subject ; and the function of the social investigator.



The fifth instrument is the audience . The audience itself has a double purpose . It may serve to help the subject or, being itself helped by the subject on the stage, the audience becomes the problem . In helping the subject it is a sounding board of public opinion . Its responses and comments are as extemporaneous as those of the subject, they may vary from laughter to violent protest . The more isolated the subject is, for instance, because his drama on the stage is shaped by delusions and hallucinations, the more important becomes, to him, the presence of an audience which is willing to accept and understand him . When the audience is helped by the subject, thus becoming the subject itself, the situation is reversed . The audience sees itself, that is, one of its collective syndromes portrayed on the stage . In any discussion of psychodrama the important dynamics which operate should be considered . In the first phase of psychodramatic process the director may meet with some resistance from the subject . In most cases the resistance against being psychodramatized is small or nil . Once a subject understands the degree to which the production is of his own making he will cooperate . The fight between director and subject is in the psychodramatic situation extremely real ; to an extent they have to assess each other like two battlers, facing each other in a situation of great stress and challenge . Each of them have to draw spontaneity and cunning from their resources . Positive factors which shape the relationship and interaction in the reality of life itself exist : spontaneity, productivity, the warming up process, tele and role processes . The psychodramatist, after having made so much ado to get the subject started, recedes from the scene ; frequently he does not take any part in it, at times he is not even present . From the subject's point of view his object of transference, the director, is pushed out of the situation . The retreat of the director gives the subject the feeling that he is the winner . Actually it is nothing but the preliminary warm up before the big bout. To the satisfaction of the subject other persons enter into the situation, persons who are nearer to him, like his delusions and hallucinations . He knows them so much better than this stranger, the director . The more they are in the picture the more he forgets him and the director wants to be forgotten, at least for the time being . The



dynamics of this forgetting can be easily explained . Not only does the director leave the scene of operation, the auxiliary egos step in and it is between them that his share of tele, transference and empathy is divided . In the course of the production it becomes clear that transference is nothing by itself, but the pathological portion of a universal factor, tele, operating in the shaping and balancing of all interpersonal relations . As the subject takes part in the production and warms up to the figures and figureheads of his own private world he attains tremendous satisfactions which take him far beyond anything he has ever experienced ; he has invested so much of his own limited energy in the images of his perceptions of father, mother, wife, children, as well as in certain images which live a foreign existence within him, delusions and hallucinations of all sort, that he has lost a great deal of spontaneity, productivity and power for himself . They have taken his riches away and he has become poor, weak and sick . The psychodrama gives back to him all the investments he had made in the extraneous adventures of his mind . He takes his father, mother, sweethearts, delusions and hallucinations unto himself and the energies which he has invested in them, they return by actually living through the role of his father or his employer, his friends or his enemies ; by reversing the roles with them he is already learning many things about them which life does not provide him . When he can be the persons he hallucinates, not only do they lose their power and magic spell over him but he gains their power for himself. His own self has an opportunity to find and reorganize itself, to put the elements together which may have been kept apart by insidious forces, to integrate them and to attain a sense of power and of relief, a "catharsis of integration" (in difference from a catharsis of abreaction) . It can well be said that the psychodrama provides the subject with a new and more extensive experience of reality, a "surplus" reality, a gain which at least in part justifies the sacrifice he made by working through a psychodramatic production. The next phase in psychodrama comes into play when the audience drama takes the place of the production . The director vanished from the scene at the end of the first phase ; now the production itself vanishes and with it the auxiliary egos, the good helpers and genii who have aided him so much in gaining a new



sense of power and clarity . The subject is now divided in his reactions ; on one hand he is sorry that it is all gone, on the other he feels cheated and mad for having made a sacrifice whose justification he does not see completely . The subject becomes dynamically aware of the presence of the audience . In the beginning of the session he was angrily or happily aware of it . In the warming up of the production he became oblivious of its existence but now he sees it again, one by one, strangers and friends . His feelings of shame and guilt reach their climax . However, as he was warming up to the production the audience before him was warming up too . But when he came to an end they were just beginning . The tele-empathy-transference complex undergoes a third realignment of forces ; it moves from the stage to the audience, initiating among the audio-egos intensive relations . As the strangers from the group begin to rise and relate their feelings as to what they have learned from the production, he gains a new sense of catharsis, a group catharsis ; he has given love and now they are giving love back to him. Whatever his psyche is now, it was moulded originally by the group ; by means of the psychodrama it returns to the group and now the members of the audience are sharing their experiences with him as he has shared his with them . The description would not be complete if we would not discuss briefly the role which the director and the egos play in the warm up of the session . The theoretical principle of psychodrama is that the director acts directly upon the level of the subject's spontaneity -obviously it makes little difference to the operation whether one calls the subject's spontaneity his "unconscious"-that the subject enters actually the areas of objects and persons, however confused and fragmented, to which his spontaneous energy is related . He is not satisfied, like the analyst, to observe the subject and translate symbolic behavior into understandable, scientific language ; he enters as a participant-actor, armed with as many hypothetic insights as possible, into the spontaneous activities of the subject, to talk to him in the spontaneous languages of signs and gestures, words and actions which the subject has developed . Psychodrama does not require a theatrical setting, a frequent misunderstanding ; it is done in situ-that is, wherever the subject is found. According to psychodramatic theory a considerable part of the



psyche is not language-ridden, it is not infiltrated by the ordinary, significant language symbols . Therefore, bodily contact with subjects, if it can be established, touch caress, embrace, hand shake, sharing in silent activities, eating, walking or other activities, are an important preliminary to psychodramatic work itself . Bodily contact, body therapy and body training continue to operate in the psychodramatic situation . An elaborate system of production techniques has been developed by means of which the director and his auxiliary egos push themselves into the subject's world, populating it with figures extremely familiar to him, with the advantage, however, that they are not delusionary but half imaginary, half real. Like good and bad genii they shock and upset him at times, at other times they surprise and comfort him. He finds himself, as if trapped, in a near-real world . He sees himself acting, he hears himself speaking, but his actions and thoughts, his feelings and perceptions do not come from him, they come, strangely enough, from another person, the psychodramatist, and from other persons, the auxiliary egos, the doubles and mirrors o f his mind . SOCIODRAMA

Sociodrama has been defined as a deep action method dealing with inter-group relations and collective ideologies . The procedure in the development of a sociodrama differs in many ways from the procedure which I have described as psychodramatic . In a psychodramatic session, the attention of the director and his staff are centered upon the individual and his private problems . As these are unfolded before a group, the spectators are affected by the psychodramatic acts in proportion to the affinities existing between their own context of roles, and the role context of the central subject . Even the so-called group approach in psychodrama is in the deeper sense individual-centered. The audience is organized in accord with a mental syndrome which all participating individuals have in common, and the aim of the director is to reach every individual in his own sphere, separated from the other. He is using the group approach only to reach actively more than one individual in the same session . The group approach in psychodrama is concerned with a group of private individuals, which makes the group itself, in a



sense, private . Careful planning and organizing the audience is here indispensable because there is no outward sign indicating which individual suffers from the same mental syndrome and can share the same treatment situation . The true subject of a sociodrama is the group . It is not limited by a special number of individuals, it can consist of as many persons as there are human beings living anywhere, or at least of as many as belong to the same culture . Sociodrama is based upon the tacit assumption that the group formed by the audience is already organized by the social and cultural roles which in some degree all the carriers of the culture share . It is therefore incidental who the individuals are, or of whom the group is composed, or how large their number is . It is the group as a whole which has to be put upon the stage to work out its problem, because the group in sociodrama corresponds to the individual in psychodrama . Sociodrama, therefore, in order to become effective, has to assay the difficult task of developing deep action methods, in which the working tools are representative types within a given culture and not private individuals . Catharsis in the sociodrama differs from catharsis in the psychodrama . The psychodramatic approach deals with personal problems principally and aims at personal catharsis ; the sociodramatic approach deals with social problems and aims at social catharsis . The concept underlying this approach is the recognition that man is a role player, that every individual is characterized by a certain range of roles which dominate his behavior, and that every culture is characterized by a certain set of roles which it imposes with a varying degree of success upon its membership . The problem is how to bring a cultural order to view by dramatic methods. Even if full information could be attained by observation and analysis, it has become certain that observation and analysis are inadequate tools for exploring the more sophisticated aspects of inter-cultural relations, and that deep action methods are indispensable. Moreover, the latter have proven to be of indisputable value and unreplaceable because they can, in the form of the sociodrama, explore as well as treat in one stroke, the conflicts which have arisen between two separate cultural orders, and at the same time, by the same action, undertaking to change



the attitude of the members of one culture versus the members of the other . Furthermore, it can reach large groups of people, and by using radio or television it can affect millions of local groups and neighborhoods, in which inter-cultural conflicts and tensions are dormant or in the initial phases of open warfare . Therefore, the potentialities of drama research and role research for giving clues to methods by which public opinion and attitudes can be influenced or changed are still unrecognized and unresolved . ROLE TEST AND ROLEPLAYING

The role test measures the role behavior of an individual ; it reveals thereby the degree of differentiation which a specific culture has attained within an individual, and his interpretation of this culture . The role range of an individual stands for the inflection of a given culture into the personalities belonging to it . As the intelligence test measures the mental age of an individual, the role test can measure his cultural age . The ratio between the chronological age and the cultural age of an individual may then be called his cultural quotient . The set of roles used for the test may vary from one community to another, and more drastically, from one culture to another . The selection of the roles to be tested is of crucial importance, because if the roles of which the set consists are only incidental to the life of that particular community, no true picture of the individual's role behavior and potentialities can be attained . Therefore, the point is to select such roles which are truly representative and operative in the community in which the testees live . GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY

The late arrival of group psychotherapy has a plausible explanation when we consider the development of modern psychiatry out of somatic medicine . The premise of scientific medicine has been since its origin that the locus of physical ailment is within an individual organism . Therefore, treatment is applied to the locus of the ailment as designated by diagnosis . The physical disease with which an individual A is afflicted does not require the collateral treatment of A's wife, his children and friends . If A suffers from



an appendicitis and an appendectomy is indicated, only the appendix of A is removed, no one thinks of the removal of the appendix of A's wife and children too . When in budding psychiatry scientific methods began to be used, axioms gained from physical diagnosis and treatment were automatically applied to mental disorders as well. The premise prevailed that there is no locus of ailment beyond the individual, that there is, for instance, no group situation which requires special diagnosis and treatment . Although, during the first quarter of our century, there was occasional disapproval of this exclusive, individualistic point of view, it was more silent than vocal, coming from anthropologists and sociologists particularly . The decisive turn came with the development of sociometric and psychodramatic methodology .

When the locus of therapy changes from the individual to the group, the group becomes the new subject (first step) . When the group is broken up into its individual little therapists and they become the agents of therapy, the chief therapist becomes a part of the group (second step) and finally, the medium of therapy is separated from the healer as well as the group therapeutic agents (third step) . Due to the transition from individual psychotherapy to group psychotherapy, group psychotherapy includes individual psychotherapy . The three principles, subject, agent and medium of therapy can be used as points of reference for constructing a table of polar categories of group psychotherapies . Here follow eight pairs of categories : amorphous vs . structured, loco nascendi vs. secondary situations, causal vs . symptomatic, therapist vs . group centered, spontaneous vs . rehearsed, lectural vs . dramatic, conserved vs . creative, and face to face vs . from a distance . With these eight sets of pairs, a classification of every type of group psychotherapy can be made . BASIC CATEGORIES OF GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY

Subject of Therapy 1 . As to the Constitution of the Group Structured (organized) Group Amorphous vs . Without considering the organization Determining the dynamic organization of the group in the prescription of of the group and prescribing therapy therapy. upon diagnosis .



2 . As to Locus of Treatment Treatment of Group in Loco NasTreatment Deferred to Secondary cendi, In Situ Va . Situations Situational, for instance within the Derivative, for instance in especially home itself, the workshop itself, etc . arranged situations, in clinics, etc .

3 . As to Aim of Treatment Causal vs. Symptomatic Going back to the situations and indi- Treating each individual as a separate viduals associated with the syndrome unit. Treatment may be deep, in the and including them in vivo in the psychoanalytic sense, individually, but treatment situation, it may not be deep groupally . Agent of Therapy 1 . As to Source or Transfer of Influence Therapist Centered vs. Group Centered Methods Either chief therapist alone or chief Every member of the group is a theratherapist aided by a few auxiliary peutic agent to one or another memtherapists . Therapist treating every ber, one patient helping the other . member of the group individually or The group is treated as an interactogether, but the patients themselves tional whole . are not used systematically to help one another . 2. As to Form of Influence Spontaneous and Free Vs . Rehearsed and Prepared Form Freedom of experience and expression . Suppressed experience and expression . Therapist or speaker (from inside the Therapist memorizes lecture or regroup) is extemporaneous, the audihearses production . The audience is ence unrestrained. prepared and governed by fixed rules . Medium of Therapy 1. As to Mode of Influence Lecture or Verbal vs . Dramatic or Action Methods Lectures, interviews, discussion, readDance, music, drama, motion pictures . ing, reciting . 2 . As to Type of Medium Conserved, Mechanical or Unspontaneous vs. Creative Media Motion pictures, rehearsed doll drama, Therapeutic motion pictures as prerehearsed dance step, conserved music, paratory steps for an actual group rehearsed drama . session, extemporaneous doll drama with the aid of auxiliary egos behind each doll, psychomusic, psychodrama and sociodrama . 3 . As to Origin of Medium Face to Face vs . From-a-Distance Presentations Any drama, lecture, discussion, etc . Radio and television .

92 THE SOCIOMETRIC TEST Sociometry has taught us to recognize that human society is not a figment of the mind, but a powerful reality ruled by a law and order of its own, quite different from any law or order permeating other parts of the universe . It has, therefore, invented methods called sociometric, by means of which this area can be adequately defined and explored . We describe, in this book, several original sociometric techniques ; the sociometric test, the test of emotional expansiveness, the acquaintance test, the spontaneity test, the role playing test, and techniques which deal with the inter-action research of small groups . Because of the great productivity and the universal character of our methodology it can be assumed that in the course of time other sociometric techniques will develop. The sociometric test has a dominant place in this book and is more thoroughly described than the other tests . This should not lead to the conclusion that it answers all questions or that it is the most essential . It is only a favorable and strategic first step for the more thorough investigation of the depth structure of groups. My premise before starting to build the theoretical framework of sociometry was to doubt the value of and discard all existing social concepts, not to accept any sociological hypothesis as certain, to start from scratch, to start as if nothing would be known about human and social relations . It was a radical pushing out, from my consciousness at least, all knowledge gained from books and even from my own observations. I insisted upon this departure not because I did not assume that other scholars before me had excellent ideas, but because their observations were in most cases authoritative instead of experimental . The naivete, therefore, with which I went after my objectives was not that of a man who is ignorant of what other scholars have done before him, but that of one who tries to be ignorant in order to free himself from cliches and biases, in hope that by warming up to the role of the naive he might be inspired to ask a novel question . I tried to erase from my memory and particularly from my operations terms and concepts as individual, group, mass, society, culture, We, community, state, government, class, caste, communion and many others for which there were dozens of good



and bad definitions, but which appeared to block my way of making the simplest possible start . I could not help, of course, using these terms frequently in my writings, but I always used them with the overt suspicion that they did not represent social reality and will have to be replaced by the truly reality-bearing social concepts . An instrument to measure the amount of organization shown by social groups is called sociometric test . The sociometric test requires an individual to choose his associates for any group of which he is or might become a member . He is expected to make his choices without restraint and whether the individuals chosen are members of the present group or outsiders . The sociometric test is an instrument which examines social structures through the measurement of the attractions and repulsions which take place between the individuals within a group . In the area of interpersonal relations we often use more narrow designations, as "choice" and "rejection ." The more comprehensive terms, as attraction and repulsion go beyond the human group and indicate that there are analogous social configurations in nonhuman groups . This test has been made in respect to home groups, work groups, and school groups . It determined the position of each individual in a group in which he has a function, for instance, in which he lives or works . It revealed that the underlying psychological structure of a group differs widely from its social manifestations ; that group structures vary directly in relation to the age level of the members ; that different criteria may produce different groupings of the same persons or they may produce the same groupings ; that groups of different function, as, for instance, home groups and work groups, tend towards diverse structures ; that people would group themselves differently if they could ; that these spontaneous groups and the function that individuals act or intend to act within them have a definite bearing upon the conduct of each individual and upon the group as a whole ; and that spontaneous groupings and forms of groupings which are superimposed upon the former by some authority provide a potential source of conflict . It was found that chosen relations and actual relations often differ and that the position of an individual cannot be fully realized if not all the individuals and groups to which he



is emotionally related are included . It disclosed that the organization of a group cannot be fully studied if all related groups or individuals are not included, that individuals and groups are often to such an extent interlocked that the whole community to which they belong has to become the scope of the sociometric test . The introduction of sociometric procedure, even to a very small community, is an extremely delicate psychological problem . The psychological problem is the more intricate, the more complex and the more differentiated the community is . On first thought one would be inclined to minimize the difficulties involved . Sociometric procedures should be greeted favorably as they aid in bringing to recognition and into realization the basic structure of a group . But such is not always the case . They are met with resistance by and even with hostility by others . Therefore a group should be carefully prepared for the test before submitting to it . Sociometric techniques have to be fashioned in accord with their maturity and their disposition towards the test which may vary at different times . This psychological status of individuals may be called their degree o f sociometric consciousness . The resistance against sociometric procedures is often due to psychological and educational limitations . It is important for the field worker to consider the difficulties one by one and to try to meet them . The first difficulty which one ordinarily meets is ignorance of what sociometric procedure is . A full and lucid presentation, first perhaps to small and intimate groups, and then in a town meeting if necessary, is extremely helpful . It will bring misunderstandings in regard to it to open discussion . One reaction usually found is the appreciation of some that many social and psychological processes exist in their group which have escaped democratic integration. Another reaction is one of fear and resistance, not so much against the procedure as against its consequences for them . These and other reactions determine the degree of sociometric consciousness of a group . They determine also the amount and character of preparation the group members need before the procedure is put into operation . The resistance seems at first sight paradoxical as it crops up in face of an actual opportunity to have a fundamental need satisfied . An explanation of this resistance of the individual versus the group



is possible . It is, on the one hand, the individual's fear of knowing what position he has in the group . To become and to be made fully conscious of one's position may be painful and unpleasant . Another source of this resistance is the fear that it may become manifest to others whom one likes and whom one dislikes, and what position in the group one actually wants and needs . The resistance is produced by the extra-personal situation of an individual, by the position he has in the group . He feels that the position he has in the group is not the result of his individual make-up only but chiefly the result of how the individuals with whom he is associated feel towards him . He may even feel dimly that there are beyond his social atom invisible tele-structures which influence his position . The fear against expressing the preferential feelings which one person has for others is actually a fear of the feelings which the others have for him . The objective process underlying this fear has been discovered by us in the course of quantitative analysis of group organization. The individual dreads the powerful currents of emotions which "society" may turn against himit is fear of the psychological networks . It is dread of these powerful structures whose influence is unlimited and uncontrollable . It is fear that they may destroy him if he does not keep still . The sociometrist has the task of gradually breaking down the misunderstandings and fears existing or developing in the group he is facing . The members of the group will be eager to weigh the advantages which sociometric procedure is able to bring to them-a better balanced organization of their community and a better balanced situation of each individual within it . The sociometrist has to exert his skill to gain their full collaboration, for at least two reasons : the more spontaneous their collaboration, the more valuable will be the fruits of his research, and the more helpful will the results become to them . The Sociogram The responses received in the course of sociometric procedure from each individual, however spontaneous and essential they may appear, are materials only and not yet sociometric facts in themselves . We have first to visualize and represent how these responses hang together . A process of charting has been devised



by the sociometrists, the sociogram, which is more than merely a method of presentation . It is first of all a method of exploration . It makes possible the exploration of sociometric facts . The proper placement of every individual and of all interrelations of individuals can be shown on a sociogram . It is at present the only available scheme which makes structural analysis of a community possible . As the pattern of the social universe is not visible to us, it is made visible through charting . Therefore the sociometric chart is the more useful the more accurately and realistically it portrays the relations discovered . As every detail is important the most accurate presentation is the most appropriate . The problem is not only to present knowledge in the simplest and shortest manner, but to present the relations so that they can be studied . The matrix of a sociogram may consist in its simplest form of choice, rejection and neutrality structures . It may be further broken up into the emotional and ideological currents crisscrossing these attraction and rejection patterns . Numerous types of sociogram have been devised . They have in common that they portray the pattern of the social structure as a whole and the position of every individual within it . One type shows the social configurations as they grow in time and as they spread in space . Other types of sociograms present the momentary and transitory picture of a group . As the technique of charting is a method of exploration, the sociograms are so devised that one can pick from the primary map o f a community small parts, redraw them, and study them so to speak under the microscope . Another type of derivative or secondary sociogram results if we pick from the map of a community large structures because of their functional significance, for instance, psychological networks . The mapping of networks indicates that on the basis of primary sociograms we may devise forms of charting which enable us to explore large geographical areas . Sociometric Criteria Sociometric criteria are in microsociology what social norms and standards are in macrosociology . They are the sociometric norms . The size of the human population approximates two and



a half billion individuals, but the number of inter-individual associations existing on earth at this moment is so many times larger --because in a sociometric sense a person belongs to many more small groups than the ones visible to the naked eye . Millions of small groups are continuously formed and dissolved . What gives every sociometrically defined group its momentum is the "criterion", the common motive which draws individuals together spontaneously, for a certain end . That criterion may be at one time as fundamental as a search for home and shelter, as a need for food and sleep, as love and companionship, or as casual as a game of cards . The number of criteria on which groupings are continuously forming go into many millions . They give to the overt and tangible human society a deeply unconscious and complicated "infra" structure . It is difficult to uncover the latter because of its remoteness from immediate experience and because there is no strict separation between the infra and the overt structures . One is interwoven with the other . At times genuine inter-personal structures can be perceived on the surface, at other times they require extensive sociomicroscopic study before they can be discovered . Sociometric work has centered from the beginning upon testing all the basic collectives of which a community consists . Sociornetrists have been particularly interested in groups which are built around strong criteria ; formal and institutional groups were the first and the most rewarding targets, home groups, work groups, school groups, cultural groups. Sociometry started out to enter into every social situation of which a community consists, from the simplest to the most complex, from the most formal to the most informal ones . This was and is the chief driving motive of its enterprise, however large the work yet undone may loom . In the course of the construction of sociometric tests it was recognized early that there are for every particular group certain values, goals, standards or norms for the sake of which, apparently, groups are formed or which gradually emerge in the course of group formation . It is easy to spot these values in the case of official, institutional organizations, but they are the harder to define the more informal, casual and marginal the groupings are . Therefore, instead of fixing our eye upon the social values and standards



as they are given on the surface, we tried to enter a wedge at a level which is as universal as possible and as free of a cultural bias as possible. By taking, for instance, the sociogram of the official structure of an institution, of a family, a school, a religious or governmental hierarchy, and by replacing it by the sociograms of the unofficial structures of the particular family, school, church, government, etc ., the result was an ever-changing variety of social profiles, a wealth of expanding and spontaneous, infinitely small and infinitely protean social structures, invisible to the naked eye but of the greatest significance for the macroscopic social structures surrounding them . We started with the simplest possible social value clusters which we called "sociometric criteria," microscopic norms . An illustration is "living in proximity," in the same room, the same cabin, the same house . "With whom do you live in proximity?" and "With whom do you wish to live in proximity?" are two of the earliest sociometric questions used . These criteria are so universally constructed that they can be applied to groups of any culture, sex, race or age, whether the household is a Christian family, a harem, a family of the Jibaro Indian Tribe, a couple living out of wedlock or any number of individuals choosing to live together sharing the daily tasks of eating, sleeping, etc ., for a reasonable period of time. Other criteria were "working in proximity" and "visiting each other ." Such criteria as these three we found in all communities surveyed . Then there are criteria which are found in some communities but not in others, as going hunting, fishing, boating, playing cards, playing baseball . The number of criteria increases with the complexity of the society in which they emerge . Criteria must be kept apart from the "motivations" and usefulness they have for the members of the group . In one culture the members may live in proximity because they like each other, in another culture because members of both sexes are present ; in another culture because all members are of the same sex . Criteria questions are of exploratory value if they are significant to the members of the group at the time of the test ; for instance, the questions, "With whom do you visit?" or "Whom do you invite for a meal?" imply that the individuals mentioned have had and still have a special value for the respondent or otherwise they would not have been selected . All criteria have this in common : that the respond-



ents have some actual experience in reference to them, whether ex post facto or present ; in sociometric language, they are still "warmed up" to them otherwise the questions would not arouse any significant response . Another consideration which may be useful would be to differentiate between diagnostic and action criteria . An illustration of a diagnostic criterion is "Whom do you invite to have meals in your house?" It is specific but it does not provide the subjects with the opportunity to get into immediate action and it does not justify the sociometric director to prompt the subjects to act ; in other words, the test provides only for information but not for action . An action criteria involves a different situation . It prompts the subjects to a different warming up process . It requires different instructions than a diagnostic test. An illustration of an action criterion in application is the sociometric planning of a new settlement . The settlers come to a town meeting and they are addressed by the sociometric counselor as a group : "You are preparing to move into the new settlement . Whom do you want there as a neighbor?" This is obviously a situation which is different from the diagnostic case . The people have an immediate goal to which they are warmed up . The choices they make are very real things, they are not only wishes . They are prompted to act at present and in the presence of the group . In the diagnostic case the reference is to the past, however crucial ; the diagnostic approach can easily be changed into an actional one . Choices are then decisions for action, not "reportings" of actions . The theory of sociometric testing requires : a) that the participants in the situation are drawn to one another by one or more criteria, b) that a criterion is selected to which the participants are bound to respond, at the moment of the test, with a high degree of spontaneity, c) that the subjects are adequately motivated so that their responses may be sincere, d) that the criterion selected for testing is strong, enduring and definite, and not weak, transitory and indefinite. Let us imagine that the problem is to determine the scientific status of the members of the American Sociological Society, and of members of other leading social science associations . One sociometric procedure would be to investigate who is quoting whom, to look up their written records, research



papers, books, and so forth . This sociometric test is not a choice technique but a quotation test . It deviates in form from other sociometric tests I constructed . The scientists may not know one another face to face, they may know each other only by their recorded works . The sociometric investigator may not have to meet them, at least not in the first stage of the test . This test, although apparently cold and impersonal, fulfills the basic requirements . It considers two-way relations, quoting and being quoted, how often and by whom . Quotation is a strong criterion and should help to determine the status of scientists among the membership of scientific societies . Last but not least, a great deal of spontaneity enters into the choice of quoting someone, or leaving others out from a "table of references." The investigator would be interested to determine among other things-whether the subject quotes himself and how often, whether he is quoted by others, and whether he quotes others, positively or negatively ; whether he quotes living authors or dead authors, or whether he quotes no one . The quoters and the quotees may be charted by means of sociograms of the scientific societies to which they belong . The sociograms may give clues to the degree of cohesion between the members of a given society, the affinity or friction between two societies of a similar order . Sociometric Orientations A . Observational and Interpretative

We have studied group formation in three ways . The first way may be called observational and interpretative . We watched the children as, free of supervision, they ran out of school to the playgrounds, the manner in which they grouped themselves spontaneously. We noted a regularity in their spontaneous groupings, -one particular girl followed by a bunch of others, many who paired themselves off, and two or three, often more, walking alone . Similar patterns were formed when they played about the grounds undirected. A rough classification of the position of the individuals in the groups was possible-the isolates, the pairs, and the bunch that clung to the leader-but this did not reach beyond surface judgments in understanding the organization of the groups .




The Socionietrist As Participant Observer We then approached the task from a different angle. Instead of observing the formation of groups from without we entered into the group, became a part of it, and registered its intimate developments. We ourselves experienced the polarity of relations among members, the development of gangs within the group, the pressure upon one individual or another . However, the larger the group under study was the more we ourselves became victim of such pressure, the more attached we found ourselves to some of its sections and the more blindfolded to other parts . Through this method of "partnership" we arrived at a somewhat finer classification of each individual than we were able to through observation. Or we selected a member of the group who was in the position to know its underlying relations,-for instance, in a family group we consulted the mother ; in a school class, the teacher ; in a cottage group of an institution, the housemother ; in a work unit, the foreman, etc . The selected informer, due to the mechanism of partnership, had often an inaccurate insight into the workings of the group . C . Direct Sociometric Methods We cannot adequately comprehend the central direction of an individual in his development either through observation, for instance, a child, through watching its most spontaneous expression, its play life, or through partnership . We must make him an experimenter . Considering group formation, we must make the members of the prospective groups themselves the authors of the groups to which they belong . To reach a more accurate knowledge of group organization the sociometric test is used . It consists in an individual choosing his associates for any group of which he is or might become a member . As these choices are initiated by the persons themselves, each individual is taken into partnership . This is true not only for himself but also for each individual towards every other individual . Thus we win an insight into how group structures of their own look compared with group structures imposed from without . This method is experimental and synthetic. Sociometric procedure is not a rigid set of rules, but it has to



be modified and adapted to any group situation as it arises . Sociometric procedure has to be shaped in accord with the momentary potentialities of the subjects, so as to arouse them to a maximum of expression . If the sociometric procedure is not attuned to the momentary structure of a given community, we may gain only a limited or distorted knowledge of it .

The participant observer of the social laboratory, counterpart of the scientific observer in the physical or biological laboratory, undergoes a profound change . The observing of movements and voluntary association of individuals has value as a supplement if the basic structure is known . But how can an observer learn something about the basic structure of a community of one thousand people if the observer tries to become an intimate associate of each individual simultaneously, in each role which he enacts in the community? He can not observe them like heavenly bodies and make charts of their movements and reactions . The essence of their situations will be missed if he acts in the role of a scientific spy. The procedure has to be open and apparent . The inhabitants of the community have to become participants in the project in some degree . The degree of participation is at its possible maximum when the decisions of the members are carried by them to full realization . The degree of participation is at its possible minimum when the individuals composing the group are willing only to answer questions about one another . Any study which tries to disclose with less than maximum possible participation of the individuals in the group the feelings which they have in regard to one another is near sociometric. Diagnostic tests are of much value in the present stage of sociometry . They can be applied on a large scale, and within certain limits without unpleasantness to the participants . The information gained in near-sociometric studies is based, however, on an inadequate motivation of the participants, they do not fully reveal their feelings . In near-sociometric situations the participants are not quite spontaneous . They do not warm up quickly . If an individual is asked "Who are your friends in town?" he may leave one or two persons out, the most important persons in his social atom, persons with whom he entertains a secret friendship of some sort which he does not want known . The observational method of group research, the study of group formation from the outside is not abandoned by the sociometrist .



This becomes, however, a part of a more inclusive technique, the sociometric procedure . In fact, the sociometric procedure is operational and observational at the same time . A well trained sociometrist will continuously collect other observational and experimental data which may be essential as a supplement to his knowledge of the inside social structure of a group at a particular time . Observational and statistical studies may grow out of sociometric procedures which supplement and deepen structural analysis . The transition from diagnostic to dynamic sociometric procedures depends upon the methods of creating the motivation to more adequate participation . If the participant observer succeeds in becoming less and less an observer and more and more of an aid and helper to every individual of the group in regard to their needs and interests, the observer undergoes a transformation, a transformation from observer to auxiliary ego . The observed persons, instead of revealing something, more or less unwillingly, about themselves and one another, become open promoters of the project ; the project becomes a cooperative effort . They become participants in and observers of the problems of others as well as their own ; they become key contributors to the sociometric research . They know that the more explicit and accurate they are in expressing whom they want, whether as associates in a play, as table mates in a dining room, as neighbors in their community, or as co-workers in a factory, the better are their chances to attain the position in their group which is as close as possible to their anticipations and desires . In school groups the test had the following form . The tester entered the classroom and addressed the pupils "You are seated according to directions your teacher has given you . The neighbor who sits beside you is not chosen by you. You are now given the opportunity to choose the boy or girl whom you would like to have sit on either side of you . Write down whom you would like first best ; then, whom you would like second best . Look around and make up your mind . Remember that next term the friends you choose now may sit beside you ." One minute was allowed for deciding upon choices before the pupils were to write . The tester tried to get into rapport with the pupils and to transfer clearly the particular significance of the decisions .



For home groups the test had to be varied . The tester called the whole population of a given community together and addressed them "You live in a certain house with certain other persons according to the directions the administration has given you . The persons who live with you in the same house are not chosen by you and you are not chosen by them, although you might have chosen each other . You are now given the opportunity to choose the persons whom you would like to live with in the same house . You can choose without restraint any individuals of this community whether they happen to live in the same house with you or not . Write down whom you would like first best, second best, third best, fourth best, and fifth best . Look around and make up your mind . Remember that the ones you choose will probably be assigned to live with you in the same house ." Three points are of methodological significance . First, every individual is included as a center of emotional response . Second, this is not an academic reaction. The individual is caught by an emotional interest for a certain practical end he wishes to realize and upon his knowledge that the tester has the authority to put this into practice . Third, the choice is always related to a definite criterion. In the first instance, the criterion is of studying in proximity, actually sitting beside the pupils chosen . In the second, the criterion is of living in proximity, actually within the same house . When this test was applied to work groups, the criterion was working in proximity, actually within the same work unit and collaborating in the function to be performed . Other criteria must be used according to the special function of any group under study . The test has been carried out in three phases : 1, spontaneous choice ; 2, motivation of these choices ; and 3, causation of these choices . Spontaneous choice reveals how many members of his own group, whatever the criterion of the group, are desired by an individual as associates in the activity of this group . The motivations, as they are secured through interview of each individual, reveal further the number of attractions and repulsions to which an individual is exposed in a group activity. The underlying causations for these attractions and repulsions are studied through spontaneity and role playing tests adapted to sociometric aims . The spontaneity test places an individual in a standard life situa-


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tion which calls for definite fundamental emotional reactions, called spontaneity states, as fear, anger, etc . If permitted to expand they turn into role playing . The range of mimic and verbal expression during the plays is recorded and offers characteristic clues to the makeup of the personality acting, to his relation to the life situation acted, and to the person or persons who act opposite him in the test . Construction of the Sociometric Test The problem was to construct the test in such manner that it is itself a motive, an incentive, a purpose, primarily for the subject instead of for the tester . If the test procedure is identical with a life-goal of the subject he can never feel himself to have been victimized or abused . Yet the same series of acts performed of the subject's own volition may be a "test" in the mind of the tester . We have developed two tests in which the subject is in action for his own ends . One is the sociometric test . From the point of view of the subject it is not a test at all and this is as it should be . It is merely an opportunity for him to become an active agent in matters concerning his life situation . But to the sociometric tester it reveals his actual position in the community in relation to the actual position of others . The second test meeting this demand is the spontaneity and roleplaying test . Here is a standard life situation which the subject improvises to his own satisfaction . But to the tester it releases a source of information in respect to the character, intelligence, conduct and social relations of the subject . Psychometric tests and psychoanalysis of the child and of the adolescent, however contrasting in procedure, have one thing in common . They throw the subject into a passive state, the subject being a role of submission . The situation is not motivated for him . This tends to produce an attitude of suspicion and tension on the part of the subject towards the tester and to attribute to him ulterior motives in inducing the subject to submit to the test . This situational fact has to be considered irrelevant to how valuable and significant the revelations may be which come from psychometric testing and from psychoanalysis . This aspect of the testing becomes especially conspicuous if the findings are used for



the purpose of determining some change in the life situation of the subject, as, for instance, his transfer to an institution for the feeble-minded. Through the sociometric, spontaneity and role playing tests the artificial setting of the psychoanalytic situation and of the Binet intelligence tests can be substituted by natural or life settings . Directions for Sociometric Testing A point which deserves emphasis is the accurate giving of the sociometric test . Only such a test can be correctly called sociometric which attempts to determine the feelings of individuals towards each other and, second, to determine these in respect to the same criterion . For instance, if we demand from the inhabitants of a given community to choose the individuals with whom they want to live together in the same house and to motivate these choices, this is a sociometric procedure . Or, if we determine through such procedure to whom the individuals are sexually attracted or with whom they want to study together in the same classroom. In each of these cases a definite criterion is given, living in proximity, working in proximity, or sexual proximity . Further, a sociometric test to be accurate has not to gain the necessary information through observation of these individuals only, how they appear to behave in their home groups, work groups, or whatever, to one another and to construct, through these observations, the position they possibly have in their groups. But it -is necessary that the subjects themselves be taken into partnership, that they become sufficiently interested in the test, that they transfer to the tester their spontaneous attitudes, thoughts, and motivations in respect to the individuals concerned in the same criterion . Whatever additional material is gained by other methods to support the essential information, this is not able to substitute the two requirements mentioned above . If, therefore, the inhabitants of a community are asked whom they like or dislike in their community irrespective of any criterion this should be called near-sociometric. These likes and dislikes being unrelated to a criterion are not analytically differentiated. They may relate to sexual liking, to the liking of working together, or whatever . Secondly, the individuals have no interest to express their likes and dislikes


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truthfully as no practical consequences for themselves are derivable from these . Similarly, if children in a classroom are asked whom they like or dislike among their classmates irrespective of any criterion and without immediate purpose for them . Even if such a form of inquiry may at some age level produce similar results as the results gained through our procedure, it should not be called sociometric testing. It does not provide a systematic basis for sociometric research. THE SOCIOMETRIST The problem of investigating a social situation has two fundamental aspects, the first of which is the question of how to achieve a close and accurate approach to the social process to be investigated so that the truly real and valid facts are harvested and not, perhaps, illusionary and unreliable ones . Sociometry in communities and the psychodrama in experimental situations make a deliberate attempt to bring the subjects into an experimental state which will make them sensitive to the realization of their own experiences and action-patterns . In this "spontaneity state" they are able to contribute revealing material concerning the web of social networks in which they move and the life-situations through which they pass . This conditioning of the subjects for a more total knowledge of the social situation in which they are is accomplished by means of processes of warming-up and by learning to summon the degree of spontaneity necessary for a given situation . The second fundamental aspect of the problem concerns the investigator himself . In the social sciences, the problem of the investigator and the situation in which the experiment or study is to be carried out have been of the gravest concern . However, the methods for dealing with this fundamental difficulty have been most unsatisfactory to date. The participant observer, in the course of his exploration, enters into contact with various individuals and situations, but he, himself-with his biases and prejudices, his personality equation and his own position in the group-remains unexamined and therefore, himself, an unmeasured quantity . The displacement in the situation to be investigated which is partly produced by his own social pattern does not appear as an integral part of the findings .

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Indeed, we have to take the inviolability of his own judgments and opinions for granted and the "uninvestigated investigator" constitutes, so to speak, an ever-present error . This is, of course, only true for social studies in which the investigators are, as individuals, essential parts of the investigation . It is different in social studies which investigate finished products-processes which have become stereotyped and stationary, lending themselves to actuarial study and the development of scales . Social measurements of such processes are, of course, a part of sociometry in its broader sense, but they have a limited practical meaning without the frontal approach-the direct measurement of interpersonal phenomena. In order to overcome the grave errors which may arise in and from the investigator himself, we resort to a sociometric approach which is especially adapted to the microscopic study of social phenomena . The participant observer-in one particular form of this work-does not remain "objective" or at a distance from the persons to be studied : he becomes their friend . He identifies himself with their own situations ; he becomes an extension of their own egos. In other words, the "objective" participant becomes a "subjective" one . As a subjective participant he can enter successively or simultaneously into the lives of several individuals, and then function as a medium of equilibration between them . This is the first step . If we consider the investigator who gives out questionnaires as being in a situation of maximum formal objectivity then the investigator who identifies himself successively with every individual participating in the situation approaches a maximum o f subjectivity. A professional worker acting in this fashion produces excellent therapeutic effects, but the method does not improve upon the intended objectification of the investigator, himself. A step beyond this is the psychodramatic method, a situation which provides an experimental and a therapeutic setting simultaneously. Here, the director of the theatre is present, but outside

the exploratory situation, itself . The investigators to be tested are placed in life-situations and roles which may occur in the community or in their own private lives until their ranges of roles and their patterns of behavior in these life-situations have been


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adequately gauged . This procedure is carried on until every one of the investigators is thoroughly objectified . Re-tests are made from time to time in order to keep pace with any changes which may have taken place in their various behavior-patterns . In the course of such work, the range of roles and the range of expansiveness of each investigator become clearly defined and the stimulus which he may be to the subjects of his investigations has become a known quantity . Thus, the psycho-dramatic procedure provides a yardstick by which we can measure and evaluate an indefinitely large number of subjects in specific life-situations and in specific roles . The paradox is that the investigator, although he has become objectified by this process-a "controlled participant observer," so to speak-still continues to be what he originally started out to be : a subjective participant . The process of objectifying the investigator takes many forms in accord with the situation which he is to explore and it has, also, many degrees of perfection . An ideal situation of this kind is obtained with a psycho-dramatic group in the experimental setting of the therapeutic theatre . For the members of a psychodramatic group, a range of spontaneity is permitted in roles and situations which far surpasses that of any actual community and yet may include all the roles and situations which exist there. At the same time, the behavior of every member of the community-however spontaneous it may be-is recorded in addition to the interaction between the members of the group both on the stage and off it . Thus, the ideal background is constructed for the task assigned to testers within the psychodramatic group, itself . When the investigator has been tested in this manner, we are able to use him as a tool for testing any group of subjects in typical situations, as described above . In addition to this, he can be used for the treatment of subjects in his new qualification as a subjective participant who is objectified to a point where he can be considered a known quantity in the procedure . He has become an auxiliary ego whose behavior in the process of guidance on the psychodramatic stage is within some degree of control . This method can be used to advantage as an improvement upon the participant-observer technique of investigation . As a result of careful gauging of the personalities of the investigators who are to be employed as sociometrists or observers in the community



at large, a frame of reference is established at the research center to which the investigators return with their data and findings . The use of this frame of reference provides a more objective basis than has heretofore existed for evaluating the reflection of the investigators' own behavior-characteristics upon their findings in the community . The social investigation o f any community, when based upon sociometric principles, is equipped with two complementary frames of reference . The one is the objectified investigator so prepared and evaluated that his own personality is no longer an unknown factor in the findings . The other frame of reference consists o f the members o f the community who are brought to a high degree o f spontaneous participation in the investigation by means o f sociometric methods, and therefore contribute genuine and reliable data . Thus, the social structures which actually exist in the community at the moment of investigation are brought to our knowledge with a minimum of error on the part of both the investigators and the investigated .

THE DIALECTIC CHARACTER OF SOCIOMETRY The dialectic attitude of the sociometric investigator is brought about on one hand by the natural resistance of the community to a scheme which carries the social process to a maximum degree of realization (for which it is as yet unprepared and uneducated) and, on the other hand, by the resistance of people who favor the other earlier methods and ideologies in the manipulation of population problems. When sociometry began to arouse public attention twenty years ago, the number of procedures which were ready for application was few as compared with the number of social problems which were to be faced in any community study . Economic, technological and political problems of all sorts pressing for an immediate solution could neither experiment with untried procedures nor wait until they were ready . I recommended, therefore, that supplementary techniques should be used around the true sociometric core, even if they did not fulfill the requirements of genuine sociometric procedures. To the category of supplementary techniques belong, among others, public opinion studies, studies of attitudes and socio-economic measurements .


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When I introduced terms like "sociometry," "sociometric techniques," and "sociometric scale," I anticipated that such terms would be applied to types of social measurement which are in some degree sociometric (near-sociometric) in addition to methods developed by me and my closer associates . I also anticipated that, partly because of the influence of sociometry, and partly as a result of the natural development of social science, methods and concepts in sociology, psychology and psychiatry would become more flexible and realistic and thus approach the point of view which has been fostered by sociometry . An illustration is the development from Bogardus who studies attitudes towards people as a race or as a class and gets an answer which cannot be but a symbolic one and the scale based upon similar data a symbolic scale of attitudes, to studies like that of Ford, who asks questions which deal with personal contacts . This time the answers must be more concretethey must be based upon "Experiences"-but they are still a far cry from the specific individual with whom the contact took place although it is within the field of the status nascendi of a relationship . An attempt is made, at least, to shape a questionnaire in such a fashion that it more nearly covers the actual inter-individual structures which exist . Another illustration is the development from the older public opinion questionnaire, which expected uniform responses from rigid, set questions, to the recent refinements in pre-testing questionnaires-adjusting the questions to the group which is to be studied . The latter procedure is also far removed, however, from the sociometric approach which would disclose to the investigator the key individuals in the group, the psycho-social networks through which opinion moves, and whether the opinions which are collected represent the opinions of the key individuals only or the opinions of the groups under their influence . Consequently, what these investigators measure may not be what they intend it to be, an opinion of the public, but the private opinions of a small number of people . It can be expected that sociometric methods which include the interpersonal relation system in their tests will gradually replace methods which investigate social situations in a more or less indirect and symbolistic fashion . Because of the dialectic character of human relations all sociometric terms and instruments have a dialectic character ; dialectic

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means here that in the course of advancing the cause of socionietric consciousness a reconciliation of opposites and of numerous social dimensions, a flexibility of position and definition, may be required . For illustration, as long as vital statistics and the current public opinion polls are the only kind of sociometry acceptable to the sociometric consciousness of a population, they are all that sociometry can be . It is most fortunate that social science technicians grossly underrate the social spontaneity of people, when they deal directly with their own, immediate projects, and their readiness for sociometric procedure . But as soon as finer instruments are acceptable to a population they can be applied towards the improvement and measurement of interpersonal and intergroup relations ; then the older methods become less desirable, and also reactionary, unscientific and unsociometric . As long as a population has a low sociometric consciousness distinctions between psychological and social properties of populations have no value . Indeed, from the point of view of action methods over-emphasis upon logical purity of definitions may be outright harmful and overdeveloped logical systems may produce a false sense of security and of scientific well-being which discourages and delays action practice . The other field in which sociometry can demonstrate its value is that of social planning . There are many concepts and hypotheses in the conduct of human affairs which stand in the way of the application to their fullest extent of sociometric ideas . The philosophy of anarchism, for instance, may criticize the various schemes of present-day governments, however liberal, as authoritarian regimes, but in a society which is sociometrically planned, a special niche for anarchists is not necessary because sociometry is based upon the principle of spontaneity and gives expression to even the most extreme individualism . The philosophy of communism, particularly of Marxism, may maintain that the rule of one social class which represents the mass of the producers is necessary in order that a maximum of justice, perhaps arbitrary, may prevail, but in a sociometrically planned society the genuine contribution of collectivism could be brought to its fullest expression without any necessity of resorting to arbitrary measures . The economic factor, and with it the production and distribution of goods, cannot be artificially divorced from the total system of



interpersonal relations . Within the scope of sociometric investigation a first clue to the solution of this knotty problem has been found in the relationship between the sociodynamic effect and the distribution of wealth. The philosophy of totalitarianism proposes a regime in which a master race, self chosen, is to rule all other peoples, the master race itself being governed by a leader at the top with a number of auxiliary leaders carrying out his orders . But the central problems of this ideology, the leader and the race question, can be handled within a sociometric scheme without violence and certainly with a far greater precision and with a minimum of friction . Within a totalitarian society, the group of leaders who have inaugurated the regime, whether self chosen or elected, may go stale . This may become the Achilles' heel of the totalitarian society, relying as it does upon a distorted distribution of all the total available spontaneity which places, if possible, all the spontaneity in the leaders (maximum spontaneity at the top) and no spontaneity in the peoples (minimum spontaneity at the bottom) . This crucial problem, the proper equilibrium between leaders and followers, can be dealt with by means of sociometric planning without having to resort to a totalitarian regime . It has been demonstrated within a community which is administered along sociometric lines that the set of individuals who are in key positions today can easily be ascertained by sociometric tests . In the course of routine re-testing at regular intervals it becomes dramatically apparent that these key individuals wane in influence and others come up to take their places (in state nascendi) . This raises the question as to whether leadership artificially maintained may not become a "conserve" and therefore a stultifying instead of a spontaneous and inspiring agent . In addition, the problem of race is managed as an inherent part of the sociometric scheme . By means of concepts like race cleavage and the racial saturation point, populations which differ ethnologically can be distributed within a given geographic area without having to resort to forced and hit-or-miss migration . Sociometry can well be considered the cornerstone of a still underdeveloped science o f democracy . The so-called democratic process is not truly democratic as long as the large spheres of invisible processes disclosed by sociometric procedures are not



integrated with and made a part of the political scheme of democracy . Sociometry can assist the United States, with its population consisting of practically all the races on the globe, in becoming an outstanding example of a society which has no need of extraneous ideas or of forces which are not inherent in its own structure .

One can look at this as a new phase in the yet unfinished democratic process slowly encircling the globe . Following political models it now continues its declaration of independence on the level of scientific research . The people, after taking the government in their own hands, are also taking the social sciences in their own hands ; a government of the people, by the people and for the people is logically followed by a science of the people, by the people and for the people .

In his desperation the social scientist has called the research objects to his aid-to rescue social science from perennial strivings in unfulfillment . The research objects can now "turn the tables" on him and "take science in their own hands" . It is paradoxical and amusing that the scientist must give his "guinea pigs" research status and power in order to make some headway himself . This very step forward appears to threaten his own status and push him back . Is he fearful that the selfawareness of the guinea pigs will grow into undue proportions and does he envision the rising of a new kind of dictatorship, the dictatorship of the "scientific" proletariat ? The pivotal point of dialectic sociometry is that sociometry returns the social sciences to the "aboriginal" science from which it came--ethics"-without, however, giving an inch o f the objective goals o f scientific method . Sociometry is the social ethics par excellence . Behind the front of the sociometric operations there are hidden a number of ethical principles . Between the lines of a sociometric test we are pleading with the participants When you choose or reject a partner "be truthful" and "be spontaneous" ; and in a psychodrama or sociodrama, when we instruct a participant, individual or group, to act out problems we plead with them to expose themselves unselfishly ; in other words, these are ethical prescriptions : 1) give truth and receive truth, 2) give love to the group and it will return love to you, and 3) give spontaneity and spontaneity will return .

115 THE SOCIOMETRIC CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CHANGE The sociometric concept of social change has four chief references : a) the spontaneity-creativity potential of the group, b) the parts of the universal sociometric matrix relevant to its dynamics, c) the system of values it tries to overcome and abandon and d) the system of values it aspires to bring to fulfillment . In this sense genuine social change may already be observed in small groups ; a simple sociometric test can become a revolutionary category of investigation . It upsets the group from within . It produces a social revolution on a microscopic scale. If it does not produce an upheaval in some degree it may arouse suspicion that the investigator has modified it-in respect for an existing social orderso that it becomes a harmless, poverty stricken instrument . On the other hand, changes initiated by generals and politicians on a large scale may effect great commotion, but no genuine transformation. In order to change the social world social experiments have to be so designed that they can produce change ; in order to produce change the people themselves have to be included in its operation . You cannot change the world ex-post-facto, you must do it now and here, with and through the people . No enduring change of human society can be effected by indirect, mechanical manipulation or by the arbiter of force . Whatever the type of government and social institutions coerced upon the people, whether they are cooperative communities, communistic, democratic, autocratic or anarchistic types of government, sooner or later they lose their hold upon the people . The people discard them, if they do not root in the productive spontaneity of the people and if they are not created with full participation of every individual member . No study of group structure can be taken seriously if it does not use sociometric methods wholeheartedly ; they cannot be bypassed .

The simultaneous applications of revolutionary sociometric methods in the United States as well as in Soviet Russia might bring about a rapprochement between the two types of governments . The revolutions of the socialistic-marxistic type are outmoded ; they failed to meet with the sociodynamics of the world situation . The next social revolution will be of the "sociometric" type.



The term revolutions is here used in reference to methods and instruments which attempt to produce changes of a major character in a given social order . The failure of the academic social sciences to develop instruments for change of their own, elemental methods of action which are able to operate "on the spot," has had disastrous consequences in the political arena of our time . Socialism and communism.-and with them many of their halfbreeds like fascism and nazism-have been superior and quicker to seize this opportunity . It is widely understood that mass meetings, political organizations of workers, labor unions, seizing the power and control of the armed and judiciary forces, of press and radio, and other acts of overthrowing governmental authority, are instruments of revolution. Communists and fascists have a large repertory of dramatic, physical, spectacular and super-Machiavellian techniques of all sort . The fraternity of social scientists, being without action techniques, has been taken by surprise . Living in the midst of wars and revolutions for nearly half a century they had to look on passively and permit charismatic generals and politicians to play with the social emotions of the people. They tried to argue when elemental measures were required . Intelligent reasoning and polite conference manners were ineffective against weapons of destruction, party slogans, invectives, laughter, shouting, vulgar jokes and swearing, lies and distortion of facts . They tried to fight action and surprise methods with lyrics and editorials . Before they had learned their lesson it was too late . When they awakened from the state of panic and paralyzed fear the game was taken out of their hands and the initial phase of the battle was lost . In other words, the avant guarde of academic social science did not have social instruments of attack and counterattack available in a period of emergency . At last we sociometrists stepped into the breach and developed several instruments of social change in order to harness the spontaneous-creative forces of the community, the population test, the socio-drama, social and psychodramatic shock methods which may well become scientific instruments of social action, preventives or antidotes against the mass hypnotism and persuasion of purely political systems . The population test is an instrument operating in situ ; it brings the population to a collective self expression and to the transaction


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of its plans in respect to all fundamental activities in which it is or is about to be involved . It is a flexible procedure which calls for immediate action and for the immediate application of all the choices and decisions made . The population may consist of residents of a village, manager and workers of a factory, etc . Sociometry is an instrument by means of which social truth, truth about social structure and conflicts can be explored and social change transacted by means of psychodramatic and sociodramatic methods . It may operate like a town meeting with the difference that only the individuals involved in a social issue are present and that decisions are made and actions are taken which are of basic importance to their own community . The productions and solutions in a sociodrama grow out of the group . The choice of the social issue and the decision of its implementation come from the group and not from a particular leader . Sociodramatic workers have the task to organize preventive, didactic and reconstruction meetings in the community in which they live and work ; to organize, upon call, such meetings in problem areas everywhere ; to enter communities confronted with emergent or chronic social issues, to enter mass meetings of strikes, race riots, rallies of political parties, and so forth, and try to handle and clarify the situation on the spot . The action agent moves into the group accompanied by a staff of auxiliary egos, if necessary with the same determination, boldness or ferocity as a fuehrer or union leader . The meeting may move into an action as shocking and enthusiastic as those of a political nature, with the difference that the politicians try to submit the masses to their political schemes, whereas the sociodramatist is trying to bring the masses to a maximum of group realization, group expression, and group analysis . The methods have opposite aims, the development of the meetings, therefore, takes a different form . The political drama starts from within the politician and his clique, it is pre-arranged and carefully calculated to arouse hostility or bias against a foe . The sociodrama, however, starts from within the audience present, it is calculated to be educational, clarifying and energizing to all members, to serve as a stimulus to spontaneity, creativity, love and empathy, and as a check and balance to cultural tensions and hostilities arising from local or



world-wide events and as a means of social catharsis and integration. In the social sciences, the subjects must therefore be approached in the midst of an actual life-situation and not before or after it . They must be truly themselves, in the fullest sense of the word . They must be measured in a real and natural situation ; otherwise we may find ourselves measuring something totally different from the situation we set out to measure . If we have not a clear picture of the problem, it may result in our measuring the subjects at a time when they are half in and half out of the situation, before they begin to act in it or long after they have lived through it and the situation has grown "cold", a social conserve . It is evident that the situation to be measured must be caught in statu nascendi and the subjects warmed up to it . This emphasizes the importance of the category of the moment for all conceptual thinking relevant to the preparation of truly genuine experiments of social change.

SOCIOPSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND SOCIATRY The oldest and most numerous proletariat of human society is the sociometric proletariat . It consists of all the people who suffer from one form of misery or another, psychological misery, social misery, economic misery, political misery, racial misery, religious misery . There are numerous individuals and groups whose volume of attractions, or role expansion, of spontaneity and productivity is far beneath their needs and their ability to consummate them . The world is full of isolated, rejected, rejecting, unreciprocated and neglected individuals and groups . The sociometric proletariat cannot be "saved" by economic revolutions . The pathology and the therapy of the normal groups have been neglected but it is upon them that the social health of mankind depends ; it is with the pathology of the normal groups that sociopsychopathology and sociatry deal . The frontiers of psychiatry have never been clearly drawn . Its frame of reference has been traditionally the mental healing of the single organism . But playing with phrases like "social" psychiatry indicates a widely spread confusion as to the finality of the boundary between psychiatry


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and sociology . "Sociatry" is logically the healing of normal society of the socius . The term derives from a Latin and a Greek root, the one is socius, the "other fellow", the other iatreia, healing. Sociatry must be defined as to its position within a system of both, social and medical sciences . Psychiatry is the branch in medicine that relates to mental disease and its treatment ; it treats the individual psyche and soma . Sociatry treats the pathological syndromes of normal society, of inter-related individuals and of inter-related groups . It is based upon two hypotheses : 1) "The whole of human society develops in accord with definite laws" ; 2) "A truly therapeutic procedure cannot have less an objective than the whole of mankind." Sociatry is remedial sociometry . It is just as much a pure science as is sociometry . They differ in method and emphasis rather than in purity. A research science is not purer than a therapeutic science . The adjective "remedial" should not connote a lower degree of accuracy . Sociometry may just as often be applied sociatry as sociatry applied sociometry . One is a function of the other . They are differentiated as notions but not in concrete functioning . The value, for instance, of psychodramatic audience therapy or sociometric regrouping, or other forms of social therapy, is determined by the demonstrable evidence of effects . A sociatrist is thus one skilled in sociatry . A doctorate, or diplomate of sociatry is a degree to be given in the future not exclusively to doctors of medicine, as it is now with psychiatry, but to doctors of education, psychology and sociology as well . The art and skill of the sociatrist will depend upon a synthesis of knowledge towards which all social and psychiatric sciences will have made their contribution . The lifeline of the new era is marked by the combination of three developments : the diagnostic-sociometry, the actionalpsychodrama and the therapeutic-group psychotherapy . In the last thirty years they have led the way beyond psychoanalysis and the speculative group psychologies . New vehicles and new operations have been introduced . The psychoanalytic vehicle was the couch . The antiquated couch was transformed into a multidimensional stage, giving space and freedom for spontaneity, freedom for the body and for bodily contact, freedom of movement, action and interaction . Free association was replaced by



psychodramatic production and audience participation, by action dynamics and dynamics of the groups and masses . With these changes in the research and therapeutic operation the framework of psychoanalytic concepts, sexuality, unconscious, transference, resistance and sublimation was replaced by a new, psychodramatic and sociodynamic set of concepts, the spontaneity, the warming up process, the tele, the interaction dynamics and the creativity . These three transformations in vehicle, form and concept, however, transcended but did not eliminate the useful part of the psychoanalytic contribution . The couch is still in the stagewhich is like a multiple of couches of many dimensions, vertical, horizontal and depth.-sexuality is still in spontaneity, the unconscious is still in the warming up process, transference is still in the tele ; there is one phenomenon, productivity-creativity, for which psychoanalysis has given us no counterpart .

THE SOCIOMETRIC EXPERIMENT A sociometric test is an examination of the structure of a specific group, at times for the purpose of its reconstruction . It is not by itself an experiment . Many other sociometric techniques are used in a full-fledged experiment, acquaintance tests, spontaneity tests, role tests, interview, psychodramatic and sociodramatic tests, etc ., as the situation requires . A sociometric study becomes an experiment a) if all its situations, its home, work, educational, recreational, cultural and administrative groupings are created by the total community of citizens-investigators, each citizen being an investigator and each investigator being a member of the community . The social actors are producing and analytic actors at one and the same time . The setting must obviously be life itself and not a laboratory . One may, of course, call an ongoing concern like a community, a laboratory, but this kind of a laboratory has a different meaning from that of the physicist or the animal psychologist . b) If all its formal and informal groups, in accord with its criteria, are involved in the social transformation . c) If, whenever necessary, with the full consent and cooperation of the entire community,


12 1

certain social conditions are kept constant, whereas the hypothetical conditions are allowed to vary . d) If all sociometric techniques known today are used by the population to transform its present social structure into a new social order in accord with the set of values which they, the people have decided to pursue . This set of values may be a Christian system of values, a Hinduistic system of values, a cooperativistic system of values, a communistic or a democratic system of values . Whatever the system of values, the sociometric method is the surest guide towards their realization . Sociometric experiments have been carried out in closed and open communities, but always only to a degree, depending upon the courage of the experimental leader and the degree of sociometric consciousness of the population . The closest to a complete, sociometric experiment was the Hudson community, however, we should be aware how far it was from going the whole way . Its administrative structure was only partly involved ; the profit motive and economic dynamics did not enter into the experimental design . Because of the paternalistic character of the community its non-inclusion made the experiment comparatively flat and easy . A change in the system of values did not enter into the experiment, because the desire for such change was not articulated in the membership . I assisted a few years later in a project in an open community where sociometric methods were applied in an experiment in agricultural and industrial cooperatives ; it headed in this direction more closely . However, it was, compared with the Hudson experiment, far inferior in research design and in determined execution . Therefore, all in all, the sociometric experiment is still a project of the future. It is significant to differentiate between the major experiment in sociometry and the minor experiments . The major experiment was visualized as a world-wide project-a scheme well-nigh Utopian in concept-yet it must be recalled again and again to our attention lest it be crowded out by our more practical daily tasks in sociometry . We assumed-naively perhaps-that if a war can spread to encircle the globe, it should be equally possible to prepare and propagate a world sociometry . But this vision did not arise



wholly out of thin air . Once we had successfully treated an entire community by sociometric methods, it seemed to us at least theoretically possible to treat an infinitely large number of such communities by the same methods-all the communities in fact, of which human society consists .

The ground is still gradually being prepared for the major experiment . Schemes like Marxism, and others, which have attempted worldwide reorganization of human relationships, have been analyzed and the causes of their failure disclosed . Their failure seems to have been due to a lack of knowledge of the structure of human society as it actually existed at the time of the attempt . A partial knowledge was not sufficient ; knowledge of the total structure was necessary . We know that, in order to attain this total knowledge, all the individuals in a society must become active agents. Every individual, every minor group, every major group, and every social class must participate. The aim is to gain a total picture of human society ; therefore, no social unit, however powerless, should be omitted from participation in the experiment. In addition, it is assumed that, once individuals are aroused by sociometric procedures to act, to choose and to reject, every domain of human relationships will be stirred up-the economic, the racial, the cultural, the technological, and so onand that they all will be brought into the picture. The sociometric experiment will end in becoming totalistic not only in expansion and extension but also in intensity, thus marking the beginning of a political sociometry.

It is a fact that the work to date has consisted in minor experiments and studies . Sociometric investigators have turned their attention away from a general experiment towards a more strategic and practical objective-the refining of old methods and the invention of new ones ; the study of every type of children's group, adolescent group and age group ; the investigation of communities, closed and open, primitive and metropolitan . The investigators have been concerned with every aspect of a community-the economic, the cultural and the technological-for which there was found some degree of aspiration or expression within the community. At times a project was carried to the maximum point of its domain, not only exploring the structure of a community but also applying the findings to the community situations and



thus relieving tensions and producing social catharsis . At other times, however, possible upheaval within the political administration of a community and resistance on the part of its citizens was hindered through sociometric experimentation . Cases have occurred where the investigator had to be content with gathering only partial data (and this by indirection) because of the low sociometric adaptability of the population under observation, resulting in studies which were only halfway sociometric . In these cases, the findings could necessarily cover only a peripheral segment of a community, and the application of these data to the people themselves was not considered. Nevertheless, a critical survey of all the sociometric studies which have been made to date, evaluating the methods used and the results obtained in all cases, whether completely sociometric or only partially so, would be of substantial assistance in the preparation of more dependable sociometric procedures for future use. The result of these small scale experiments has been twofold . On the one hand, they led to important discoveries in the realm of human relations which were confirmed by every new study, and, on the other hand, they made it possible to put together, like a jigsaw puzzle, the pieces of sociometric structure which had been found in various communities and get, with the assistance of these miniature patterns, a bird's eye view of the sociometric foundation of society at large . The greater the number of valid studies in the years to come, the more accurate and complete will be our psycho-geographical model of the world, as compared with the still sketchy and primitive model which is available to us today .


DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL OF GROUPS The growth of the individual organism as a unity from a simpler to more highly differentiated levels is well recognized . But the development of a society of individuals is still problematic . Does society change only, or does it grow? Both points of view have found advocates . Some claim that civilizations grow and decline (Spengler) or that they are ever changing, their form conditioned by economic forces (Marx) . The question is if these processes must take their course of necessity or if they are subjectable to change and control . Experimentation only can decide, a form of sociogenetic experiment which begins to work with the simplest groups first and step by step approaches more complex ones . It must be understood that when we say higher and lower differentiation we do not imply any judgment of value (good or bad) as, for instance, that a more highly differentiated group is an improved group, a less differentiated, an impaired group . We are only expressing varying levels of differentiation as they are found in the structures and as they are related to different criteria . SOQOMETRIc TEST OF BABY GROUPS

It is well known that the human infant is born with only a few and weak, unlearned reactions but with a plasticity for learning, a high degree of spontaneity . Our study of group organization indicated that humans, long after the first years of life are unable to develop permanent societies, that they compare unfavorably with certain highly developed animal societies, that social organization trends are precipitated through the interplay of their spontaneous affinities . The older a society of humans, the more differentiated its social structure, the more original spontaneity becomes restrained and channelized . We arrived at findings described below through the study of the relation of infants and children at different developmental levels towards other infants and children . Observation of infants, prior to the onset of socio127

1 28


metry, has been confined to individual-centered responses . Studies of the emotional and social development of infants have left untouched the evolution of group organization among infants of the same age level, perhaps because babies do not group themselves spontaneously and an artificial experimental situation is needed to uncover the underlying possibilities of organization on the different developmental levels . To meet the problem we placed a group of nine babies in proximity in the same room from the day of birth . They were studied over a period of 18 months . The inquiry focussed on what developmental level the babies reached as a society, not what developmental level this or that infant reached . At first the test was arranged for groups of babies from birth on, all participants of any one group being on the same age level . The babies were placed in close proximity in the same room in which they were and had been living since birth. The objective of the study was to ascertain what types of structures appear earliest in the evolution of groups during the first three years of life . The infant-to-infant relations were observed . The point was not whether the reactions of each individual were a really social response or not but primarily if group organization resulted from the accumulative effect of their interaction and what forms it took . The main lines of development may be summarized as follows : a stage of organic isolation from birth on, a group of isolated individuals each fully self-absorbed ; a stage of horizontal differentiation of structure from about 20-28 weeks on, the babies begin to react towards each other, the factor of physical proximity and physical distance making respectively for "psychological proximity" or "psychological distance," the "acquaintance" beginning with neighbors first, a horizontal differentiation of structure ; a stage of vertical differentiation of structure from about 40-42 weeks on, one or another infant commands disproportionate attention shifting the distribution of emotion within the group from the horizontal to a vertical differentiation of structure, the group which had been up to this point equally "levelled," develops more prominent and less prominent members, a "top" and a "bottom ." No one stage appears to function exclusively at any one level : there appears to be a "hangover." This phenomenon seems to account largely for the growing complexity of organization which one


1 29

meets with at the higher chronological age levels . The development of association of infants compared with the development of individual infants is "retarded ." Numerous, momentary contacts between babies get lost and do not aid in producing social organization . Mutual interactions must appear with a certain frequency and constancy before they can be classified as a social structure .

The babies were of the same chronological age, either born the same day or a day or two apart . If a baby left the hospital, it was replaced by a baby of the same age . The observations were made daily by two observers and immediately recorded . The categories of contacts of babies with babies were as follows : a) How many times a baby looked at the other, initiating or responding ; b) how many times a baby cried with the other, initiating or responding ; c) how many times a baby smiled at the other, initiating or responding ; d) how many times a baby tried to . grasp the other, initiating or responding ; and finally, e) how many times a baby touched the other, initiating or responding. A control study was devised, replacing the babies by dolls in reference to the five categories of contacts enumerated above . In the doll sociograms only one participant was an actual baby, the other eight participants were dolls . The purpose of this experiment was to study the deviations between the sociogram of actual babies with the sociogram of dolls . The doll experiment was repeated once in 30 days . As the babies grew older the deviations between actual and doll sociograms increased while the factor of chance influence receded . SOCIOMETRIC TEST OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL

As the next step the sociometric test was given to the boys and girls of all classes in a public school, from the kindergarten through the 8th grade . Each child was asked to choose among their classmates those whom he wanted to have stay in the same classroom and to sit near him . A quantitative analysis of their choices revealed that the attractions between the sexes, boys choosing girls and girls choosing boys, was highest in kindergarten and 1st grade, 35.5% and 32 .9% respectively, of all choices made ; that this ratio of attraction fell in the 2nd grade to 8.5% ; in the 3rd



grade to 4 .77o ; in the 4th grade to 1 .67o, its lowest level ; it showed a slight increase in the 5th, dropped to zero in the 6th, rose to 3 .2% in the 7th and gained a considerable increase in the 8th, rising to 10.537o . It revealed that the number of boys choosing girls was the same as that of girls choosing boys in the kindergarten, 17 .757o ; in the 1st and 2nd grades boys take the initiative, 277o versus 5.9% and 6 .87o versus 1 .77o respectively ; in the 3rd girls have the initiative, 3 .17o versus 1 .67o ; in the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th grades they are about even, but girls take the initiative again in the 8th grade, 6.58% versus 3 .95% . As a consequence of the test given to these pupils a complex structure of the class organization was uncovered, widely differing from the prevalent one . A number of pupils remained unchosen or isolated ; a number chose each other, forming mutual pairs, triangles or chains ; others attracted so many choices that they captured the center of the stage like stars . The percentage of individuals isolated, that is, unchosen by their own classmates, fluctuated between 15 .4% and 45.7% in the various classes . This percentage started at 27% in the kindergarten ; rose to 45 .77o, its highest point, in the 1st grade ; decreased to 30.5% in the 2nd ; dropped to 21 .27o in the 3rd ; to 18.27o in the 4th ; rose sharply to 28 .67o in the 5th ; dropped in the 6th and 7th grades to 15 .4% and 15 .6% and rose again to a high point in the 8th, 29 .57o . The number of mutual pairs was lowest in the kindergarten, 3 ; rose slowly to 6 in the 1st grade ; to 12 in the 2nd grade, to 14 in the 3rd grade, to 17 in the 4th grade ; dropped to 13 in the 5th, rose to 23 in the 6th, dropped again to 15 in the 7th and fell still lower, to 12, in the 8th grade . The forming of more complicated structures, such as triangles, chains, etc ., was lowest in the kindergarten and 1st grade, where they were totally absent ; they made their appearance in the 2nd grade and were in evidence from then on . The findings in respect to the baby groups and in respect to children's groups from 4 to 15 years are presented in Tables, in Frequency Histograms, and particularly through the means of a process to visualize the position of each individual within his group as well as the interrelations of all other individuals as these are affected by attractions and repulsions, the sociogram .





O f All Choices Made :

Kindergarten . . . . . . .. . 1st Grade 2nd Grade ------------3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade 6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade*

Girls Chose Boys

17 .75% 27 .00% 6 .80% 1 .60% 1 .60% 0 .00% 0 .00% 1 .60% 3 .95%

Both Sexes

17 .75% 5 .90% 1 .70% 3 .10% 0 .00% 2 .00% 0 .00% 1 .60% 6 .58%

35 .50% 32 .90% 8 .50% 4.70% 1 .60% 2 .00% 0.00% 3 .20% 10.53%

* The upward trend is further indicated by a large number of heterosexual choices going outside the class group . TABLE 2 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL GROUPS Of All Choices Made :

Kindergarten 1st Grade 2nd Grade .-- .---- . .-.-- .- .--. . . . 3rd Grade 4th Grade --- --- .-- .-- . .- .--. 5th Grade .- . . .--- .- . .-.- . . 6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade



27 .0% 45.7% 30.5% 21 .2 % 18 .2% 28 .6% 15 .4% 15 .6% 29 .5%

3 6 12 14 17 13 23 15 12



0 1 0 2 1 3 0 1

0 0 1 0 2 1 2 0


Of All Choices Made :

Kindergarten 1st Grade .- .-. 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade --6th Grade 7th Grade--- 8th Grade.- ..---- - . .---- ------


5 12 2 3 2 5 2 3

* Figures include inter-sexual pairs .



4 4 7 4 4 5 4 2 7


2 3 7 9% 9 6 11 6 61,E


1 3 5


8 7 12 9 51A




Up to the second grade more boys are unchosen than girls . From the second to the fifth grade the picture is reversed . From the fifth to the eighth the distribution is approximately even. More pairs are formed by boys up to the fifth grade. From the fifth grade to the eighth grade more pairs are formed by girls . It is the quantity of pairs and the interlocking between them which is decisive for group stability and cohesion, and not the high or low number of unchosen . If the greater tendency of girls to form pairs and this, after a poor start, the older they become, then this may be a clue to an interesting hypothesis which should be tested on a large sample : that the female shows a greater tendency towards socialization than the male, a greater trend towards constancy of choice and the formation of stable groups . PUBLIC SCHOOL, SECOND TEST

One class from each grade was retested after a period of seven weeks had elapsed to find out (a) to what extent the choices of the children fluctuate and (b) if the general trend of organization persists which had been found characteristic for this class in the first test . It appears that although one or the other pupil's position changes the general trend of organization persists . After a period of almost two years (twenty-two months) the population of the same public school was retested . Tables 4-6 indicate the findings . The findings of the second test corroborate the findings of the first test in every main aspect. This appears of great significance as it can be said that we met the second time a practically different population due to the turnover within two years and the changed distribution of the classes . It can be expected that future sociometric testing of similar public school populations will further corroborate our findings . However, the following variations between the findings of the first and of the second test can be noted . The number of intersexual attractions was found to decline more gradually and the number of mutual pairs to increase more gradually from the 1st grade on. Complex structures appear two years later . Other variations are very slight. The degree of accuracy of teachers' judgments in respect to most popular and to most isolated pupils has the highest





Of All Choices Made :

Kindergarten- 1st Grade . . .- . 2nd Grade . 3rd Grade 4th Grade . 5th Grade 6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade . Ungraded Classes- Physically Handicapped. . .---- . .

Boys Chose Girls 15 .0% 13 .0% 16 .0% 9 .2% 4 .2% 2 .4% .5% 1 .5%

Girls Chose Boys

1 .201o

1 .2% 5 .1%

12 .0% 8 .6% 9 .8% 10 .6% 4 .7% 1 .5% .6% 1 .9% 4.0% 0.0% 2 .2%

Both Sexes

27 .0% 21 .6% 25 .8% 19 .8% 8 .9% 3 .9% 1 .1% 3 .4% 5 .2 % 1 .2% 7 .3%



Of All Choices Made : Unchosen Kindergarten 27% 1st Grade. . . . . .- . .- . ..- . . . 32% 2nd Grade.-. .- .-- ..- .- . .---. .- .- .--.. 29% 3rd Grade 29% 4th Grade- -. .- . .---- .-- . . . .--- .- . 25% 5th Grade - . . . 21% 6th Grade . . .--- . . . .- .-- . . .- . . . . . 16% 7th Grade_ 21% 8th Grade . . . 20% Ungraded Classes- 27% Physically Handicapped .-. 29%

Pairs 6% 5% 12% 10% 16% 18% 16% 17% 20% 17 % 17%

Triangles 0 0 0 0 2 1 6 3 3 0 3

Chains 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 3 2 0 2

point in the kindergarten and 1st grade, declines from then on, and shows the lowest point in the 7th grade . Parallel with the test given to the pupils, a judgment test was given to their teachers . Each teacher was asked to write the name of the boy and the girl in her classroom whom she would judge will receive most of the choices from their classmates and the two who will receive next most ; also the name of the boy and the girl whom she would judge will receive the least choices and the two who will receive next least . In 48% of the instances the teachers' judgments coincided with the findings through the sociometric test in respect to the two most chosen boys and girls ; in 38% of the instances in respect to the two least chosen boys and girls in her classroom .




Kindergarten 1st Grade - ----------- ------------- --------------------- . .-2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade 6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade


Percentage of Accuracy

62.5% 64 .5% 50 .0% 50 .0% 37 .5% 30 .0% 30 .0% 25 .0% 40 .0%



The test was further given to boys from the ages of 14 to 18 years in a private college preparatory school and resulted as follows : Of 153 boys, 17 remained isolated, i.e ., 97o ; 105 formed mutual pairs, i.e ., 687o ; more complex structures, such as triangles, squares, or chains were formed by 16% . The experimental situation for the college preparatory group was, however, not identical with that used in the public school grades . In the former only boys were subjects and they were given 4 choices instead of 2 . About 257o of these boys were boarding at the school while the remainder were day students .


After 1st Choice


Unchosen After After 2nd Choice 3rd Choice




After 4th Choice


5 or more times chosen including 2 or more mutual choices ---------- 53% of population 2 or more times chosen including 1 mutual choice 32% of population Chosen once and with no mutual choice 6% of population



The first sociometric test of the Riverdale school population was given two months after the school was in session in the fall . On the basis of the 1st choice, 10% of the new boys (that is, boys who had not attended the school the year before) remained unchosen . It will be noted that this is practically the same proportion as that for the school population generally. New boys received 2 .8 choices per boy as against 3.75 choices per boy for the whole school . Revision of choices taken three months after the first choosing showed adjusted boys usually maintain or improve their position and unadjusted boys maintain generally the same position or else regress . Of the unadjusted boys, only 15 0% improved their position as against 44% of the adjusted boys who improved their position. It is of interest to compare the two divisions in the population the dormitory boys and the day school boys . Considering the dormitory boys exclusively, 82% of this population formed mutual pairs ; considering the day school boys exclusively, only 687o formed mutual pairs . The former class of students comprised 25% of the school population ; the latter class, 75% of the population . It is evident at once that the psychological position of the two groups is vastly different . The boys living in the more intimate situation and having more frequent and more constant social contact with one another become better adjusted than the day school boys whose opportunities for close contact are more casual . It appears also that the dormitory students are a greater attraction for the day school boys than their fellow students who are similarly "outsiders ." The average number of choices received by the dormitory student is 4 .85 while for the day student it is 3 .32 . This is the more striking when we consider the disproportion in numbers of members of the two groups . The second sociometric test was given after an interval of three months . The findings in respect to changing of choices were as follows : 8% of the 1st choices were changed, 1817o of the 2nd choices . Thus the 1st and 2nd choices appear to have a high degree of validity-92% of the 1st choices made remaining unchanged and 82% of the 2nd choices remaining unchanged after this period.























A circle represents a girl. A large circle represents a woman . A double circle or double triangle signifies that the individual is a member of a different group from the one charted . In one-color charts each line represents an attraction . A red line represents attraction. A black line represents repulsion . A crossed line represents two-sided relation .


A triangle represents a boy . A large triangle represents a main . A line drawn from one individual to another represents the relation of one individual to the other . In multi-colored charts each different color represents a different relation . A dotted line represents indifference. An arrowed line indicates one-sided relation . In charts representing specific emotional reactions of one individual towards another, a red line represents sympathy ; a dotted or broken line represents fear ; a thin line represents anger ; a heavy black line represents dominance .




Fib . 2

3 Fig . 1 . Attractions between individuals take the form of a chain . Fig . 2 . Attractions between individuals take the form of pairs, isolated units and groups of three . Fig. 3 . The sub-groups are centralized, each about two dominating (star) individuals who have no attractive forces uniting them . The star is an individual who receives at least five choices . Fig . 4 . A group in which two dominating individuals are strongly united, both directly and indirectly through other individuals .* * The above sociograms are from J . L . Moreno, Application of the Group Method to Classification, 1932, p . 101 .







1 . Attractions and repulsions take the form of a pair . Mutual attraction (red pair) . Mutual rejection (black pair) . Indifference vs. rejection . Attraction vs. rejection . Indifference vs. attraction . 2 . Mutual repulsions and attractions take the form of a chain. Chain of mutual rejections . Chain of mutual attractions . 3 . Mutual repulsions and attractions take the form of a triangle . Triangle formed by rejections. Triangle formed by attractions. 4. Mutual repulsions and attractions take the form of a square. Square formed by rejections . Square formed by attractions . 5 . Mutual attractions take the form of a circle. 6 . Attractions take the form of a center (star) . 7 . Rejections take the form of a center (star) . 8 . Center of incompatible relations, rejections vs . attractions.





1 . Total isolation-no lines of attraction or repulsion connect subject with any other individual . 2 . Subject is attracted to six individuals outside of her group (outside individuals are symbolized by a double circle) who do not reciprocate . 3 . 'Subject is attracted to four individuals outside of her group and rejects two more ; they do not reciprocate ; three others outside of her group who are attracted to her she does not reciprocate. 4. Subject is attracted to five individuals within her group ; they respond with indifference. 5 . Mutual attractions between three individuals take the form of a triangle but each of the subjects is otherwise rejected and isolated within her own group ; the result is an isolated and rejected triangle of persons . 6 . Five subjects, each isolated and rejected within her own group reject and isolate each other . 7. Two subjects, each otherwise isolated in her own group form a pair of mutual attraction ; the result is an isolated pair . 8 . Subject rejects six and is rejected by fifteen individuals within and two individuals outside of her own group. The result is an isolated and rejected individual .

140 TYPES OF SOCIOMETRIC DIAGRAMS Sociometric diagrams are so constructed that interpersonal relations and social interactions can be explored and measured . Several types of sociometric diagrams have been developed : 1 . Spontaneous Interaction Diagrams (1923), 2 . Acquaintance Diagrams (1934), 3 . Sociograms (1932), 4 . Sociomatrix (1940), 5 . Role Diagram (1940), 6 . Space and Movement Diagram (1923) . SPONTANEOUS INTERACTION DIAGRAMS

Spontaneous interaction diagrams are the oldest diagrams which try to portray actual interpersonal relations for the purpose of measurement . The German name which I gave to these diagrams was "Stegreifdiagram" and "Stegreifnoten", which means "spontaneous interaction diagrams ." They represent a type of diagramming which aims at the closest possible duplication of life itself . The purpose is, therefore, to present symbolically in the diagram all fundamental variables of a life situation, time, space, number and type of persons present, acts and pauses, initiative (starting a scene), simultaneity of appearance, leadership, change in leadership, ending (a scene) . Key to symbols : t = unit of time ; in the diagrams included here it is one minute, one minute being found a convenient unit of measurement ; thus, 5 minutes will be 5t . At other times the smallest time unit used was ten seconds instead of one minute . Every scene (A) consists of acts (a) and pauses (p) ; A = na + np . An act is a focused operation, as eating a mouthful, walking across a room, repartee in a dialogue, hitting a target, kissing or falling asleep. A pause is resting between two acts. Each of these acts and pauses may vary in duration and may take a fraction of a second, a number of seconds, or longer . In the case of one individual A a mouthful of food is consumed in ten seconds, in that of another individual B in twenty seconds ; the pause between two kisses may be in one case one second, in another case three minutes . In life itself the tempo is spontaneous, that is, determined by the partners, but the tempo of an act may be accelerated or slowed down by external conditions, as in business . In the course of observing a large number of acts and interacts certain averages, norms of ideal duration, became noticeable, without any loss to the spontaneity of the actor and the result of the production .




The diagram is a diagram of acquaintances ; individuals participating in an open session, being strangers to each other, were found to have few acquaintances within the group . It is of diagnostic value in the analysis of a session to know of the pre-existing social contacts of the participants . SOCIOGRAMS

In contrast with these diagrams in which a symbol is given to each important life variable there are other diagrams which are more abstract . In a sociogram, for instance, the time and space symbols are not recorded, only the relationships between all the persons interacting are recorded . Sociograms are so recorded as if the processes which they depict take place in a "social" space, [not in actual physical space] and in a timeless universe . There are sociograms, however, in which physical and social space are intertwined (see Space and Movement Diagram, p . 149) . In preparation for any analysis sociometric diagrams should be carefully constructed . This is particularly important for sociograms . A readable sociogram is a good sociogram . To be readable, the number of lines crossing must be minimized . The fewer the number of lines crossing, the better the sociogram . After having gathered and tabulated the choices, pick the persons who are most chosen and start the sociogram with them . Place the persons in their natural formations-three persons in a triangle, four in a square, five in a pentagon, etc ., well separated on the paper . In the drawing the existence of subgroups should be observable . An illustration of a good diagram is the acquaintance diagram on p . 145 . Illustrations of badly constructed sociograms are most of the cottage charts, as the cuts used for them stem from the first edition of the book . For the comparison of two or more groups the sociograms must be constructed after the same principle in order to be readable . The sociogram has many advantages over the sociomatrix ; it presents all the data and their relationships at one glance and it permits structural analysis in its most minute detail . Sociograms can be constructed easily if the group is small (below thirty individuals) and if the number of choices and rejections is limited (two to five) . If the group is large a "reduc-



tional (decimal, centesimal, etc .) technique" can be used in the construction of the sociogram (see illustration, p . 428) . SOCIOMATRIX *

A sociomatrix is still more abstract than a sociogram ; all the persons participating in a situation are recorded but here not only time and space, but also the signs of contact between them are eliminated. ROLE DIAGRAM

It portrays the clusters of roles of individuals and the interaction between these roles . SPACE AND MOVEMENT DIAGRAM (LocoGRAM)

The parallelogram indicates the social space within which movement takes place . Each cross indicates the position in space taken at the moment of interaction by the four individuals a, b, c, and d . * Symbolistic diagrams of interaction, such as schematic diagrams, scatter diagrams, histograms, record relationships in a still more abstract fashion. The persons themselves have become symbols and generalizations, items in scales and frequencies . A numerical representation is the farthest abstraction from the real process, say two and a half billion individuals expressing human life on earth.



7t K k a P

t 2 tt



t t4 t5 t6 2

11 OIL W1 & ki W E I I 111k


m d P V R SPONTANEOUS INTERACTION DIAGRAM I* The diagram represents a process of interaction between nine individuals . K, k, a, p, m, d, P, V, R, are the roles taken by them . The interaction process consists of 6 scenes of equal duration (tl-t6) and 2 of half duration (t/2) . Duration of entire process is 7t . t is five minutes, 7t is thirty-five minutes . K is the protagonist who dominates the process of interaction . Zero symbol indicates that k, a and p are present in the first situation without having an active part in it . The sign for pause illustrates, as in the case of P, the disappearance of this individual from the scene . Points of coordination are used to indicate simultaneity of action, as is the case with p and R in the last two scenes . * From J . L. Moreno, Das St egreifth eater, 1923, p . 95 .



.7t Th schl sch3 sch3 3H D

t t 2 2


t 2


t 2


t 2


t 2

j TnW 11W516 516 N !`ki 1iiiiii WL00 IIIIIIII 0W 11/1/11/1 Il~l~l~l~i~l


The diagram represents a process of interaction between eight individuals . Th, schl, sch2, sch3, 3H and D, are the roles taken by them (3H stands for 3 individuals taking one and the same role) . The interaction process consists of 4 scenes of equal duration (t1, t2, t3 and t4) and 6 of half duration (t/2) . Duration of entire process is 7t . t is five minutes, 7t is thirty-five minutes . Th is the protagonist who dominates the entire process of interaction . * From J . L . Moreno, Das Stegreiftheater, 1923, p . 90 .



Twenty-four individuals report with whom they were acquainted before this face-to-face meeting, without any further emotional or social connotations, merely "knowing each other." * From Edgar Borgatta, Group Psychotherapy, Vol. III, 1950, p . 306 .







Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices, no limit placed on rejections . 24 girls . Isolated 1 ; Tlnchosen 2 ; Unchosen and Rejected 2 ; Not Choosing 3 ; Pairs 15 ; Mutual Rejections 5 ; Incompatible Pairs 4 ; Chains 2 ; Triangles 2 ; Squares 1 ; Circles 1 ; Stars (of attraction) 1; Stars (of rejection) 1, CM . Classification : Extroverted Group Organization ; Inward Aggressive .


+ + -, w

o " 0 .

0 0 0~ o ~~ao MCD 0




1: 2: 3:


g 8



C •


a~ m


0 w

m ct CD a. 0 0

CD CD CD CD CO c* d A+ 0


C n k m ro 0


H pf

o h

H z z

co Pi • 0


Acceptances and Rejections Given 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 / 0 0

0 5: • 0 6: • 0 0 0 • 0 0 9: 0

10 : 11 : 12 : • d 13 : 14 : • 15 - • 16 : 17 : 18 : • • 19 : 420 : 21 : F4 22 : 023 : 24 : 25 : 26 : +° 2 7 ro 28 : 0 X29 : / A : 19

0 0

0 0 0 • 0 0 • 0


0 0

• •


0 0 0

• 0 • 0 f 0

< 0 0 0 >< ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f 0 f 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f f 0 0 >< >< 0 - >< 0 / r 1 IG 14 S 2-3 6 z4 IL i2 20 9 B -8 1 20 24 -2. -2 10 .$7 Sa 17 .82 LI AS V .42 71 32 .z -_28 ,03 25 .89 e>S _07 -.07 .33 103 40 z9 /e8 zS Ile 71 4 t 91 Y3 s3 -1 Z8 122 .71 101 114 111 23 48



KEY-. i



From J . L . Moreno, Ed ., Group Psychotherapy, A Symposium, 1945 .



Marital state, at a time when a third person has entered the situation, Miss S . Mr . and Mrs. T are attracted to each other in the roles of husband and wife (R3-r3) and the role of supporter and homemaker (R2-r2) . Mr . T's love role,. in which he is no longer attracted to Mrs . T, finds expression in his relation to Miss S (RI-S1) . She also fulfills his poet and adventurer roles (R4-S4 and R5-S5) and his father role (R6-S6) .

+ b


a, b, c and d are four individuals interacting within the same social space . The diagram is constructed to measure the physical configurations of distance between individuals in any sequence of situations . The physical distance between a and b, and a and d is the same ; the distance between b and c is twice the distance between a and b ; the distance between a and d is three times the distance between a and b or c and d . Measuring the distances in inches, feet or meters one can follow up the changes in distance from situation to situation and compare the accompanying variations or changes in the action taking or roleplaying of the four individuals. In the space diagram or locogram above a and b and a and d form two physical dyads ; in the next scene the locogram may change, a, b and a draw very close, forming a physical triangle, d remains alone, by himself, a physically observable isolate. Because of measurability of positions and movements in space this type of diagram is more useful than the symbolic representation of relations . * From J . L . Moreno, Das Stegreiftheater, 1923, p. 88 .





A group of 9 babies of the same age level were placed in the same room and in close proximity, throughout the first year of life . The emphasis of observation was not placed upon the development of the different responses as crying, sucking, clucking, sulking, and whether these are or are not truly social responses, and so on, but upon the early beginnings of interrelation and group formation . No sign of such beginning could be traced during the first 26 weeks in infantto-infant relation . Each baby lives in isolation from the other . Within this period of isolation and close to the 2-months level, the voice of a crying baby may arouse the attention of his neighbor-marking the subdivision of this period between full isolation and the beginning of the recognition of others.




The true beginning of group development starts from twenty to twenty-eight weeks . One baby, C, recognizes its neighbor, E, who recognizes it in return. One baby, D, is recognized by two neighbors, A and B, and recognizes one neighbor, G. One baby, A, recognizes two babies, B and D, but remains unrecognized . B is attracted to D, C is attracted to B ; by indirection through C, baby B may become influenced by E-we see here the forerunner of a I `chain." On this level interrelations are aroused by physical proximity and are based upon physical distance or nearness. The physical distance produces psychological

distance . At this level emotions travel through physical proximity in space horizontally and in consequence there follows the development of group structures through horizontal differentiation.




The difference in physical strength and mental alertness begins to affect the group organization as soon as the babies are able to walk and to move around freely, from forty to forty-two weeks on . The group begins to develop a Atop" : leaders A and B, and a "bottom" : dependents C, D, E, F, G, H, J and K, with isolated members : N, I, L and M-that is, vertical differentiation .



i MC




STRUCTURE OF A KINDERGARTEN CRITERION : STUDYING AND PLAYING IN PROXIMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 15 boys and 18 girls . Unchosen 9, NV, FE, MA, TO, AS, RG, PR and also RS (boy in lower left of chart) and SI (girl in lower right of chart) ; Pairs 3, AL-WB, WB-SN, SN-LW ; Stars (Centers of Attractions) 4, WB, SN, PG, MR ; Chains (of relationships) 0 ; Triangles 0 ; Inter-Sexual Attractions 22 ; Not Choosing 2, CE, MZ. 33 pupils make 62 choices ; 3 pairs are formed by 4 pupils ; for 2 pupils both choices are mutual ; for 2 pupils one choice is mutual . 6%a (2 pupils) achieve full success in spontaneous self placement . 6% (2 pupils) achieve partial success in spontaneous self placement . 94% 88% (29 pupils) achieve no success in spontaneous self placement . 61% (20 pupils) choose an unreciprocating party . Out of these 29 pupils 27% (9 pupils) remain unchosen .

This analysis demonstrates that the tele is weakly developed in this group of children ranging between 4 and 6 years of age . In a group psychotherapy program special attention may be given to the 2 pupils not choosing and the 9 unchosen ones . Compare the authoritarian seating order in a classroom "before" the sociometric test is given and "after" its results are known .


CLASS STRUCTURE, 1ST GRADE CRITERION : STUDYING IN PROXIMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 21 boys and 14 girls . Unchosen 16, PR, CA, SH, FI, RS, DC, GA, SM, BB, TS, KI, TA, HF, SA, KR (girl in top right of chart) and GO (boy in top left of chart) ; Pairs 6, SI-GO, HN-WI, WO-CE, KR-HC, KR-ON, CE-HN ; Stars 5, FA, CE, WO, HC, MB ; Chains 0 ; Triangles 0 ; Inter-sexual Attractions 23 . 35 pupils make 70 choices ; 6 pairs are formed by 10 pupils ; for 1 pupil both choices are mutual ; for 8 pupils one choice is mutual . 2.9% (1 pupil) achieve full success in spontaneous self placement . 26 .9% (9 pupils) achieve partial success in spontaneous self placement . 97 .1% 70 .2% (25 pupils) achieve no success in spontaneous self placement. This analysis shows that the tele is better developed in this group than it is in the Kindergarten group . In a group psychotherapy program compare how many of the 16 unchosen pupils have found choice partners in other criteria, as playing together or visiting each other outside the school.


CLASS STRUCTURE, 2ND GRADE CRITERION : STUDYING IN PRo%IMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 14 boys and 15 girls. Unchosen 9, WI, KP, MG, AT, P8, 00, CR, MR, SH ; Pairs 12, ZV-MK, MK-LN, OW-ZI, OW-GR, GR-LL, ZI-JM, HN-CM, SL-JN, JN-PO, PO-SL, HF-BE, GL-GU ; Stars 2, SL, PO ; Chains 0 ; Triangles 1, SL-JN-PO ; Inter-sexual Attractions 5 . 29 pupils make 59 choices ; 12 pairs are formed by 17 pupils ; for 7 pupils both choices are mutual ; for 10 pupils one choice is mutual . 24% (7 pupils) achieve full success in spontaneous self placement . 35% (10 pupils) achieve partial success in spontaneous self placement . 76% 41% (12 pupils) achieve no success in spontaneous self placement . 10Y2 % ( 3 pupils) choose an unreciprocating party . Out of the 12 pupils 1 2 % ( 9 pupils) 30/ remain unchosen. This analysis shows that the tele is better developed in this group than it is in the 1st Grade group . In a group psychotherapy program watch the "early" triangle formation, SL-JN-PO and the forces operating in it .



CLASS STRUCTURE, 3RD GRADE CRITERION : STUDYING IN PROXIMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 19 boys and 14 girls . Unchosen 7, VS, OR, CH, MN, PD, KN, ZK ; Pairs 14, SR-ZC, SR-NE, SL-JC, NV-TI, PL-JT, JT-ET, KR-BE, BE-AG, KB-GZ, PL-GO, GO-MC, WL-LG, SA-GE, GE-TY ; Stars 3, GO, PL, JT ; Chains 1, ET-JT-PL-GO-MC-LG ; Triangles 0 ; Inter-sexual Attractions 3 ; Not Choosing 1, LV. In a group psychotherapy program special attention may be given to the pupil not choosing and the chain formed by six pupils .



CLASS STRUCTURE, 4TH GRADE CRITERION : STUDYING IN PROXIMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 17 boys and 16 girls. Unchosen 6, EP, RY, EL, FA, SI, OF ; Pairs 17, GR-SI, GR-LI, MR-LN, LN-SM, YL-KN, AB-BA, BA-BR, KI-KN, AB-PN, FO-VN, BU-CV, LN-WI, LN-MR, BR-MC, BR-RS, WI-MR, MC-RS ; Stars 2, LN, VN ; Chains 0 ; Triangles 2, BR-RS-MC ; LN-WI-MR ; Inter-sexual Attractions 1 ; Not Choosing 1, SH . In a group psychotherapy program special attention should be given to the rapidly decreasing number of inter-sexual attractions and the role played by the stars, LN and VN, in this process .


CLASS STRUCTURE, 5TH GRADE CRITERION : STUDYING IN PROXIMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 19 boys and 16 girls . Unchosen 10, HN, ES, TR, SL, RS, HR, RF, JN, FS and MR (girl, circle in upper right of chart) ; Pairs (mutual choices inside of group) 13, ML-MR (boys, triangles in upper left of chart), DA-LV, AD-VR, AD-RE, RE-VR, JL-LR, RT-ER, ER-SS, RT-BT, DM-GA, MR-CR (girls, circles in right center of chart), DM-FI, FI-MR ; Pairs (mutual choices outside of group) 6, ST-HN, ST-NI, NI-HN, MR-ES, ES-FS, TR-PN ; Stars 2, FI, DM ; Chains 2, CR-MR-FI-DM-GA-HN, SS-ER-RT-BT-SR ; Triangles (inside of group) 1, AD-VR-RE, (outside of group) 1, HN-NI-ST ; Inter-sexual Attractions 1 ; Choosing Outside Their Group 9, ML, HN, MR, SL, ES, SA, JN, TR, FS ; Not Choosing 2, SM and GA (boy, bottom left of chart) . In a group psychotherapy program special attention should be given to the centrifugal tendency, 9 pupils choosing outside of their group and the effect it has upon the entire group organization .


CLASS STRUCTURE, 6TH GRADE CRITERION ; STUDYING IN PROXIMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 18 boys and 21 girls. Unchosen 6, FS, HD, ML, GA, BR, WL ; Pairs (inside group) 23, WL-WT, WT-SH (boy, triangle top left of chart), GO-GI, GO-TI, TI-GI, PI-WI, PI-SH, NL-PI, YG-FR, FR-SH (boy, triangle extreme bottom left of chart), SH-YG, FE-TU, TU-BR (girl, circle extreme top right of chart), HI-NS, HR-AR, AR-OE, OE-EL, EL-KR, KN-PT, DM-AL, SL-BY, BY-LP, LP-SL ; (outside of group) 3, WL-LY, SH-CA, KR-HD ; Stars 1, OE ; Chains (inside of group) 1, HR-AR-OE-CL-KR-OE, (outside of group) 1, LY-WLWT-SH-CA ; Triangles 3, GO-GI-TI, YG-FR-SH, $L-BY-LP ; Inter-sexual Attractions 0 ; Choosing Outside Their Group 4, WL, SH, FS, KR . In a group psychotherapy program watch whether the complete cleavage between the two sex groups is repeated in other criteria .



14 boys and 18 girls . Unchosen 5, WN, CH, LB, JH, BR ; Pairs 15, LN-SR, SR-LR, SR-RI (Note : iSR makes three choices all of which are mutually reeiprocated), RI-TP, FR-BA, MR-EB, SP-BY, BY-LA, LA-BC, BC-MN, BB-MY, KE-KR (girl, circle bottom right of chart), KR-HE, JR-KR, MN-WL ; Stars 4, BY, LR, RI, LA ; Chains 2, SP-BY-LA-BC-MN-BY, LN-SR-RI-TP-BA ; Triangles 0 ; Inter-sexual Attractions 2 . In a group psychotherapy program watch the "return" of the inter-sexual choice -and inter-sexual leaders.








CLASS STRUCTURE, 8TH GRADE CRITERION : STUDYING IN PROXIMITY, ACTUALLY SITTING BESIDE THE PUPILS CHOSEN ; 2 CHOICES 22 boys and 22 girls . Unchosen 13, KP, GL, SN, LI, SL, MT, KE, SO, ZL, KI, HA, TA, RT (girl, circle right bottom of chart) ; Pairs (inside of group) 12, BT-MR, SM-SK, GI-ZF, HF-MM, MM-YD, HF-YD, ZF-PR, BT-KR, GL-PL, SE-HR, HS-OI, BA-ML, (outside of group) 1, FN-LR ; Stars 2, SM, PL ; Chains 0 ; Triangles 1, HF-MM-YD ; Inter-sexual Attractions (inside of group) 8, (outside of group) 7 ; Choosing Outside Their Group 12, SL, DR, GI, SE, BA, ML, 01, HA, HS, BY, FN, SI. In a group psychotherapy program compare the increase of unchosen pupils, 13, with the large number of those choosing outside the group .



Fig. 1 . Ungraded Class 1, 14 boys and 6 girls. Unchosen 6, LS, MN, VL, S, J, LC ; Pairs 7, PA-TT, TT-SF, CC-LO, BR-VC, JT-FT, JT-CT, OT-ES ; Stars 0 ; Chains 0 ; Triangles 0 ; Inter-sexual Attractions 1 ; Not Choosing 5, LS, MN, VL, JA, V. Fig. 2 . Ungraded Class 2, 9 boys and 8 girls . Unchosen 5, JS, WJ, CV, EH, FL ; Pairs 6, PD-PA, PA-TP, AM-JD, CC-RL, CM-RL, CM-CC ; Stars 1, CM; Chains 0 ; Triangles 1, OM-CC-RL ; Inter-sexual Attractions 0 ; Not Choosing 2, N, JS . In a group psychotherapy program pay special attention to the 7 pupils not choosing.







10 boys and 13 girls. tTnchosen 7, EK, AS, ER, DHa, RK, FT, GT ; Pairs 5, JB-TD, EF-LD, LD-DH, DH-NS, NS-MP ; Stars 3, MP, NS, DA ; Chains 1, EF-LD-DH-NS-MP-DH ; Triangles 0 ; Inter-sexual Attractions 1 ; Choosing Outside Their Group 1, ML ; Not Choosing 2, EK, FR. In a group psychotherapy program attention should be given to the size of the class group . In this classroom 2 do not choose, 1 chooses outside the group and 7 are unchosen. The number of pupils may be too large, considering the low emotional expansiveness which some of its members have . There is no ideal number for the size of a therapeutic group as some workers who advocate in favor of three, five, seven, nine, twelve, etc ., appear to think . The size of the group is a function of the emotional expansiveness of its memhers . The type of physical handicap, as stuttering, blindness, cerebral palsy, ties, chorea, etc., has a bearing upon the sociometric status of an individual .






Fig. 1. Psychological organization around a pupil Julia ; criterion, studying in proximity ; social atom of the subject has developed after eight months in class group 8B1 in P .S . 181, Brooklyn, N . Y. Julia is the first choice of eight boys, Buster, Michael, George, Herman, Leonard, Frank, Jack and Alfonso, who all want to sit beside her in the classroom . Alfonso is the boy who receives her third choice . She is at the same time rejected by nine girls, Olga-whom she rejects in turn-Helen, Gertrude, Patsy, Sylvia, Florence, Beatrice, Maria and her first choice, Petrina, who do not want to sit near her . She is the first choice of Shirley whom she chooses second.

165 Fig. 2 . Psychological organization around a pupil Olga ; criterion, studying in proximity ; social atom of the subject has developed after eight months in class group 8B1 in P .S . 181, Brooklyn, N. Y . Olga rejects six boys whom she does not want to sit near her, Charles, Leonard, Bill, Russell, Buster and Jack ; the latter who rejects her as do also Frank and Michael . She is mutually attracted to one boy, George . She chooses four girls, Shirley, Sylvia, Florence and Doris, whom she wants to sit near her and with one of them, Florence, she forms a mutual pair . She is rejected by the other three girls and in addition by Julia with whom she forms a mutual rejection. The sixth girl shown in the chart, Beatrice, is rejected by her . Fig . 3 . The psychological organization around Julia, shown in Fig . 1, and that around Olga, shown in Fig . 2, are presented together in this chart to indicate how the two girls are interlocked directly and by indirection through the individuals who choose or reject them and whom they choose or reject and who overlap in this pattern of rejections and attractions . This psychological organization demonstrates dramatically that group psychotherapy cannot be effectively applied unless all people around an individual are considered ; that usually means therapy of the entire group.





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Fig . 1 . Attraction between the sexes, boys attracted to girls and girls attracted to boys, is represented . This attraction is indicated as highest in the kindergarten, rising to 27% and dropping to 26% in the 1st grade . The ages of these pupils range between 4 and 7 years . In the 2nd grade the attractions fell to 16 1/s% ; in the 3rd grade to 8%% ; in the 4th grade to 2 1/2%, its lowest level ; in the 5th, 6th and 7th grades there is shown a slight increase to 51/2%, 3 1/2% and 3% respectively . In the 8th grade, where the ages of the pupils range between 13 and 15 years the attractions rose decidedly to 8% . Fig . 2 . Initiative on the part of each sex in choosing the other is indicated. From the 1st grade up to the 5th the initiative of the boys in choosing girls is about twice as great as that of girls in choosing boys . In the 5th grade the tables are reversed : girls showing an initiative greater than that of boys . In the 6th, 7th and 8th grades (age range 11-15 years) the initiative of boys and of girls is about equal . (The dotdash line indicates girls and the plain line indicates boys.) These four histograms were charted after a part of the data was analyzed . When all the data were analyzed some changes in the percentages were found, although the general trend which they indicate remained unchanged. For further details, see Tables 1 through 5 .


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Fig . 3 . Mutual attraction between children is represented . The percentage of mutual pairs is lowest in the kindergarten (age range 4-6 years), namely 7-8% ; rises to 9% in the 1st grade (Age range 6-7 years) ; rises to 13% in the 2nd grade (age range 7-8 years) ; rises to 18% in the 3rd grade (age range 8-9 years) ; rises to 209o' in the 4th grade (age range 9-10 years) ; rises to 27% in the 5th grade (age range 1011 years) ; drops to 26% in the 6th grade (age range 11-12 years) ; drops to 25 0 o in the 7th grade (age range 12-13 years) ; drops further to 2001o in the 8th grade (age range 13-15 years) . Fig . 4 . Frequency of isolation among children is represented . The percentage of isolated and unchosen is highest in the kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grades ; the ages range from 4-7 years. After 7 years, approximately from the 3rd grade on the percentage drops gradually and reaches a low point at 13 years of age when it tends to increase slightly .











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170 EVOLUTION OF GROUPS A PRIVATE PREPARATORY SCHOOL, POPULATION, 153 Boys MAP OF A SCHOOL COMMUNITY After the data, based on spontaneous choices of the students for each other, with their aversions and the reasons for each had been compiled, the following chart of the entire school was made . Each student is indicated by a triangle in which the upper figure denotes the grade or form . By this means the students may be viewed as a whole, or any part may be seen in its relation to other parts, and to the whole. Many elements have been omitted for purposes of simple presentation here, such as all aversions, all reasons, and what are called "changed choices" made at a later time . Unreciprocated attractions are also omitted, as requiring too complicated a chart . In this chart only mutual attractions are portrayed . Note the isolated individuals, 34 in number, out of a total of 152 ; they stand out clearly . The partly isolated individuals, 22 in number, also appear on the chart, such as the individual 1/30 in the lower right hand corner .

Certain small groups, such as the two in the middle left, which are detached from the main structure, suggest a separate situation for study . Here we have a fifth form boy, 5/14, as leader of a group largely composed of third form boys . The isolated individual, 5/5, and the partly isolated individual, 3/3, seek identification with the group .

It will be noted how the individuals spontaneously group themselves, irrespective of forms, particularly the older students, where a wider participation in activities occurs . In a group psychotherapy and sociodrama program, attention should be given to the high number of isolates and the large number of cliques producing a community of low cohesion.


The chart shows a school fraternity. Quite understandably, feelings of repulsion are not given frankly by the students because of feelings of loyalty, but nevertheless significant conclusions may be drawn from the fact that two'seniors, 6/13 and 6/14, are not desired by anyone in the fraternity in spite of the fact that they were formally elected to join . The individual 5/11 is the center of forces of attraction and is, in fact, the president of the fraternity . In a group psychotherapy program compare the hierarchic structure of the fraternity with its sociometric structure . The conflict may well be as to what the therapeutic program tries to strengthen : the values of the fraternity system or the sociometric structure which is the cumulative effect of the unorganized protest against them.



The chart shows the position occupied by a typical leader in the school. Note that 4/2 has six reciprocal attractions ; six additional attractions toward him by individuals to whom he is indifferent ; one mutual dislike and four additional dislikes, each of whom feels neutral toward him . This is a high 11 batting average." The total number of individuals (17) toward whom relations have been expressed in the course of the survey, distributed over four forms, indicates that 4/2 takes an active attitude toward his fellow students and to life and is not on the "side lines."




The student 3/15 arouses active feelings-he is the focus of a great deal of antipathy ; he chooses 3/25 and is chosen by him ; he also chooses two others, 5/20 and 5/21 who, significantly, are new boys and who are indifferent to him ; he further chooses 5/19 who, however, rejects him . This shows that 3/15 has formed only one satisfactory contact in the entire school, while there are six mutual rejections and two which he directs towards persons who are indifferent to him, and another from a person towards whom he is indifferent, besides the rejection from 5/19 already mentioned .




The chart shows the football team which includes two substitute backs . Note that the quarterback 4/MS is the focus of attraction forces on the team, as he should be, but that fullback 5/RB is chosen by nobody on the team and is rejected by four : 4/RH and 4/EH of the back field, and 5/JA and 5/CW of the line. It is easy to see that when 5/RB is running with the ball he is not apt to get the maximum of cooperation in interference and blocking . (See Map of a School Community, pp . 168-169 .)

175 SOCIOMETRIC SURVEY OF MOTIVATIONS Through a sociometric survey of the motivations spontaneously given by children we were able to record verbatim the expressions as they were given by them . Using the means of selecting a number of typical instances from the first test of a public school, we here attempt to give in miniature a survey of the material. Each motivation has been broken up into the phrases of which it consists . The frequency of motivations occurring at different age levels in reference to the criterion around which the groups of children were intended can be calculated . Each of these motivations has been evaluated in reference to its meaning in group organization and in reference to the developmental level at which it was found . KINDERGARTEN (Ages 4-6 Yrs .) Neil chooses Loretta : Neil chooses June : Joyce chooses Robert : Joyce chooses Howard :

Howard chooses Helen : Lucy chooses Mary : Lucy chooses Rose : Howard chooses Joyce : Robert chooses Howard : Frank chooses Joyce : Frank chooses John : John chooses Joyce :

She looks nice all the time. She has a nice hankie and a nice dress ." "She takes me to her house and gives me cocoanut ." "Because he wears so much nice clothes and lie always comes around to play with me." "Because he lives on my block ; because all the time when I tell him to come down and play with me 'cause I can't come up, he always does . "

Because she's my friend. She's nice ." "She's nice to me . She lets me hold her flowers ." "She's nice to me . She lets me hold her flowers too . Sometimes she lets me play rope with her ." "She lives around my block and she plays with me every day . She's my friend and she never fights with me." "He always comes around my way and he always skates with me and he always calls for me when I come home from school ." "She's my friend . I like her because I want to go over to her house some time . I never went to her house yet." "Because I like to play with him ." "She's nice . She says so nice, `Miss Harlow, may I go to the bathroom?' " L`


176 Eugene chooses Daniel :

Eugene chooses Frank : Lucy rejects Frank :

"Once he came around my house and gave me peppermint candy . Then he came around my way and he gave me some candy to give to my brother ." "Because he eats with me." "He's bad ."


In Regard to Sex . when I tell him to

come down and play with me 'cause I can't come up he always does . She says so nice, "Miss Harlow, may I go to the bathroom?"

In Regard to Level o f Motivation

looks nice has a nice dress wears so much nice clothes gives me cocoanut lets me hold her flowers plays with me never fights with me skates with me calls for me want to go over to her house gave me peppermint candy eats with me

Conclusions, Kindergarten

In Regard to Race

None .

Compared with the motivations given in later grades, the utterances of the kindergarten children are extremely naive images which are hardly separable from the accompanying gesture and movement. The mimic-verbal expressions projected as a talking film would present the motivations more adequately . But it is evident that the attractions are definite, however inarticulate the motivations for them may be . Whether or not the phrases given are picked from somewhere and reiterated by the child does not alter the fact that they are used in relation to a particular other child who is chosen . Indeed, it appeared that the choice decision and the excitement accompanying the act were greater at this age level than in later years when the children tend to become more circ*mspect in their choosing and more inclined to think the matter over before making their choices . The kindergarten child instantaneously bubbles over with his choice and with a particular delight as if he were in a hurry to release a pleasant secret . Whether or not the "thinking it over" of the


1 77

older child makes the choices more sensible, it certainly diminishes the fresh, spontaneous expression as found in the response of the pre-school child . Approximately one-third of the choices of the kindergarten population are for the opposite sex . But the motivations given are still so undifferentiated that the motivations for heterosexual choices cannot be distinguished from those for hom*osexual choices . This does not infer that the sexual feeling is not inherent in the attraction but rather that this feeling does not become articulated except in rare instances . On the other hand, whereas in respect to sex articulation is present although weak, in respect to race and nationality no motivations whatsoever are detectable at this age level . Individuals of different nationality and race attract each other and the distribution of these attractions is as even as if nationality and race were not yet attributes of the individual. The wild, unreciprocated choosing reflects the role of physical proximity in the making of association and accounts for the predominance of the horizontal structure of differentiation over the vertical structure . The only pronounced vertical differentiation present is the primitive leader structure . The organization of the group is rudimentary. The character of the weakly articulated motivations is esthetic and pre-social . Whether such expressions as given by children of the kindergarten and 1st grade can be classified as predominantly egocentric (Piaget), or better said, if the notion egocentric is a true duplicate of the actual process, is questionable . They often indicate inarticulate symbolic thinking . In the interpretation of Piaget they appear to be above the so-called autistic and below the so-called logical level of expression, that is, egocentric . In our experimental situations we paid particular attention to what one child thinks of another, how he reflects about another in relation to an immediate purpose, and less to what the subjects think about themselves in isolation . We did not consider the verbal expression alone but also the non-verbal, mimic expressions, how a child warms up towards another whom he chooses or how he overlooks other children as if they were not present . In fact, we considered the two phases of expression as inseparable . A very inarticulate, indefinite verbal expression was often accom-



panied by a definite, decisive gesture . We overrate language as a social index if we do not take into consideration the physical and mimic index operating in human interaction . The younger the children the more they emphasize with gestures rather than with words . They project their intelligence through a pantomimic language. The older the children the more they shift their emphasis from the gesture to the spoken word . Formerly the language was a part of their body . Now it is used as a tool . However, also in the higher grades we found a percentage of children who persist in the primacy of bodily action, using words only as an appendage. It is our opinion that sociometric classification is better able to differentiate the various levels in the pre-socialized period than individualistic classifications as autistic or egocentric . The basis of sociometric classification is not a psyche which is bound up within an individual organism but individual organisms moving around in space in relation to things or other organisms also moving around them in space . The tele operates already in the first

years of life, however unexpansive or rudimentary its expression in the form of attractions and repulsions . Our sociometric classification formulae on that level simply express the position of an individual within a group of other individuals and things . Below a certain age level, when he has not yet developed the ability to express his affections in so many words, the sociometric classification in the usual sense cannot be made . Activities and movement now replace words and motivations ; the sociogram is reduced to an interaction and movement diagram . The objective material itself remains, a living picture of moving subjects and objects . 1st GRADE (Ages 6-7 Yrs .) Claire chooses Marion : Marion chooses Claire : "She's my best friend. She comes "I like her because she always over to my house lots of times but she gives me candy when I eat with her . goes home very early . She tells me She lends me crayons when I have lost her mother is going to buy a nice toy mine . One time she gave me her Dixie for me and you . If we meet another cup . " girl and I say, 'Let's walk with the other girl,' Marion says, 'No, let's walk with me and you .' I say, ' All right, let's go together .' 11



Edwin chooses Lily : "Because she's smart . She's not a chatterbox . She comes to school dressed up nice . She doesn't scream . She folds her hands nice ."

Lily chooses Edwin : "Because he's a boy . He's a nice boy . He likes me and I like him . Because he gives me things . He goes home with me . He gives me everything what he's got . He has nice eyes . "

Morris chooses Tony : "Because he gives me lots of big yellow pencils . He says he likes me . He says he likes me the best of all ."

Tony chooses Morris : "He eats with me. He helps me build with blocks."

Morris rejects Franc's : "He takes my candy ."

Claire rejects warren : "Because lie hits me."


In Regard to Sex

In Regard to Level of Motivation

He has nice eyes . She tells me her mother Because lie's a boy, is going to buy a nice He likes me and I like toy for me and you . him . If we meet another girl gives me candy when I eat with her lends me crayons when I have lost mine gives me everything what he's got gives me lots of big yellow pencils goes home with me

In Regard to Race


dressed up nice folds her hands nice he has nice eyes helps me blocks

Conclusions, 1st Grade



The motivations at this age level show an increased variety and are clearer than formerly. Besides often having an esthetic character, they include references to third persons and to work relations. Heterosexual and interracial attractions appear in approximately the same proportions and with similar characteristics



as in the kindergarten . Sexual motivations are slightly indicated and interracial motivations are again missing . 2nd GRADE (Ages 7-8 Yrs .) Audrey chooses Muriel : '' I like her 'cause she is good, she reads so good. She always says `Yes' when I ask her to play house with me . She doesn't leave me if another girl comes along."

Muriel chooses Audrey : "I met Audrey in IA . Teacher put her seat by me. She never laughed at me if I didn't do my numbers right . I want to always sit by her ."

Audrey chooses Herbert : "I like Herbert very much . I think he likes me too . I like him 'cause he's fair in everything ."

Muriel chooses Herbert : "He likes me too, 'cause he's always lagging around me and wants me to play with him. He never hit me yet "

Herbert chooses Benny : "I met Benny in the class I was in first, long ago . I didn't like him very much and then I got to like him more and more . He used to be bad but now he's getting good. He used to beat up other kids and everything. Now he aets good, like me and some other kids ."

Herbert chooses John : "I like John 'cause be makes all the kids laugh."

Benny chooses Herbert : "He's nice . He plays nice . Most all the boys like him, he can play ball so good . He can run fast too. He's my best friend."

John rejects Herbert : "I don't like Herbert . When he reads he makes me almost deaf he reads so loud ."


In Regard to Level of Motivation 'cause she is so good, she reads so good . 'cause he's fair in everything . I like Herbert very now he's getting good . much. I think he likes now he acts good . me too. 'cause he makes the kids laugh . He likes me too, 'cause She doesn't leave me if he's always lagging another girl comes around me . . . along . In Regard to Sex

In Regard to Race




She never laughed at me if I didn't do my numbers right . He's nice . I want to always sit by her.

Conclusions, 2nd Grade The occasional development of a triangle at this age level signifies that the children's organization in process of formation is becoming more complex and more finely integrated than formerly. More often the relationships extend beyond those of person-to-person character . The more such structures develop the more the children can begin to liberate themselves from the intimate home group and in particular from the adults of their acquaintance . The child starts to function in a double role, one in his home group, the second in groups of his own choice . Motivations given in the kindergarten and 1st grades continue and hang over into the 2nd grade . In addition, the children stress the sense of time in relation to the person liked, evaluate his dependability, and give verdicts of moral judgment . Rejections are more sharply defined .

3rd GRADE (Ages 8-9 Yrs.) Harold chooses Arnold : Arnold chooses Harold : (English) (colored) "When I first met him he wasn't "He's my best friend . I knew him quite friends, with me, but now he is . before I went to school . He lived When I went to play with him he acrossed the street from my house . used to push me down . Then I didn't When I first moved there I didn't use to play with him any more for have any friends, so I saw him and I a few days ; then he was nice to me . called him into my backyard . And He said to me one day that he'd never I said, 'Do you want to be friends t' fight with me and I said, ' I will never and he said, `Yes,' and we started to fight with you, too .' One day he lost play ball . Then I was little . I've his lunch and I shared my lunch with never been mad at him for three him. He likes the sandwiches my years . We still live near but I moved mother makes . I like him because he up the block further . He doesn't get lives near me . He helps me with my mad right away or rough, like some homework and he tells me if I make other boys do . He jokes and fools a mistake . Sometimes he tells me the around a lot . I went to his house right answer . He rides me on his about four times. The first time we bicycle sometimes ." was in the 2nd grade and he said, ' Do you want to come over to my house to play games? ' So we went. Now we always play in the street ."



Harold chooses Anna : (Italian) "She lives about a block from me . I met her in 2A . She was talking to Arnold and so I went over to him and we all started to talk to each other . I thought she was a nice girl . Then we asked her to play punchball with us after school in the yard and she did . She was good right off . Even if she couldn't play good we would have played with her till she learned to play good 'cause we liked her . She doesn't play so much with us now outside of school . She does her work good . She's one of the smart girls . She never did anything wrong to us. "

Anna chooses Harold :

Arnold chooses Anna : " 1 showed Anna where everybody lives when she didn't know nothing about anybody here. She had just come here . I used to tell her to do things and she used to tell me to do things and that's how we became friends . I help her in number stories. That is hard for her . She shows me spelling."

Anna chooses Arnold : "He's nice. He doesn't hit girls either . Sometimes he lets me water the plants when it's really his turn . I only moved here about two years ago and I knew Arnold the next day after I was here . He was walking around the street and he had a little baby with him wheeling it, and I said, `Hello,' and lie said, `Hello .' Then I told him my name and he told me his name and then we kept going with each other. He used to play with me mostly all the time but now he plays more with Joseph . I don't know why that is . I feel sad when he goes away from me sometimes . It hurts me. I would like to play with both of them but now mostly girls come after me . Margaret wants me to be her best friend . She says I'm pretty . I like her too and she's pretty, too."

Harold rejects John : Harold rejects Rose : Anna rejects Geraldine :

"He's a nice friend of mine . He used to give me plants when he worked for the florist fixing up the cemetery . He was in my class in 2A . We were playing a game and I picked him and then we became friends . He used to like me . I play with him in play-times and I always pick him when it's my turn . Only if he isn't there I pick some other boy . He never chooses other girls either . He's the monitor ."

"I don't like him . He talks bad in front of the girls and everybody . He hits the girls ." "I don't like her very much . She sits down all the time, doesn't run or anything." When we play ball she gives me such a rotten ball (throw) that I miss ; she wants me to miss so she can go up . I'd like her if she didn't do that ."



"He's fresh and he's rough and he doesn't like girls either ."

Anna rejects her classroom neighbors :

"I don't like any of them because they're all boys." (However, she chooses two boys to replace them .)

Arnold rejects Henry :

He makes all kinds of noises and motions ."


In Regard to Sex We kept going with each other. He used to play with me mostly all the time but now he plays more with Joseph . . . . I would like to play with both of them (boys) but now mostly girls come after me . I don't like him . He talks bad in front of the girls and everybody . He hits the girls . I don't like her very much . She sits down all the time, doesn't run or anything. I don't like any of them because they're all boys. I always pick him when it's my turn. . . . He never chooses other girls either .

In Regard to Level of Motivation I used to tell her to do things and she used to tell me to do things .

In Regard to Race

When I went to play with him he used to push me down .

He helps me with my homework and he tells me if I make a mistake. I help her in number stories . . . . She shows me spelling . He used to give me plants. Sometimes he lets me water the plants when it's really his turn . He rides me on his bicycle . She does her work good . She never did anything wrong to us . He doesn't get mad right away or rough .

Conclusions, 3rd Grade With the decrease of heterosexual attractions and the increase of hom*osexual attractions, the motivations given at this age level reveal a more critical attitude towards the other sex . But a warmer feeling towards the same sex is not yet evident . No



restraint is yet apparent in the exercise of choice towards individuals of other nationalities nor are interracial motivations for such choices in evidence . Choices are still made for individual reasons . The children appear to choose associates according to attributes necessary for their joint pursuit of common aims with definite goals. Their estimates are more pragmatic than before . The motivations are given largely in narrative form . With earnestness the children relate how much their friendships mean to them and how badly they feel when the other party seems to be inattentive to them . Here and there it appears in the motivations that a critical point is reached in group development . With the awareness for friendly feelings which are not reciprocated the desire to overcome this dissatisfaction looks for some compensation . We have observed children who are unchosen in the groups previous to the 3rd grade, but little Anna, who, although not unchosen, is aware of her loneliness and expresses it is a novelty because of her degree of articulation . In a spontaneity test this experience could come forth more abundantly and may give clues to the reasons why she is not able to "enjoy" her relations in the group. With the feeling of loneliness the sense for distance increases and a greater awe and fear in respect to individuals who are bigger, stronger, or mentally superior, as adults, or who are different in their physical make-up, as the other sex, begin to dawn in the child . The disappointment about unreciprocated love, for instance, for a parent, does not result in subjective reactions only, as fear, running away, crying, but the child looks for more expression in associations with individuals of his own age than he naturally would otherwise. It can be said that the first total impression of the social group around him may have been the same in its general contours for the child from early infancy on . But as the child grows he develops more differences within himself and becomes aware of more differences in the total picture around him. As long as these differences are experienced in a rudimentary stage they do not affect his emotional reactions and the emotional reactions of his associates, nor, in consequence, his position within the group . The feeling of these differences has to reach a certain saturation point in him and in his associates before it results in repercussions within the group .



4th GRADE (Ages 9-10 Yrs .)

Donald chooses Nicholas : (English) (Italian) "He's the best one in the class. He's such a nice fellow . Always he's jolly . He likes to tell jokes . He's on the football team and is a good tackler ." Nicholas chooses Donald : "He's always protecting me. There are some older boys who like to make passes at me 'cause I answer them back kind of tough when they call me 'Wop.' My father is always putting his pushcart by the school and when he calls out `Bananas' or something these kids like to kid me . Donald always sticks up far me . He says he thinks I'd make a good professional football player . I might be that ." Nicholas chooses Ruth : (Jewish) "She's nice. She doesn't talk much . 'Hello' to most of the boys ."

She is quite pretty and she says

Richard chooses Donald : (Russian) "He's my pal . He knows a lot about sports . He's interesting to listen to . If you get him mad he has a bad disposition and tries to do nearly everything in his power to get even-starting fights . Then to get over it, he says, `Let's choose up a game of punchball,' or something . He goes around nice and friendly except when he gets his disposition up . We hang out together practically all the time . He's sort of comical sometimes and other times he's very serious, gets talking about himself . I'd like to sit next to him because of just friendliness ." Richard rejects Leonard : (German) "Most of the time he's mad. If you go near him he starts flinging around . He says, `What's the ideal' He likes sports but he doesn't get the ideas of sports into his head . For a minute he catches on but he gets right off it again . All he's good for is school work." Richard rejects Harry : (Jewish) "He talks a lot. He's comical. Once he was my pal but now I don't seem to like him. He goes with a dumb boy, Louis, who runs with a gang . They never do anything right if they can do it wrong . Outside of school or inside either, they can't be still a minute, always shouting, not nervous exactly but always jumping." Richard rejects Tony : (Italian) "For the least thing he gets mad at you . He's not interesting and he hangs out with bad boys too, mostly Italians. Sort of sneaky. If he can play a trick on you that you won't like, he does it . He and Harry and



Bruno and Joseph used to form gangs and get after children that get A's and B's . They only get C's and D's. If we were playing punchball and didn't let one of them in, they'd start something . The gang was started by these boys' older brothers . The older brothers would tell the younger ones all about it and the younger ones as they got older would follow the same footsteps . This gang is still meeting and my cousin (age 12 yrs.) says that gang was here ever since he's been here and he's been here five years . His brother says they were here when he was six years old . When we play handball with the younger ones of the gang around our age they get to like us and follow us around and get reformed,-some of them, about a quarter of them . But most of them are fifteen and seventeen years old now because about twenty of the little ones left the gang for good . Some of those who left call themselves still the `35th Street Gang .' They're so ignorant they're not ashamed . They're proud about saying it because their older brothers are in it . We try to explain to them that it's wrong but they keep doing it anyway . The gang uses the younger boys to run errands for them . Some of the older ones work once in a while. But they get fired after a week for doing nothing and coming late . Only one of them had a steady job and he lost it too . Their fathers and mothers give them money to go out and get a job and they spend it any old way. They try to encourage them but they don't care what they do . I know they stole a car once. Some girls who live on that block go out with them. They are older than the boys, I think, and they make themselves look tough by smearing a lot of lipstick and rouge on their faces ." Richard rejects William : (Irish) "He can't talk clearly, sort of mumbles, so you can't understand him and it gets on your nerves . He's very clever though, but I don't want to be near him ." BREAKING UP OF THE Ex REssioNs

In Regard to Level In Regard to Sex of Motivation She is quite pretty and is a good tackler she says "Hello" to knows a lot about sports . most of the boys. interesting to listen to

In Regard to Race when they call me ' Wop .'

He's always protecting me . just friendliness likes to tell jokes

Conclusions, 4th Grade The cleavage between the sexes is almost entirely complete at this age level . The boys choose boys very nearly to the total exclusion of girls, and girls choose girls very nearly to the total exclusion of boys . The reflection of this development in their



motivations appears more characteristic and decisive in the 5th grade, where it is discussed . The motivations indicate also the forming of groups in respect to various cooperative aims, open or secret . The children work out schemes to fit reality and often also with the risks involved in life situations . This period marks the first appearance of youthful gang formations operating on a large scale over a long period of time . Such gangs have often a spontaneous and benign character ; they are frequently initiated by the children themselves, independently from adult groups and also function independently of them . Choices are made increasingly for collective reasons . Interracial choices appear less frequently but the reason for this is hardly detectable in the motivations . Very seldom is a term expressing racial feelings employed . Individual cases may, at this age level or even earlier, disclose distinct attitudes towards individuals as members of other nationality and social class, but here we emphasize the general trend . Elsewhere in this hook the importance of indoctrination, the influence of parents' opinions upon children, is discussed. If, in some cases violently hostile opinions are expressed by parents this may stir up the child's fantasy towards such factors . But the probable reason why even exciting suggestions do not seriously affect the organizations of the groups formed by children up to and including this age level is that the impressions made upon the children by these suggestions are offset in general by their spontaneous attraction to children of other nationalities, especially when the nationalities of the different class members are not disclosed and remain unknown to them. The difference between the sexes is early discovered by the children, but in the child's mind the differences between individuals who belong to this or that nationality overlaps with individual and social factors, so that he is unable to comprehend the adult's suggestion . Then another element is important. As long as group organization is little developed, the networks binding individuals together are either entirely absent or lacking in continuity at so many points that they cannot be made to function as avenues for shaping opinion. These networks are still rudimentary before the 4th grade and even when the sexual cleavage sets in so decidedly during this period the differentiation of the networks within the



two hom*osexual sets is still in want of the further differentiation found in the later grades . The adults are able to throw the burning match into the fantasy of the children, but to become a permanently burning flame, to develop into a collective feeling, it has to be passed from one child to the other throughout the network . 5th GRADE (Ages 10-11 Yrs .)

Gertrude chooses Adele : "Because she is so nice, I think . Almost everything is nice about her . She lends me books when I haven't got any. She keeps in friendship with me a great deal . She'd always help me if I didn't know a thing . She's kind to everybody, mostly everybody likes her . She makes a joke sometimes but she isn't foolish like some other girls are. She's hardly ever selfish . We may have a quarrel sometimes but the next day we meet we can't help to say `Hello' and then, of course, we're friends again . I knew her for one and a half years. She's hardly ever sulky." Gertrude chooses Lillian : "I have almost the exact feeling I have about Adele . I'm sure I love these girls . They're so nice, so good . They're my real, true friends . I could always depend on them and they could always depend on me . I'm very glad she would depend on me because I'd do anything I could for her as long as I could. I met Lillian first and then Adele in the other school and I introduced them and they became very intimate friends. These friends are just somebody else you put close to you instead of a relative, that's what friendship means . " Ralph chooses Robert : "I always play with him because he lives around my way and we have a baseball team . He's a good sport and doesn't get mad at the least little thing you do. Like you say something to him he doesn't like, he doesn't get mad right away. He can play very good and pitches on our team . When boys get into a fight he stops it and makes boys who are enemies friends . He goes over, makes them stop and shake hands . He's not stingy ; he always helps the other boys and gives them anything he has . Whenever he has anything he always shares it . He acts like he knew a lot, does everything the way he should do it . He's sort of in-between, not noisy and not quiet . He's kind to animals and he has a dog and he takes care of it just like he would of a brother. On our team we have twelve fellows, nine regular and three substitutes . Robert and I started it and that kept us close friends ." Ralph chooses Augustus "He has lots of pigeons and he cares for them all by himself . What I like about him is, he shares . He lets me fly his pigeons . He's good-natured . I have a moving picture machine and we have some tricks. We are trying to organize a club . We have three members already. We charge 5 cents a week and I like the way Augustus is good at collecting the fees . Sometimes he brags about himself and I tell him so . We get along good ."



Sidney chooses Theodore : (Russian) (Russian) "He's one of my best friends and I seem to like him most . He's a real fellow and yet he's kind . He found a bird with a broken wing and cared for it till it could fly away . Some boys take advantage of him because he can't fight so well but I stop them . He has an arm that's paralyzed but his other arm has a lot of strength on account of that so he can play handball . I have been with him all the way in school except one term since 2A ." Theodore chooses Sidney : " When I get into a crowd of boys and they start to fight and I can't on account of my arm, he always takes my part . I've known him since 2A . When they need an extra player and there isn't anybody to play in a game, he always asks them to take me . We ask each other riddles and all that . I ask him what he learned and I tell him what I learned and we ask each other questions . He has a lot of comical ways about him and can keep everyone laughing. He was told to make jokes for a play, it is so easy for him . He seems to be as good a friend as you can find ." James chooses Gordon : (Scotch) (Scotch) "He speaks Scotch and so do I . I think he was brave to come over alone on a boat and leave his mother there. . . ." George chooses Chris : (Greek) (Greek) "He speaks my language . We're Greek . We play `Cops and Robbers' together. Chris made a golf course and charged a penny . He has a nice disposition but is sort of lazy . He's so fat that he can only do things like that well . . . ." Adeline rejects Anna : (Italian) "I don't like her so much . Sometimes she dresses so filthy I don't like to look at her. Her hair hangs all over, like most Italians ." Michael rejects Morris : (Italian) (Jewish) "He wants to play with us but we won't let him . We also beat Norman up because he was on Morris' side . They're both Jewish . We beat him up six or seven times . He takes things that don't belong to him ." Morris rejects Michael : "He always brings his friends around who jump on me . anyway ; he wears glasses ."

I can't fight him

Helen rejects August : "He's colored and very funny acting . I don't have anything to do with him. I speak to him once in a blue moon . I want to say he never got fresh to me, though ."



Mildred rejects Lydia : "She is nice sometimes and sometimes I fight with her . She is Jewish and I don't bother with Jewish people . She is nice sometimes though ." Jane rejects William : "Always digging under the ground to make tunnels and all kinds of houses . Maybe that's not silly but it seems silly to me . He makes up stuff he calls minstrels but I don't see it makes any sense . The teacher laughs with him sometimes and that makes me mad . He's colored." John rejects George : "A girl brought flowers to school and they were very nice . But George jumped up and said, `I'll bring some better than those ; that's nothing to what I'm going to bring .' He thinks he's better than everyone else . He's a show-off and he's wild . He comes around and thinks he can hit the boys in the class . He can hit punchball best so he thinks he's best of all ." Russell rejects Vivian : "If you step on her foot and say `Excuse me,' she'll stamp right back on your foot . She's always humming in class . If you lend her something she isn't careful of it . Also she talks too slow . I can't stand it how she talks . And she says foolish things instead of nothing ." Edith rejects Antonette : "She's not honest but I play with her because she's a customer of my father's. She's smart but she thinks she can tell everybody everything ." Adeline rejects Edgar : "I don't talk to him . When I say something to him, he doesn't know what I'm saying and I don't understand him, so I don't want to sit by him . Other boys call him 'Dummy .' But I don't think it's true . I think he's smart . When he doesn't understand teacher he makes a face and pushes his head forward and the kids laugh and he starts to cry . I don't do that . It isn't right." Jane rejects Bernice : "She gets terribly nervous . Then she can't find her pencil box when it's right on the desk . She makes herself think things are hard . She isn't as smart as the rest of us . I'd get to fussing if I were seated by her." Helen rejects Gloria : '' She is too quiet and she is the teacher's pet . When I'm tired I go around with her and I know she won't jump around . She star-gazes . We all tease her and she won't get angry. She likes to play with dolls . She thinks adventure is sitting on the grass and talking . And that seems like just talk to me ." Ruth chooses Gloria : "I like the way she talks . She comes from Buffalo and has an accent . She talks very fancy like . I try to get it. She is pretty and chubby-like and quite much fun to listen to . She is always thinking up things with her imagination. "



Roberta rejects Bertram : "He talks to himself and mumbles when he is working . He has firey red hair that doesn't look nice and he cracks jokes when he is not supposed to . He is funny and no one will sit next to him ." Roberta rejects Clifford : "I don't bother with him at all . He is always sleeping . The teacher claps her hands and then he jumps up . Maybe he is not sleeping but he looks that way . " Miriam rejects Matthew : "He is fat and funny. We call him the fat fellow in Our Gang comedy . Even the teacher has to laugh at him . He sits in back as the seats in front are too small for him . His belly goes out too far . I don't want to be near him." Miriam rejects Peggy : "I keep up a smile so I won't show I don't care for her . I used to like her but when I see how she is always slapping her little sister I don't like her any more. She is fat and talks too much . She won't play, she is afraid she will reduce. When she does anything she tells you about it ." BREAKING UP OF THE E'xranssioNs

In Regard to Sex

In Regard to Level of Motivation She'd help me if I didn't know a thing. She is kind to everybody . . . hardly ever selfish. I could always depend on them and they could always depend on me .

He's a good sport . . . can play good . . . not stingy . . . always helps . . . always shares . . . kind to animals . He acts like he knew a lot, does everything the way he should do it. he always takes my part . We are trying to organize a club . I like the way she talks fancy-like.

In Regard to Race He speaks Scotch and so do I . He speaks my language . We're Greek . Her hair hangs all over like most Italians' . They're both Jewish . He's colored and funny acting. She is Jewish and I don't bother with Jewish people. He's colored.


WHO SHALL SURVIVE? I don't understand him. I'd get to fussing if I were seated by her. She's too quiet . . . stargazes . He talks to himself and mumbles when he is working. . . He is funny and no one will sit next to him . He is always sleeping . He is fat . . . . His belly goes out too far. she talks too slow. I can't stand it how she talks . she is always slapping her little sister . . . is fat and talks too much . . . won't play . . .

Conclusions, 5th Grade In the 5th grade the intersexual choices are almost totally missing . The group is now split up into two hom*osexual units . The motivations are often based on similarities of traits, physical and mental, of social standing and of interests in common pursuits . In the boy groups we find warm attachment tending towards hero worship ; in the girl groups, attachment tending towards devoted emotional friendship . The rejection s are specifically motivated, well articulated and based largely on differences, physical and mental . Prejudices in respect to the nationality and the social affiliations of certain rejected individuals are frequently reflected . At times we recognize an ambivalent choice . Such ambivalent feeling is not always true ambivalence, as between Mildred and Lydia ; it reflects a conflict of two criteria, the conflict between the hom*osexual and ethnic criteria . In such cases, if the individual would have been asked to express the two preferences independently, one for sex and the other for nationality, the ambivalence would have been dissolved in an attraction towards another individual of the same sex and in a rejection towards an individual of a different nationality . The number of interracial choices declines considerably in favor of intra-racial choices and of intra-nationality choices . The trend is towards a still greater cleavage within the two hom*osexual groups into divisions along



the lines of nationality and social class (poor or rich, neighborhood of residence, etc .) . 6th GRADE (Ages 11-12 Yrs .)

Stephan chooses Max : "I play with boys all older than me and I criticize them and he stops them from hitting me . . . . When I first came to the school he was the one who helped me with everything . I always play with him. He's good to play with 'cause he doesn't ever try to cheat you . He's the same nationality as me, too . He's not selfish and whenever he has anything he gives you half ." Gertrude chooses Mae : "She's Polish and Jewish like me and she's a very nice girl . Her mother and my mother cook the same way and we wear clothes almost just alike . We go to the movies together and her aunt lives in the same house as I do ." Gertrude chooses Eleanor : "I like her for the same things almost . Only her nationality isn't the same as mine. . . ." Betty chooses Barbara : "I'm fat and when I try to be nice to anybody they don't seem to like me . Barbara is fat too and and I like her because she has a lot of sense . She doesn't get a temper up like I do if she is teased . She's patient. I'm not and I guess that's why I like her . She always tells me not to get mad so easy ." Madeline chooses Marietta : "She is about my size and my age . I like to walk with her 'cause I think we look nice together . She isn't noisy or rude, only once in a while she is rude unconsciously, which means she doesn't know she is rude herself . She is willing to play games that are gay and with a lot of action . We like to help each other. She is truthful . Also if you ask her to bring you something she will bring it even if she has a lot of other things to carry just the same .," Joel chooses Gunther : "I keep tropical fish and I collect stamps and Gunther likes to see my things . He seems to be interested in them and that's what I like about him . He isn't only always wanting to play baseball. I don't see very well so I like to do other things than play sports ." Samuel chooses Daniel : "He is comical . Once he is your friend he is very loyal to you . He doesn't brag about the pictures he makes although he is about the best artist in the school . Especially airplanes, he can draw wonderful . I don't speak very good English yet and he helps me with it . Then he makes a joke about it when he is correcting me and I don't mind because of the way he does it ." Lucille chooses Anita : "She's more companionable to you . She's different, has more personality than most people. And she's refined . She doesn't think she's better than



other girls, either. Some, if they were like her, would start bragging but she isn't that kind. She minds her own business . When she says something you know it's the truth and you don't when some girls talk. Mostly too, she isn't bossy." Anita chooses Doris "Everyone says she's nice and I think she is too . She has a nice family and a room by herself . We play actresses together . When you play with her, she is ready to take her turn . Like at games she will give up the ball right away . She doesn't say things to hurt you, saying `You're no good,' like her cousin does." Victor rejects Philip : "He has big ears and laughs like Joey Brown. He has a big mouth like him too and all the kids make fun of him because he walks flat-footed . He's smart in school but I don't care for him ." Myrtle rejects Josephine : "She is forever mad but not saying what kind of people get her mad. She considers herself higher than anyone else and she bosses everything ." Stephen rejects Felix : "He always plays with one fellow and then another . He doesn't keep up a friendship right. He's a sissy. He always plays with the girls and gips them too ." BREAKING UP OP THE EXPRESSIONS

In Regard to Sex

He's a sissy. He always plays with the girls.

In Regard to Level of Motivation plays fair. He is very loyal to you . He's not selfish . She is about my size, and my age . I like to walk with her 'cause I think we look nice together. I'm fat . . . Barbara is fat too and I like her .

I keep tropical fish . . . and he seems to be interested. I don't speak very good English yet and he helps me with it. We like to help each other . We play actresses together .

In Regard to Race She's Polish and Jewish like me and she's a very nice girl. He's the same nationality as me, too .



He doesn't brag about the pictures he makes . She doesn't say things to hurt you . He has big ears and a big mouth . . . He is smart . . . but I don't care for him. S h e considers herself higher than anyone else He always plays with one fellow and then another . He doesn't keep up a friendship right .

Conclusions, 6th Grade The complete dominance of hom*osexual choice reaches a climax in this grade. A trend towards intra-racial choice continues to be evident . Motivations for the choices are expressed with greater sureness and distinction on the similarity of traits and common interests in the same activities . Motivations for rejecting members of different nationality and racial groups are present (omitted in this text) . 7th GRADE (Ages 12-13 Yrs .)

Jean chooses Henrietta : 'II think I like her because she has the same ideas I have. We both love to write . And she isn't silly about boys like Pauline and Eileen and Winifred are . We like boys all right but we don't like to be silly about them . Everybody used to snub me because I was from Sight Observation class but since Henrietta goes with me they stopped . She helps me read small print and is the only one who comes over and does it of her own free will before the teacher asks them to . We are both quite serious ." Jean rejects Lillian : "She always moves away from me when she's supposed to sit beside me . I think it's because she's prejudiced against me on account of my nationality ." William chooses John : ' ° We play handball together . He's a fair dealer, not like some wise guys, picking fights and cursing . He's something like me. We're Irish and his mother is dead and my father is dead . He's a good guy. If we could sit together in class I think we could get along and wouldn't quarrel . He ain't sneaky, don't say he likes you one minute and don't the next . You can tell him a secret and he won't go around and tell everybody . He'd give you anything, even his last cent . Most of the time he's jolly ."



William chooses Eileen : "She suits my taste . She's got more sense than other girls. She's not bashful, though she is a year younger than me . She dresses nicely . A kid in class knew her and we started jumping rope with her for fun . She just says `Hello' when she sees you on the street and doesn't make you feel funny in front of other boys by making fun of the way they talk when they know a boy likes them. Now it's basketball time so I don't have time to see her . She is about my size and she has blonde hair and blue eyes . That's my taste, it's what I like ." Eileen chooses William : "Most of the girls in the class like his eyes . I think he's the best boy in our class . He's smart . I think he is handsome. I'm the only girl he speaks to because most of the girls are babyish and he doesn't like that . I'm allowed to go to the movies with him and once I had him to my house for supper ." Sadie rejects Eileen : "She puts on her red beret and pulls her curly hair out and makes up to some boys and says she just wanted to look nice for herself and we don't believe it . She acts dippy sometimes . One minute she will like you and the next she is sore . She has certain moods ." William rejects Viola : "I don't like her . She's colored . I haven't got anything against her but I don't want you to put her next to me ." Eileen rejects Viola : "If anything should happen to a kid, like he is put back, she is right there to radio it with her big mouth ." BREAKING UP OF THE EXPRESSIONS

In Regard to Sex Most of the girls in the class like his eyes .

She is about my size and she has blonde hair and blue eyes . That's my taste, it's what I like .

In Regard to Level of Motivation In Regard to Race She has the same ideas We're Irish . I have. We both love to write . . . We are I think . . . she's prejuboth quite serious . diced . . . my nationality . He's something like me . . . his mother is dead and my father's dead,

I don't like her . She's colored . I haven't got anything against her .

Conclusions, 7th Grade The motivations at this age level have become more penetrating and occasionally choices are made motivated by complementary attributes . Intersexual choices begin to reappear . The motiva-



tions for them have near-adult characteristics of sophistication . Intra-racial motivations are again present (in general omitted from this text) . 8th GRADE (Ages 13-14 Yrs .)

Evelyn chooses Ruth : "At first I thought she was fresh and was trying to snub me . But gradually I found that she is neither fresh nor high-hatted but sweet and not stubborn . She has a nice personality, just draws you to her . None of us three (Evelyn, Ruth, Elinor) have boy friends but we talk with boys . I prefer a girl to a boy as a friend and so do Ruth and Elinor . I'll try to be her friend all my life, even when I'm grown up ." Evelyn chooses Elinor "I like her less than I do Ruth . She is very stubborn and fresh . If she wants to go to a certain show she won't give in. We have to follow her . But I like her very much though . She is also Jewish as I am and my mother wants me to go with Jewish girls . She is very sympathetic, too . She has funny ways about her . She thinks sometimes she is not wanted . I have a pity for her a little bit. She is so tall and thin and she is not so smart as Ruth is in school. She's bashful and it takes long for her to get chummy with people . She will express her opinion about people to us but not to their face. If she doesn't get what she wants she will insist on it and she is willing to spoil us from having a good time if she gets annoyed . But she is very fair and I am very fond of her . She bites her nails and Ruth doesn't do that. She is more shy with the boys than I am because she thinks they don't like her as she is too tall and not pretty ." David chooses Marie : "About the 3A I noticed her and she seemed to be the highest of the girls. We talked to each other then . In the 4B she got skipped and left the school and just came back the beginning of 8B . I hardly ever see her as she's not in my room . She's better looking than the majority . Curly brown hair at the ends, blue eyes, same height as I am . I'm interested to become friends with her . I don't know her well yet . I used to in the lower grade but she seems to have forgotten . She's my idea of what a girl should be like ." Stanley chooses David : "I was in 7B4 with him ; I was new and he treated me better than all the other fellows did. I like the things he does . So do the teacher and the other pupils . Now he is my best friend . He has a very nice nature about him . Sociable . He is sort of like me . He wants to know everything and to talk out enthusiastic . He has a handsome face for a boy of his age . Only thing is he walks with his head bent down to the left as he can't see very much out of the right eye . " Dorothy chooses Peter : "I met him while he was head monitor. At first I didn't like him at all and all the other girls liked him . I thought he had too many friends . I



was taken out of line one day for talking and brought up to him. He walked me home that day and from then on I began to like him . I see him a lot in school. He has asked to take me out. I like him a great deal . It's mostly his looks that I like. He has a nice disposition and he's not fresh to girls ." Richard chooses Roger : "I admired him at first because he played for the best team . In some ways he isn't so good a sport . Like if you hit him he gets mad . I just took a sudden liking to him. Every time you see him he has a smile on his face and if you see him often you just get to like him . I like his gameness . Like when the circus was in town he suggested we sneak in ." Albert chooses Rose I She once sat next to me in class . She just appeals to me . For these last two weeks I don't walk home with her because we had kind of an argument . I dropped my baseball glove and she kicked it and the boys kidded me . She doesn't pay very much attention to me ." Shirley chooses Florence : "I like her company . She's a little more intelligent than I am . She's most agreeable . I've never disputed with her yet . She seems to me a little more mature than I am because she worries about what her friends will say about her and I couldn't be bothered about that . She is a leader . I am a leader, too, and we never try to boss each other and that's why we agree . We both like dramatics very much . We both want to be at the head in studies too . She's much better looking than I am and she's not conceited about it . She's interested in Olga who lives with all grown-ups and that's why she acts so grown-up . She's good in dramatics but I think I'm still a little bit better, though, in that." Albert rejects Alexander : (Irish) "Most people don't like him. He is more Irish in his ways and our class don't like that . He talkq a lot, argues, and fights, and is awful loud in gym when something happens ." Richard rejects Clara : (colored) "She's one of the worst, sloppy, and when she gets mad you know it. Stanley rejects Erma : (Jewish) "I disliked her from the first time I saw her . It was just her manner ; she thinks a lot of herself. She's Jewish . She isn't very clean either ." Patricia rejects Carmela : (Italian) "I'd get Hail Columbia if my mother saw me going with any of them Italians ."



Norman rejects Anna : (Jewish) "I think it's her face . Her nose is the most prominent part of her face. I felt a little disgusted the first day I saw her, the beginning of this term . Her face is typically Jewish and my family doesn't like Jews . I was brought up that way. I was sort of conscious of it for the last three or four years . Her hair is long and stringy . She talks with a Jewish accent . She's a pain in the neck . I think boys don't like her at all. I have never spoken to her . She never did anything to me and I never heard anything about her from anyone but that's how I feel about her ." Blossom rejects Eva : (colored) "She doesn't make friends with white girls . She has a horrid body odor." Ira rejects Tony : (Jewish) (Italian) ' I I don't want to be his friend . I don't take to Italians . I get antagonistic . I'm usually on the outs with him ." Ruth says of Waldo : (colored) "He's good . He's so polite and humorous, willing to do anything . Doesn't get sore if he is scolded. He knows if he's wrong he's wrong . Also he is brilliant . Everybody likes him . The girls like him too, even if he is colored . I wouldn't mind to sit by him but I chose my best girl friends first ." Ruth rejects Eva : (colored) "Nobody cares for her . She's not clean. Even other negroes ignore her. She is conceited too . Thinks she has a beautiful voice . She sings loud as she can. I asked Waldo why they don't like her and he said she was a Western negro . I know she works after school . She has no father or mother ." Edward says of gate : (colored) "She hangs out with two other colored girls and if she didn't do that I'd think she was better, but still I can't say I'd like her because she'd still be colored . The other two girls like to fist-fight . You'd think they were boys to watch them. And gate tries to get them to stop so they are always trying to get rid of her but she hangs on to them . She's neat as any white girl but dumb to go with people nobody likes ." Harriet rejects Marie : "I would like her but her manner of speech annoys me . She lispe. She also has funny little habits which annoy,-shaking her head and snapping her fingers . " Paul rejects Charles : "I guess he'll be flunked . He hands in dirty, sloppy papers . He's not low or rowdy but just dumb . He isn't right in the brain . Plays with pencils and makes believe they represent something ."



David rejects Arlene : "She calls me `Steeplechase' and that gets me sore . I run a lot ." Stanley rejects Augusta : "She always comes up and says `Hello, Blondie,' and makes me feel funny ." Stanley rejects Andrew : "I like to make things, machinery and wagons and little furniture and he is so clumsy he breaks them when you're showing him how to do something . Only thing I like about him is his way to talk . He's a Southerner. " Augusta rejects Arlene : "I can't tell what it is about her but it gives me the shivers . She walks as if she hadn't any backbone ." Ruth rejects Sally : "Nobody likes her in our class . She's a nosey-body . Not smart at all, not good for athletics even . Doesn't like to read or sew or do anything . Really, she's useless . There's no life in her . She looks at newspaper comics and she bounces her ball and she's sixteen ." Ruth rejects Susan : "She is a little evil-minded . She curses and has the boys chasing after her . Her mind is never off the boys . She is always talking about them ." Ruth is indifferent to Constance : "She can't do much because she's crippled . She's so quiet you wouldn't know she was in the class but she is sociable sometimes . She reads serious books and is always planting her garden with flowers . But when she talks she isn't interesting. It is always an awkward silence if you are talking to her ."

Conclusions, 8th Grade

The rise in the number of intersexual attractions in the 8th grade results from the fact that a number of boys and a number of girls transfer the dominant part of their affection from their respective hom*osexual group to which they had been previously attached. More or less loosely knit chain relations break in between the large hom*osexual units towards which the majority of the members continue to gravitate . However loosely knit these chain relations between boys and girls may be at this age, they present the potential organic basis for sexual or non-sexual boygirl gangs . The group organization discloses that at this developmental level the group is organically predisposed to develop mixed gangs of boys and girls without the need of older individuals to initiate and direct them.



Compared with earlier age levels (except for the incipient signs found in the 7th grade), this is a novelty . These inter-sexual structures appear from a static point of view to be similar to the intersexual structures in the 1st and 2nd grades . But from a dynamic, developmental point of view they have a different meaning because they appear after the hom*osexual cleavage from the 3rd to the 8th grade has affected and shaped group organization . The new heterosexual attractions had to overcome the resistances coming from the hom*osexual bondage individually and collectively developed . The cooperative gangs in the 4th-5th grade age levels are uni-sexed, and heterosexual attachment or collaboration in earlier grades is usually a person-to-person relation predominantly and not a group relation . The recurrence of heterosexual gravitation in the 8th grade is prophetic of a renewed and more persistent attack of the heterosexual tendencies against the hom*osexual tendencies in group organization which throughout adolescence marks the group life of the individual up to maturation . The motivations of the children at this age level appear exceedingly mature . They can well compare with motivations we have secured from high school children . To the summary given after each grade, we may here especially emphasize the technique through which the interracial attractions have been ascertained . The sociometric test had been given to all individuals of a community or school in respect to such criteria as are of practical significance to these individuals, to live in proximity, to work in proximity, or to study in proximity . In respect to each of these three criteria, three different structures of the given community result . The evidence thus gained through the sociometric test can now be used for the uncovering and interpreting of affinities and disaffinities which may underlie these spontaneous choices . The evidence has been used to uncover, for instance, whether any intersexual frequencies dominate the interrelations . These frequencies were then studied in respect to the three different criteria to reveal what modifications sexual attraction undergoes when the function of the group and the position of the member in the group have changed . Throughout the testing the subjects are unaware that their intersexual choices may undergo analysis .



The findings have been used also to uncover and interpret whether any frequencies in respect to nationality or race dominate the interrelations. Again, the subjects are throughout the testing unaware that their interracial or intraracial choices may be used to study racial tensions in groups . This fact of the populations tested being taken by surprise gives the findings a great spontaneity value . There was never such a question asked as, "Do you like negroes?" or "Do you like this colored boy or that Italian girl?" Nothing of this kind entered or needs to enter into the sociometric test . All expressions indicating racial feeling were given by the children spontaneously ; not the slightest provocation by the tester was allowed. The only criterion o f the interview was : Why do you want to sit beside the pupils you have chosen? In the course of the interview it is also disclosed what reasons they have for not having chosen their present neighbors and what reasons they have for not having chosen certain other individuals about whom we know that they have chosen them . The tester simply charts the relations between the individuals as members of two sexes or as members of particular nationalities, just as he charts their relations as members of a home group, a classroom group, or a work group . The sociograms and the analysis of the motivations given by the members of contrasting nationalities offer a growing insight into the processes which underlie the development of racial cleavages . INTERPRETATIONS

The three directions or tendencies of structure we have described for baby groups, organic isolation, horizontal differentiation, and vertical differentiation, are fundamental features in the development of groups . We find them appearing again and again, however extensive and complex the groups become . But the earliest developmental points at which sex, nationality, or other specific factors begin to affect group organization is in need of further investigation . In the groups from 4 years on (through 15) the attraction of the sexes for each other appears highest in the kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grades, declines sharply after the 3rd grade, not to show any appreciably marked increase again until the 8th grade . This indicates the restraint of both sexes up to the age of puberty and



the significance of the restraint upon group organization . The lowest number of mutual pairs and the highest number of isolated children in the public school are found in the kindergarten, 1st and 2nd grades, indicating that children of this age are seldom sufficiently certain whom to choose . This suggests the need of more protection for them than in later years . The high increase, on the other hand, of mutual pairs and more complex structures from the 4th grade on suggests that children of this age exchange emotions readily and freely form partnerships and secret associations. It suggests that the organization which young children and adolescents form among themselves comes more and more to compete in influence with organizations which adolescents form in relationship to adults . Proportionately, the influence of adults upon children, compared to the influence of children upon children, may be beginning to wane . This may account for the fact that the teacher's ability to recognize the position of the most desired and of the least desired boy or girl in her class is to a large extent inaccurate . The teacher-judgments concerned only the extremes in position . The average positions of individuals are, it is evident, far more difficult to estimate accurately . The intricacies of the children's own associations prevent the teacher from having a true insight . This fact appears as one of the great handicaps in the development of teacher-child relationships. The further increase in pairs and more complex structures for the age levels 14 to 18 years compared with the findings of the grammar school group indicates a still growing differentiation of group organization with increase in chronological age . But parallel is also an increase in the number of the isolated . This is still greater than the highest number found in the first grades of grammar school . At the 4-7 year level the unchosen child appears to be "left out," forgotten . It does not appear, in general, left out because of being disliked or rejected by the members of the group. The unchosen children as they are found at later age levels, particularly after 13 years, appear so not only because they are left out by the others but in numerous cases due to the attitudes members have formed in respect to each other . The periodical recurrence of heterosexual and hom*osexual tendencies among the members of a group produces an effect



upon group organization . The heterosexual cycle between the ages of 4 and 8 is displaced by a hom*osexual cycle between the ages of 8 and 13 . Then a new heterosexual cycle begins apparently overlapping a second hom*osexual cycle . The hom*osexual tendency which can be deducted from the high number of mutual pairs among the boys of ages 14 to 18 would probably appear to be curtailed and sharply displaced by a high number of pairs between boys and girls if they would have been participants in mixed groups . Among adult groups a further greatly increased complexity is probable and that these structures break down into simpler ones in the period of senescence . The organization of a class group in the early school grades presents the initial beginnings of structures which become increasingly numerous in the next succeeding grades and, vice versa, an organization of a higher grade still retains scant remnants of structures which have been numerous in the lower grades . For instance, 30 pupils of kindergarten B formed 3 pairs . In the 2nd grade B1, the same number of pupils formed 15 pairs . Structures of attraction between the sexes were formed by 25% of the pupils in this kindergarten . In 4th grade B1 only 2% took part in such structures . This interdevelopmental growth of group distinctions can also be observed through the study of the development of the same group from year to year . The organization of groups in which mentally retarded prevail reveals numerous unreciprocated choices, a low number of mutual pairs, and many isolates . It resembles the organization produced by children of pre-school ages and in the early grades of grammar school . The evolution of social groups opens the way to a classification of individuals according to their development within them which in turn makes possible the construction of social groups . We have demonstrated that chronological age or mental age does not point out to what social group an individual belongs or should belong . A sociometric test is necessary to determine his position in this respect . Our public school classes are at present formed according to chronological age, mental age, scholastic progress, or, occasionally, according to a combination of these . The sociometric position of the pupil within the school and within the groups in which he moves is neglected . A grouping of individuals



may not become desirable as a social grouping although the members have studied or worked or lived together for a time, or although they appear to have a similar intelligence level, are of the same religious or nationality affiliations, and so on. The subjects themselves, in this case, the pupils, have attitudes towards one another which are crucial for them and for the social grouping . Their own feelings have to be considered in the forming of social groupings to which they must belong . And this leads, when systematically carried out, to sociometric testing . If the sociometric test is performd on a large scale and the findings studied in relation to behavior, our knowledge of the more desirable organization for children at various age levels will become more accurate . At the end of the school term the sociometric test can reveal what organization the pupils within the classes have developed . Certain patterns of organization discovered through continuous sociometric testing may indicate undesirable prognosis for the future development of a group or of certain individuals within it notwithstanding that the scholastic progress of each individual and his conduct is satisfactory . It can be predicted that the study opens a way to the recognition of delinquency in its initial stage and provides a scientific method of diagnosing its predisposing causes and of developing preventive measures. It locates for us the time points in the child's group development at which preventive measures are offered the possibility of successful application . The sociometric testing of the population of so-called delinquency areas (home, school and neighborhood groups are among its various components) in cities may furnish the psychogeographical evidence upon which constructive measures can be based . CRITICAL REMARKS

When the first public school test was given the majority of the pupils had been together in the same class for three months . The test ought to have been given to the same class group in regular periods from the time of their initial formation into a class. As this was not done we do not know how persistently the same pattern would have appeared from month to month or over a longer period . The test was administered to all the pupils of the



school at the same time in the school year, more than three months after they had entered . Thus the period of time of their being together was equal at least for the majority of the pupils . Many of the pupils had been together in the same class for one, two or more previous grades . This may reflect upon the position of such pupils within their class organization only and may not interfere essentially with the general trend of the structures we have found . From this point of view the most accurate conditions have been in the kindergarten groups . Whereas the population of a class in the Riverdale Country School remains relatively unchanged throughout the year, the population of a class in Public School 181, Brooklyn, is in continuous flux . Up to 25% or more of its population changes during one school year . Out of this results the fact that a number of pupils have been a shorter period of time together with their classmates than the majority . This, moreover, may affect the sociometric position of the relatively new comers into the groups . But the general trend of the structure may be little or not at all affected by it if the differentiation of the structure depends upon the developmental level of the participants of the group and if they are of the same or of approximately the same developmental level. And just the latter appears to be true. From the interviews of the children it appears that their motivations for liking or disliking each other in respect to the criterion of studying together are derived in part from former experiences they had had in common in the neighborhood . Or even if their acquaintance had begun in school, that their more intimate acquaintance developed outside . This indicates the criss-cross currents which connect the school with the surrounding neighborhoods as parts of a wider social unit . In many cases we can see how acquaintances which began in school lead to the organization of gangs outside in the neighborhood . We see how these formations take place without teachers or parents being aware of their ramifications . It may well be that such associations have a bearing upon the structures of the class organization to which these children belong and that it can be traced through the test .

207 PERIODS OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT The effect which the maturing sociability of individuals has upon the structure and differentiation of groups and what influence this organization once established exerts in return upon them have led us to distinguish the following periods Pre-Socialized Period Up to 7-9 years : First Socialized Period 7-9 years to 13-14 years : 13-14 years on : Second Socialized Period PRE-SOCIALIZED PERIOD

The groups formed by children during the different phases of this period are less constant and less differentiated than later on. In the "younger" groups a high number of unchosen and isolated and a low number of mutual pairs appear . As the spontaneous ability to choose a partner who in return chooses the chooser is apparently little developed, groups formed by individuals in this period show a diffuse pattern which does not predispose for independent cooperative actions . Partnerships and gangs, when they develop in this pre-socialized period, are instantaneous, too inconstant and undifferentiated to produce cooperative action or cooperative goals . If gangs are uncovered showing any determination in the pursuit of a goal, one or two children who are older and who act as their leaders are usually found . FIRST SOCIALIZED PERIOD

From about 7-8 years on children themselves become able to form groups which are independent of adults and which show cooperative action and the pursuit of a common goal . From this age level on throughout adolescence the desire to have a function in association with individuals of the same level of differentiation can be detected and, if this is not satisfied openly, the individual may secretly join an available group . In the first socialized period children form independent social groups among themselves . Older individuals may be present but they are not necessary. The organization of children's groups in this period indicates that interrelationships of the members are sufficiently differentiated to understand certain codes and to pursue a common aim .



The sex attitude characteristic for this age level is suggested in the organization of the groups developing in this period, the hom*osexual tendency beginning to be more marked at about 8 years of age and commencing to decline after the age of 13 . The hom*osexual tendency in group organization continues, although in lesser degree, throughout the whole period of adolescence . Besides these hom*osexual or uni-sexed gangs, there are found mixed groups of boys and girls with a definite interest in sex . It is reported that the majority of the members are usually of ages from 12 up. This coincides with the forming of group structures which indicate the gradual increase of inter-sexual choice from 13 years of age up . In this sense, one or another partner in the group may be several years younger than 13 if there are boys or girls of the mentioned age level present who initiate the younger . In other words, children between 6 and 12 years do not develop a gang for sexual purposes spontaneously . From about 7 to 8 years on they are able to form a non-sexual gang ; from 12-13 years on the sexual factor can enter into it and differentiate it further . Even children of the pre-socialized level can be led by older leaders into belonging to a gang, but there is no genuine spontaneous participation on their part before their socialized growth begins at 7 to 8 years of age or their social sexual period begins at 13 years . The effect which the maturing sexual function of individuals has upon the structure of groups led us therefore to distinguish the following stages First Inter-Sexual Stage Up to 6-8 years : 8 years to 13 years : First hom*osexual Stage 13-15 years on : Second Inter-Sexual Stage Second hom*osexual Stage 13-17 years on : Our experience with children's societies consisting of many hundreds of members may throw a further light upon the problem. We found that children, boys and girls, who had reached the 8 year age level or were nearing it were able to run a society of their own without the aid of any older individuals . Usually they formed societies with one leader as the head . If growth had been stopped at this age level and if no more highly differentiated societies would exist these children's societies would persist and develop an orderly organization as they attain the minimum of constancy and differentiation necessary for common pursuits.



These tests could not be developed beyond a certain limit as in actuality the adolescent and adult groups press upon child groups when they are in spontaneous formation and they have no chance to overcome this pressure and to develop beyond neighborhood gangs and local groups. CLEAVAGES IN GROUPS

Gradually from the 1st grade on the group develops a more differentiated organization ; the number of unchosen decreases, the number of pairs increases, from about the 3rd grade on chains and triangles appear . The organization becomes more and more ready and mature to function for the group . Cooperative group action which begins to flourish from the 3rd and 4th grades on is potentially inherent in the organization of this age level before the functioning in this direction may become apparent to outsiders . The increased differentiation of groups formed by the children from about the 2nd grade on and the declining insight of adults into the role and the position of a particular child in the group mark the beginning of a "social" cleavage, a cleavage between adult groups and child groups .

From the 4th grade on the percentage of heterosexual attractions drops very low . There is indicated the beginning of a sexual cleavage which characterizes the organization from then up to the 8th grade. Parallel with this the number of pairs and of other social structures increases rapidly . It appears as if the sexual cleavage is accelerating the process of socialization, deepening the emotional bonds between the members of the fraternity and sisterhood into which the class is now broken up . From about the 5th grade another phenomenon can be observed in the sociograms . A greater number of Italian children begin to choose Italian neighbors ; a greater number of Jewish children begin to choose Jewish neighbors ; a greater number of German children begin to choose German neighbors, etc. ; and a larger number of Italian children reject Jewish children, of Jewish children reject Italian, of German children reject Jewish, and of white children reject colored children, and so on, than before . This phenomenon could not be observed in the pre-school groups and rarely in the lst, 2nd and 3rd grades



although the percentage of members of the different nationalities was about the same. It indicates the beginning of a racial cleavage . The organization which was already broken up into two hom*osexual groups, into two halves, tends to break up further into a number of sub-groups, more or less distinct, each consisting of boys or girls of the same or similar nationality . Whether this is characteristic only for the particular sample of child population studied or is a general phenomenon will become clear as soon as a great variety of child populations in urban and rural sections is studied . However, it is evident that children have no spontaneous aversion in respect to nationality differences . Where a cleavage appears it is largely the projection of adult influence . At this age level another phenomenon begins to reflect in the sociograms, the socio-economic status, precipitating a "socioeconomic" cleavage . The four phenomena just mentioned are related to several factors . One is the physical and mental difference between adults and children. Children are becoming aware of the differences between themselves and the adults and of the similarities between themselves and other children . The psychological distance between adults and children increases, the psychological nearness between children and children increases . This is one basis for the development of child associations independent of adult associations . As the networks among the children have become finer and stronger, the collaborative activities of children which up to this point were relatively an open vista, are now difficult for the adults to detect . However, the child associations inherent in the social structure never actually develop beyond an embryonic stage . Up to a certain age this is due to their insufficiency in the forming of groups . But from the 2nd and 3rd grades on this failure is largely due to the pressure coming from adult groups which bear down upon them and do not permit of their full expression . Soon after the difference between adults and children begins to affect group organization there follows the effect of the differences between the sexes . The distinction between boy and girl occupies the mind of children long before this period but up to this point it rather enhances their curiosity for each other and drives towards -attraction rather than towards separation . Yet



once the period of the free mixing of the sexes is over, the distance between the two sexes increases and leads to a new cleavage . The break-up of the group into fraternal hom*osexual associations and hom*osexual sister associations begins . This sexual cleavage may be said to have a counterpart in certain imageries of primitive societies . In an African legend related by Frobenius men and women lived apart in different villages. Each village was governed by the one sex alone which comprised it and Frobenius describes periodic hostilities occurring between the two communities. The cause for this real or imagined outcome may be traced symbolically, to the first hom*osexual cleavage in which the warfare between the sexes is able to assume group form . This cleavage, although it does not develop beyond an embryonic stage, is never entirely overcome . The oncoming increase of heterosexual gravitation itself is not able to repair completely the rift in which all future tendencies towards hom*osexual groupings are inherent .

When the hom*osexual tendency in group formation becomes an impelling force it aids to knit the individuals into a group which is more finely integrated than before and through emotional bondage gives an impetus for achievement . It may appear more economical and more secure to look for identity or similarity in fellowships, a lesser risk in a period in which the development of collective feeling is in an experimental stage . Aims are more easily achieved if resistances within the groups are abolished. Slight differences in color of the skin, size, figure, facial expression, or mental traits, gain in significance as they appear to resist the transfer of feeling. The effect of the suggestion coming from parents or from other older individuals whose opinion is respected by the child is immense . But why such suggestion does not leave a more lasting impression upon the child before this age level can be perhaps explained . It may be that the emotional bondage in child groups during the phase of sexual cleavage prepared the soil so that such suggestion may be comprehended, found useful, and so take root more easily . But these factors alone would not suffice to entrench these feelings, to transform them from individual into collective expression . A retaining and conserving factor is needed . This is supplied by the networks whose significance we describe elsewhere and which



begin to develop at this age level . It is through these networks that verbal and non-verbal opinion can travel . There appears clearly to be a parallel between intersexual and interracial attraction . Curiosity in respect to the other sex and curiosity in respect to another race both presuppose an expansive mood. When heterosexual attraction gives way to hom*osexual attraction, just as curiosity for the other sex fatigues and indifference or antagonism towards it develops, also the curiosity for members of another race fatigues and indifference or antagonism towards it develops. When children are intelligent enough to form more finely integrated interrelations they feel out for the first time the two great hindrances in the pursuit of closed and aggressive group action : the other sex and the other race. In the first schemes to conquer the world it seems so much easier and safer for boy groups to leave out girls and to leave out nationalities contrasting to their own . While sexual cleavage was found in all the nationalities among the groups studied, what appears to be a longer duration of this phenomenon in certain nationality groups may be related to the later coming-on of puberty or to cultural mores . It may also be that in nationality groups in which hom*osexual groupings are more emphatic and have a longer duration it provides a better soil for male groups to develop as cohesive units later and with hostile, aggressive attitudes towards the rest of society from which they deviate to a greater or slighter degree . On the other hand, the very long duration of the sexual cleavage in girl groups and the emotional bondage resulting from it may, when this takes place, facilitate an increased sense for independence . The situation in the sexual cleavage has a tendency towards recapitulation . It will probably be found that with the rising to power of hom*osexual aggressive male groups there goes hand in hand their suppression of cohesive female groups and their claims for emancipation and equal opportunity . CONCEPT OF AGE

The fundamental mark in the process of socialization appears to be reached at 7-9 years. This does not mean that this process is finished at that age but that children reach at that age the point when they can form and direct a society . The next mark



in the process of socialization is the age of 13-15 years, when the sexual development begins to reflect upon it . A third mark is 16-17 years, when the maturing of mental development begins to reflect upon it . An individual appears to reach the different marks in his general development at different times . An individual whose mental development may appear average normal may appear socially retarded and emotionally advanced . These differences in the growth of mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual suggest that the hypothesis of age be either discarded or redefined. Instead of using different tests for the different aspects of personality development, for the abstract level of intelligence, intelligence tests, for the performance level of intelligence, performance tests, for the emotional level of the individual, psychoanalytic inquiry, there is need of a test of the individual which evaluates all these factors in their interrelations and when they appear in conjunction, that is, when the individual is acting. The Spontaneity Test is devised to accomplish this objective and it demonstrates that the unity of personality organization is the primary fact to be considered. It appears that this unity functions as an active principle in the evolution of personality . We cannot well differentiate one part of this unity, for instance, the intellectual development, and say it is "retarded" and differentiate another part of this unity, the emotional development, and say it is "accelerated ." We need to consider the organization of personality above any of its various aspects, as a unity which, just like the physical organism, cannot escape from functioning as a unity all the time . As a unity it moves forward from year to year . It is interesting to note here that the sociometric test of groups has demonstrated a similar principle operating in group evolution . In groups of children and adolescents with the increasing age of the members-whatever the position of individual members may be-the group organization as a whole moves forward from year to year . SOCIOGENETIC LAW The finding that with the maturing of the intelligence and the emotions also the sociability of an individual matures was to be expected . But it is unexpected to find that a group of indi-



viduals "grows," that the organization of their interrelations crystallizes, that the clashes between the different intelligences, emotionabilities and sociabilities of the individuals within the group do not destroy the process of maturation nor prohibit the existence and recurrence of regular tendencies within it . The criss-cross currents in a group come to a synthesis, they produce organizations which have a "sense" and invite interpretation . Our survey of the development of spontaneous group organizations from year to year of age among children and adolescents appears to indicate the presence of a fundamental "sociogenetic" law which may well be said to supplement the biogenetic law . Just as the higher animals have evolved from the simplest forms of life, so, it seems, the highest forms of group organization have evolved from the simple ones . If children were given the freedom to use their spontaneous groups as permanent associations, as children-societies, then similarities in structure and conduct with primitive human societies become apparent . It is well known that primitive family association regulated more functions than does the modern family . Within its organization the function of education and labor as well as numerous other objectives were executed. Children's societies might give us an indication how primitive societies would develop if we could recapitulate them today . We will see in the next section that the girls in Hudson, when given the opportunity to choose associates for home, work, etc ., chose frequently, and more often at the younger age levels, the same persons for all the different functions,-with whom they wanted to live, to work, to play, etc . Whenever it was put into practice it led to an overlapping of functions within the same organization of individuals . This is an expression of society similar to that found in certain primitive family associations . The fact that other girls made distinct choices for different functional groups suggests that within the same community different patterns of society organization are desired by different individuals . The fact that all these individuals have been brought up in a similar industrial environment and still have tendencies toward producing contrasting society organizations may argue that the machine is not the sole factor in producing specialization of function and social differentiation . Our findings suggest the notion that group organization is in its



ontogenetic development to a great extent an epitome of the form-modifications which successive ancestral societies of the species underwent in the course of their historic evolution . It may be called the group theory o f evolution. This hypothesis is supported by (a) Spontaneous organization of groupings among children and adolescents develop year by year from simple to more complex stages of integration . (b) These groups reveal that a remainder of lower organization can always be traced in the next higher stage and that indicators of a beginning towards higher organization can be traced in the next lower stage . (c) Similarities have been noted between spontaneous group organizations among classes of children in the early grades and spontaneous group organizations among mentally retarded adolescents . (d) Similarities of tendencies in social organization are suggested between children's societies and those of primitives .



The project to determine the psychological process comprising a whole community seems like an unsurmountable task . A duplicate of this process to be accurate has to take into account more than the trends in the population. The process is broken up in numerous individual processes, each of which contributes something to the total picture. The detailed combination of these individual processes again are very numerous . All the lights and shades need to be integrated in the presentation or else a form of fiction will take the place of scientific truth . The first task, therefore, which we set ourselves was to analyze all individuals of a given community in their interrelations . We were encouraged in the difficult undertaking by the experiences in other sciences-a few carefully thought out breeding-experiments led to the foundation of biogenetics-from the careful psychological study of few individuals a good knowledge of men in general resulted. So we counted that from the careful study of one community a better knowledge of the structure of any community may develop also . Finally, we thought, however unique a certain concrete sample of population may be, the methods and techniques gained in the course of investigation will be universal . The community in which the study was made is near Hudson, New York ; it is the size of a small village, between 500 and 600 persons ; it is a closed community ; it has a uni-sexed population ; the girls are still in their formative age and remain in Hudson for several years until their training has been completed ; they are sent in from every part of New York State by the courts . The organization is dual, consisting of two groups, staff members and students . There are 16 cottages for housing purposes, a chapel, a school, a hospital, an industrial building, a steam laundry, a store, an administration building, and a farm . The house219



mother has the function of the parent ; all meals are cooked in the house under the direction of a kitchen officer ; the girls participate in the household in different functions, as waitresses, kitchen helpers, cooks, laundresses, corridor girls . The colored population is housed in cottages separate from the white. But in educational and social activities white and colored mix freely . These and similar aspects can be termed the "social organization of the community." And whatever the "social structure" of a particular cottage may be it is necessary to ascertain the psychological function of each of its members and the "psychological organization" of the cottage group . The social function of a girl, for instance, may be that of supervising the dormitory, but her psychological function may be that of a housemother pet who is rejected by the members of her group and isolated in it . These emotional reactions and responses among the girls of the group must result in a dynamic situation, its "psychological organization ." The social organization of the total community has beneath its outer appearance another aspect . Although separately housed, there are attractions and repulsions between white and colored girls which gravely affect the social conduct in this community . The "emotional currents" radiating from the white and colored girls, and vice versa, have to be ascertained in detail, their causes determined, and their effects estimated . Similarly emotional currents radiate among the white population irrespective of their housing and other distinctions from one cottage to another. Such psychological currents flow finally between officers and students and within the group of officers themselves in its sum total affecting and shaping the character and the conduct of each person and of each group in the community . The experimental sociologist who enters a new community with the plan of starting a social revolution within it has to prepare himself, his staff of co-workers and the people in this community, for the task . When I entered Hudson I had the enthusiastic and undivided support of the superintendent, but very soon I had to face with her several bottlenecks standing in the way of the realization of the project : the Board of Trustees, the Associate Superintendents and Directors, the staff of housemothers, work supervisors and teachers, the ramifications leading to the



Department of Social Welfare and the repercussions coming from the City of Hudson, a few miles away from our own community . Last not least, we had to reckon with the population of the girls themselves . I realized already after the first few days that the project and I had friends and enemies in all sections of the population . I tried to encompass with my best social imagination the pros and cons taking place within more than a thousand people in reference to myself. In the beginning they hardly differentiated between the plan, myself and the team of my co-workers . In this dilemma I invented a sociometric technique devised to x-ray my own situation, a technique which I later called "sociometric selfrating" and projection . It was based on the assumption that every individual intuitively has some intimation of the position he holds in the group . By empathy he comes to know approximately whether the flow of affection or antipathy for him is rising or falling . I began to map out in my own mind, often two or three times a day, the sociograms of the key groups upon whom the success or failure of the project depended . I began to sketch all the situations in which my co-workers and I were involved at the time and in which role . Then I tried to clarify how we felt towards each of these people . It was comparatively easy to state my own preferences, choices or rejections, towards the key individuals in the community. It was more difficult to "guess" what everyone of these people felt towards me and my plan and what reasons they might have . More difficult, but of the greatest importance, was to guess how these people felt towards each other . By a sort of highly trained empathy I succeeded in picturing my own sociograms ; they were a great aid in preventing and countering attacks before they became detrimental . This technique was particularly important, as it trained my social intuition . Later on, once large parts of the population were warmed up to the plan and understood its significance, helpers and friends arose among them, unknown to me . Finally, once the sociometric community test was put into operation, the sociograms of the houses gave us more accurate insight and corroborated many of my guesses . Another problem was to develop a team of co-workers . When I started the scientific team consisted only of two, myself and an



assistant ; to find workers and to establish a working team around an idea which is new, not universally accepted or even controversial, is extremely difficult . When ideas and methods are in the stage of "primary" productivity the team workers have to accept a certain individual as the scientific leader and his inspirations and hypotheses as the guide for their own thinking . The problem as to how to "share" in primary productivity in scientific and artistic pursuits is still unsolved . The value of team work begins to come forth after the primary productivity phase is over, when the stage of technical and analytical considerations is reached . This has been my experience with the Hudson experiment. Notwithstanding, we succeeded in finding a large number of workers among the social workers and teachers in the community . SOMOMETRIC TEST OF HOME GROUPS The cell of the social organization in the community at large is missing in Hudson : the natural family . These girls are separated from their parents ; instead of to the latter they are assigned to a housemother ; they are also separated from their siblings and are placed into groups of girls who are unrelated to them and to each other . The opinion is held by many that it is the parental instinct and affinity of blood relation that makes the association of parents with their own children desirable . But here in Hudson the natural affinities are missing . For the natural parent a "social" parent has been substituted, for the natural child, a "social" child . A device, therefore, has been invented to determine the "drawing power" one girl has for another, one girl has for a housemother, and in return one housemother has for a girl . Through such device we may find out to whom each girl is attracted and by whom each girl is repelled . The study of the sum total of these attractions and repulsions may give us an insight into the distribution of emotions in this community and the position of each individual and group in relation to its currents .

The sociometric test provides such a device . The criterion towards which the attention of the children has been directed is their liking or dislikes for the individuals in a given community in respect to living together in the same home with them . The



size of the population from which the child could select her home associates was five hundred and five . It was estimated by us on the basis of similar try-outs that it would be sufficient if five choices were allowed to every girl . The test was then given to the whole population at the same time in the manner described on page 104. We were then able to classify each girl according to the choices she had made and the choices she had received . An illustration of a typical choice slip follows : WL, Cottage 7 Choices made 1 . ME, C16 2 . KT, 07 3 . GE, 07 4. CN, C16 5 . SV, C6 Choices received 1 . ME, C16 2 3. PR, C7 4. SV, C6 5 . EH, C10 The choice findings indicate the amount of interest WL in C7 has for the 34 girls with whom she lives compared with the amount of interest she has for girls outside her cottage ; it indicates also the amount of interest girls of her own cottage have for her compared with the amount of interest girls of other cottages have for her . It shows her interlocked with members of four cottages . The first choice of WL was ME from another cottage, C16, who also chose her first . Altogether she chooses 2 (KT and GE) from her own cottage and 3 (ME, CN, and SV) from other cottages . She is chosen by 1 (PR) from her cottage and by 3 (ME, SV, and EH) from other cottages . See sociograms of WL, p . 299-300 .* When, then, each girl of cottage 7 is classified as above illustrated in the case of WL, the actual composition of cottage 7 can be compared with the composition desired by its members, whom they would like to have in and whom out of the cottage . See sociogram of C7, p. 271 . Looking within the cottage we discover girls who, like stars, capture most of the choices, others forming mutual pairs, sometimes linked into long mutual chains or into triangles, squares, or circles, and then an unlooked-for number of unchosen children . Looking over the total community, we observe that the choices run criss-cross throughout, uncovering the invisible dynamic organization which actually exists below the official one . Suddenly what has seemed blank or impenetrable opens up as a great vista . We see the choices running in streams * Some of the inconsistencies between the sociogram of a cottage and the sociometric classification of that individual are due to the fact that the groups depicted are subject to frequent changes .



to one or to another cottage . And we see other cottages practically isolated . We see cottages concentrating their choices within their own groups and then we see another sending so many choices to other cottages that seemingly its own group desires to disband . LIMITS OF EMOTIONAL INTEREST

Instead of the 2,525 choices expected, only 2,285 choices were actually made . Two hundred and forty choices, i.e., 9%%, remained unused . Nine and one-half per cent indicates to what extent the emotional interest of the whole Hudson population is limited when five choices are allowed in respect to the criterion of living in proximity . If we analyze one group from this aspect, cottage 1, we find that it left 26 choices unused . Two individuals from C3, we find, made no choices during the stage of the first choice ; 4, during the second ; 4, during the third ; 5, during the fourth ; 11, during the fifth . Obviously the girls were fresh at the start, only 2 made no choice then . But from choice to choice the amplitude of their interest declined . During the last phase, when the fifth choice was made, the number of unused choices rose from 8% (1st choice) to 16% (2nd choice) remained at 16% (3rd choice) rose to 20% (4th choice) to 44% (5th choice) . Table 8 presents the percentage of unused choices from 1st to 5th choice for each cottage group. TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE OF UNUSED CHOICES FROM 1ST TO 5TH CHOICE First Second Third Fourth Choice Choice Choice Choice 0% 0% Cottage 2 0% 0% Cottage 11 0% 0% 0% 0% Cottage 1 0% 0% 0% 5% Cottage 14._ . .___ . . .__ .__ . 0% 0% 4% 4% 6% 6% 9% Cottage 7 3% 3% 3% 3% 7% Cottage 16 . . . . Cottage 10 4% 8% 8% 12% 3% 3% 9% 9% Cottage 15 4% 4% Cottage 6 4% 8% 12% 12% 12% 15% Cottage 12 11% 9% 9% 20% Cottage 13 .- . 3% 12% 27% Cottage 8 . . . . . 3% 16% 16% 20% Cottage 3 8% 20% 20% 24% Cottage 9 20% 15% 20% 35% Cottage 4 . 12%

Fifth Choice 0% 8% 25% 28% 12% 27% 12% 35% 44% 15% 24% 48% 44% 36% 60%



With almost clock-like regularity the interest declines . It is interesting how rapidly their interest starts to weaken. Usually after the 3rd choice a crisis is evident . Only three cottages, Cl, C2 and C11 passed through the first three choices without losing one, and only cottage 2 reached the final 5th choice still unbeaten . Cottage 4 left 60% unused in the 5th choice and three other cottages left little less than 50% unused in that choice . One choice more, perhaps, or two, and the girls of most of the groups would have reached the limit of their interest . The gradual decline of emotional expansiveness can be illustrated in still another way . From the 505 girls, 500 participate in the 1st choice ; 460 are still marching in the 2nd choice ; 420 girls, in the 3rd choice ; 375, in the 4th choice . To make the 5th choice only 300 girls have a sufficient amount of interest left . A 6th, 7th, or 8th choice may have furnished us with a picture exemplifying a slow approximation to the freezing point . This demonstrates what we may call the process of slowing down of interest, the cooling off of emotional expansiveness, the sociodynamic decline of interest. After a certain number of efforts the interest grows fatigued . It reaches extinction of interest in respect to a certain criterion, the sociodynamic limit of a person's expansion, its social entropy. SOCIODYNAMIC EFFECT

Another process was observed to recur with a peculiar regularity. The number of choices was not equally divided among the girls . Some attracted more attention, they received more choices ; some attracted less attention, they received fewer choices or remained unchosen . Some girls accumulated more choices the further we progressed from the 1st to the 5th choice . There were cases where a girl received more than 40 choices, contributed from girls from all parts of the community . On the other hand, many of the girls seemed to be entirely cut off from the circuit of attention . The number of unchosen after the lst choice oscillated between 35% and 15% of the members of the cottages . We had good reasons to hope that with the progressing choices everyone would catch something for herself . The number of the unchosen became smaller in the second and still smaller in the third choice . But after the 3rd choice the progress started to



slacken. The number of the unchosen did not fall as rapidly as before the 3rd choice : the figures tended to stand still . The number of the unchosen in cottage 1 after the 1st choice was 13 girls ; it fell down to 9 in the 2nd choice, to 7 in the 3rd choice, to 6 in the 4th choice and remained at 6 in the 5th choice . Cottage 15 started with 11 unchosen and finished with 2 . Cottage 16 started with 20 unchosen girls and reduced them to 12 in the end . Cottage 8 started with 22 unchosen girls and had 6 at the end . Of course the surplus of choices went somewhere . It went to the girls who attracted more attention from the start . Their greater attraction seemed to be responsible for the fact that 75 girls from 505 (157o) remained unchosen, isolated in the community after all the choices were counted . It might be speculated that if the girls had chosen each other at a rate of more than 5 choices per person finally every girl of the population would have received a choice . But all indications in our research support the conclusion that a higher rate than 5 choices would have increased the number of choices for those who have been "stars" under 5 choice conditions and would stubbornly have continued to leave out the unchosen ones . We call this process of persistently leaving out a number of persons of a group the sociodynainic effect . TABLE 9 NUMBER OF LTNOHosFN FROM 1ST TO 5TH CHOICE *

Cottages C 1 ..

1st Choice 13

2nd Choice

9 13 13 12 18 22 18 22 11 14 12 16 11 20

9 6 8 10 9 14 15 11 19 5 9 7 7 7 16

Totals 224


C 2 C 3 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. C 4 . . ... . . . . .--C 6 C 7 C 8 C 9 010 .. 011--- ------C12 013 014 . . C15 C16 * 05 is not included here.

3rd Choice 7 4 6 6 6 12 9 7 17 2 7 6 6

4th Choice



6 2 3 5 1 9 6 6 14 2 5 4 4 2 12





6 3 4 5 4 10 7 7 14 2 6 5 6

5th Choice





The location of the choices, whether inside or outside the group has a definite effect upon the organization of the group . Their distribution changes from the 1st to the 5th choice . The following three samples illustrate the most characteristic patterns of organization resulting from this factor COTTAGE 9, LOCATION OF CI1OICES

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

choice choice choice choice choice

------------------------------------------------------ .. . ----------------------------------------------------


Inside 14 15 14 13 10





6 7

7 7

The same trend is repeated through all the phases from 1st to 5th choice : the majority of choices go inside, the minority of choices go outside the group . It is a sample of an introverted organization . COTTAGE 10, LOCATION OF CHOICES

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

choice choice choice choice choice



Inside 10 9 6 8

Outside 15 16 18 15 14




Cottage 10 gives a sample of an extroverted organization . The majority of choices go persistently in each phase outside, the minority in each phase inside . COTTAGE 7, LOCATION OF CHOICES

1st choice 2nd choice 3rd choice 4th choice 5th choice

-------------------------------------------------- . . ... . . . ° .. °--

Totals ------------------------------------ -

Inside 13 12 17 1i 10

Outside 11 14 12 13 11





Cottage 7 is a sample in which the majority of choices swings between inside and outside the group without any decided trend ; in three phases, 2nd, 4th and 5th choice, the majority goes outside ; in the remaining two phases, 1st and 3rd choice, it goes inside . This can be called a balanced organization . ATTRACTIONS, REPULSIONS AND INDIFFERENCES

Human relations can be compared to a stick with two ends . The emotions going out from persons are only one half of the stick. The emotions coming back are the other half. A neglected aspect in sociometric research is the import of indifferences. We have found in this community, besides the considerable number of unused choices (9Y2%), a large volume of indifferences. What does this indifference to change mean and what are the factors behind, as I have frequently called it, the "dynamics of neutrality?" A man is, or at least declares himself indifferent as to whether he works in proximity to A or to B, or to any other individual ; whether he sits in a classroom near A, B, or any other individual ; whether he marries A, B, or any other individual . Or, an individual starts with being attracted to A, B, C, but becomes indifferent towards them in the course of time ; he does not care whether they stay with him or leave him, he does not care to replace them . Or, again, an individual A has been indifferent to with whom he works, plays and lives but in the course of time he begins to like these individuals and he does not care to have them replaced by anyone . It can be assumed that this social inertia is particularly due to cultural factors . In certain cultures it may be an ethical imperative to manifest indifference to change, because he is supposed to love everyone ; that is why it should not make any difference to him with whom he works or lives, it will come out well in the end . In other cultures the parents choose the marital partner for their sons or daughters ; they do not marry someone whom they love, but a person who, for instance, has a good ancestry ; the assumption is that they will learn to love each other although they may feel indifferent in the beginning ; if the symbolically and axiologically right partner is selected, all other individual or social considerations are secondary . In a cohesive culture more excitable or more



submissive individuals are equally coerced to conform with the mores . The sociometrist has no premium for individuals who show preferences and choose, against individuals who show indifferences ; he is primarily interested in the facts . However, he is most interested to know what factors operate in specific situations to produce a high degree of indifferences as compared with others which produce a low degree of indifferences . He is particularly interested to know of the relationship between an excessively spontaneous, a manically and aggressively oriented culture and the trends in the sociometric index of its members . Is there a "hypomanic choice-making" prevailing in hypomanic cultures towards which even its more submissive individuals are swayed? Do we tend towards a culture with a high or a low "preference" index? On the other hand, we have to watch the depressive effect which certain cultural norms might exert upon its more expansive members . The most important long range question, however, is to study whether the indifference to change exists only in situations determined by "weak" criteria or whether it is deeply frustrating in social situations determined by vital and "strong" criteria, regardless of culture. However profound the differences in structure, therefore, from the sociometric geography of one culture to another may be, some deep slice-a "sociometric constant"-may exist which they all share . Here were 505 girls who at the rate of 5 choices each had the opportunity to make 2,525 choices . To secure the other half meant to ascertain the responses to these choices . As every girl was in the center of a varying number of reciprocated or unreciprocated choices, every girl belonging to such an atomic structure, a form of interrogation had to be applied in which all the individuals related to each other in respect to the criterion of wanting to live in proximity could participate . In each case all the girls revolving around each girl and she herself had to be interviewed separately and still in relation to each other . This was accomplished by "a group o f interviewers" who attempted through cooperative action, each from another individual's angle, to secure the structure existing in relation to any individual in this community . In the case of WL before mentioned, 8 persons were interviewed, including WL . WL was asked : 1, "How do you feel about living with ME, KT, GE, CN, SV, PR, or EM in the same cottage? Answer `Yes, No,



or Indifferent' ;" 2, "What motives have you for accepting or rejecting her?" And then ME, KT, GE, CN, SV, PR, and EH were asked to return : "How do you feel about living in the same cottage with WL? Say `Yes, No, or Indifferent .' What motives have you for accepting or rejecting her?" The findings reveal WL is attracted to 5, 2 of whom are in her own cottage and the other 3 in other cottages . She rejects 2, one from her own cottage and one from another . She attracts 7,* 3 of whom are in her own cottage and 4 outside in other cottages . She is rejected by none . Attractions are mutual in 5 instances . The most intensive mutual attraction as shown by first choice and motivations is towards a girl in another cottage . See sociogram of WL, second phase. See also Motivations Table of WL, p . 231-233 . This inquiry ascertained in the same manner for each individual of the population the number of attractions or repulsions going out from her towards other members and the attractions and repulsions going back to her from them . The seven individuals interlocked with WL delineate the border-lines of what may be called a social atom with WL as its nucleus . In relation to every other individual another group of persons were found interlocked in respect to the same criterion . It can be said that the sociometric test in its first phase (spontaneous choice) attempted to detect these atoms. In its second phase, the motivational phase, it will begin to penetrate beneath their surface, as it were, to crush the social atom . Through the study of the 505 atomic structures it was found that they oftentimes differed widely from the position of the respective individuals in their actual home groups, that these atomic structures frequently overlap one another, many individuals being parts of diverse structures at the same time with, however, a varying degree of interest . First we classified, as expressed from the 1st to the 5th choice, the Yes attitude, attraction, in respect to living in proximity, the No attitude, repulsion, and the Neutral attitude, indifference, irrespective of the motivations expressed for these attitudes . Then we secured from the individuals themselves what motivations they considered as underlying their * Three mare positive responses were uncovered when WL's choice partners were interviewed .



attractions and repulsions . It was found that one emotion rarely seemed to motivate them ; usually it was a complex of emotions . These emotions appeared like a "current" centering in and moving two or more persons at the same time . The study of the motivations (see Table of Motivations below) gave, if pieced together and weighed for each individual of the same group, a deeper insight into the forces regulating or disturbing group organization .


1st Choice, ME, C16 : We seem to understand each other although we are very different. I am excitable and moody and she is always calm and cheerful . We are both going to do the same kind of work in the future, stenography and office work . She has a calming effect upon me and I always wanted to live with her .

1st Choice, ME, C16 : WL is so interesting . She seems to feel things so deeply . The slightest happenings and she is tearful or else ecstatic about it . I don't get this way very much and so I like to share things with her . I think she is colorful .

2nd Choice, KT, C7 : KT is just the opposite of ME . She is Hungarian and sometimes teaches me a few words . She is wonderful in sports and the star in baseball . I am not such a good player but a fast runner and KT makes the others have patience with me . She is determined she will make a star of me too . She is slow about some things, like sewing, and so I often help her with it . It's good to be around her . I like her next after ME .

Interview Response, KT, C7 : Yes, I would like to have WL in my cottage because of her spirit . She wasn't very good in sports when she was new and she was so persistent, I just admire her for that . She is sensitive and although the girls like her she feels hurt if they criticize her, like in games, I mean .



3rd Choice, GE, C7 GE I want in my cottage because I feel towards her like she was my little sister . I never had any and I like to take care of her. It is just too sweet for anything the way she appreciates i f you do the tiniest thing for her . I always give her all the things I can't use and she makes things out of them for herself. She is clever that way . Mostly she is just a lonesome little child you just have to be fond of .

Interview Response, GE, C7 Yes, oh yes, I want WL . She is the kindest girl in our whole cottage . She is always thinking of the nicest thing to do for someone . I didn't choose her because I chose all girls I play around with who aren't so busy as WL . She has to study more and is older than the girls I go with .

4th Choice, CN, C16 : I chose CN fourth because she isn't so necessary to me as the others . She is more a luxury . She is amusing and just naturally comical .

Interview Response, CN, C16 : Yes, we are very companionable . She always understands my jokes and doesn't get angry like most girls do when I make sharp remarks .

5th Choice, SV, C6 : I try to model myself after SV. She is highly intelligent I think, much more than I am, farther in reading books and knowing things . She is delicate and I have some influence over her in making her rest afternoons . She comes from the same part of New York State I do and sometimes we talk about how it is there .

4th Choice, SV, C6 : WL keeps me from being homesick . She always has something to talk about and although she is moody she never acts bored ; is always interesting. I think she has a beautiful way of acting, like when she greets you on the walk. You feel she is really happy to be talking to you in particular .

Interview Response, PR, C7 : No. It's only because she has a way of edging up to you and

3rd Choice, PR, C7 I like WL very, very much . She doesn't talk to me much,



standing so close when she talks to you . There is something about her that is repulsive to me . I have a hard time to be nice to her when she comes near to me . I felt this way about her even before I found out about her having secret meetings most every day with colored girls . It seems she just can't live without them . She doesn't just go with them herself but she tries to get new girls to carry her notes so they'll get interested too . I think it's just too bad about her . If she came out in the open with it you wouldn't get so disgusted with her . But she gets the new girls on the sly . She promises them all kinds of things if they will do it for her and then she forgets all about her promises .

though, always says she is busy, has- to read, or something . I don't know if it is true or not . She is the most attractive girl in the cottage I think ; has such a nice complexion and keeps her hair all curled. She is just lovely.

Interview Response, EH, C10 : No. She's two faced . You never know when she's your friend or your enemy, she always talks about people behind their backs and is sweet to their face . I wish she'd leave me alone, I can't stand her when she tries to make up to me .

5th Choice, EH, C10 : I'd like to have WL in my cottage, she's refined and superior to a lot of the other girls . I could learn from her and look up to her .


On this basis we were able to classify each individual and each group of the, given community according to its position within it . We were aware that we had to approach the classification problem from an angle which is in sharp contrast with the current





methodologies. Classification methods according to type, as Jung's, Kretschmer's, and others, have in common with psychometric classification methods which measure an individual's intelligence, aptitudes, and abilities, that their attitude of classification is centered upon one individual singly, whereas the individuals and groups around him are only summarily considered . In contrast, we do not deal with an individual separated from the sociodynamic situation in which he lives, within which he appears continuously, attracted to and rejected by other individuals . The crucial point of our classification is to define an individual in relation to others, and in the case of groups, always a group in relation to other groups . This is sociometric classification. The approach was not a theoretical scheme but the product of empirical induction growing logically out of our initial precept to discover and control the psychological currents in a given community. The following sample demonstrates the sociometric classification of one individual and the methods employed to develop an increasing degree of precision in the formula . The individual WL chooses inside and 3 outside her group in respect to living in proximity . She is chosen by 1 inside and 3 outside her group . "L" designates the criterion, living in proximity. The figures above the horizontal line signify choices made by the subject ; those below it, the choices received by the subject . The figures to the left of the vertical line are related to choices made or received by the subject inside her group ; those to the right, outside her group, as follows 2



Formula I in L out 2 3





Through the process of interrogation rejections and additional attractions were revealed . (See p . 230.) The following formula gives the total number of attractions and rejections made or received by WL inside and outside her group . Formula I changes accordingly as the number of rejections are indicated by a figure immediately following the figure indicating attractions (and is separated from it by a dash), as follows



Formula II in L out sent 2-1 3-1 WL received 3-0 4-0 These formulas express left from the vertical line the position WL occupies within the group in which she actually lives ; right from the vertical line, her position within the community in respect to the criterion of living in proximity . They thus define her status in respect to the eight factors given below in the Table of Terms of Sociometric Classification . TABLE OF TERMS OF SOCIOMETRIC CLASSIFICATION

Positive or Negative :

Positive, the subject chooses others ; Negative, the subject does not choose others .

Isolated :

The subject is not chosen and does not choose .

Extroverted Position :

The subject sends the majority of her choices to individuals outside her own group .

Introverted Position : The subject sends the majority of her choices to individuals insider her own group . Attracted :

The subject uses more than one half of the choices permitted .

Attractive :

The subject receives more than one half of the choices permitted . (In or Out is added to indicate if the choices are inside the subject's group or outside respectively . When this is not added the choices are understood to relate to both inside and outside the group .)

Rejecting :

The subject uses more than one half of the rejections permitted .

Rejected :

The subject receives more than one half of the rejections permitted .



Indifference :

The subject is indifferent to the individuals who are attracted to her or who reject her.

The classification of WL is, according to these eight factors : Positive, Not Isolated, Extroverted Position, Attracted, Attractive, Not Rejected or Rejecting . In another instance, that of TL, the formulas are differentiated as follows into three phases : TL. Formula I . sent

in 4

TL. Formula II . sent

in 4-1

TL. Formula III . sent

in ch 1 ch 2 ch 3 ch 4 -1





out 1



out 1-3




out ch 5 - 3

-161 - 0-15

In contrast to WL, TL is an individual whose classification expresses an unfavorable position : Positive, Isolated, Introverted Position, Attracted, Not Attractive, Rejected and Rejecting . The twelve cases in Table 10 illustrate how prolific sociometric classification is in being able to differentiate the position of any individual according to sociodynamic circ*mstances . It informs us that an individual, RU, is negatively situated . She is not particularly interested in anyone and no one is particularly interested in her . It tells us that an individual is isolated in her own group . It discloses if an individual is in an extroverted position and whether she is wanted within her own group but sends her choices outside . It, again, reveals if an individual rejects or is rejected in her group or outside of it . Such sociometric classification is the embryo of the later "sociomatrix as it is used by sociometrists in recent years . It is the sociomatrix of a single individual . As soon as several individuals are placed into the matrix with all their present relationships the sociomatrix of a group results (see page 147) .

10 TWELVE EXAMPLES OF SOCIOMETRIC CLASSIFICATION (CRITERION L, LIVING IN PROXIMITY) Extroverted, Positive or Introverted Name Formula I Formula II Negative Isolated or Balanced Attracted Attractive Rejecting Rejected Indifferent L L sent 4 1 1 4- 1 1 1- 3 Elsa TL Pos. X Intro . X X X rec . U 0 0-16 ~ 0-15 HW UQ GL GB AA LS RU PT SR AI BA







rec .



4- 1


4- 3 ~1

3- 8

0- 3 0- 1 L 5- 2 12 - 2

rec . sent


rec. sent

6 1 1 L



12 2




1- 0


rec .


1- 0






2 L 0 5 2

5 -- 0

6- 7


6- 2 1 L

3- 0 1

3- 0 L 1- 0 1 0- 9 1

2- 1

12 - 0 1- 2 0- 1

2- 0

2- 0 5- 2 1- 5

rec .


rec . sent

0 -- 0

0- 0

rec . sent

1 -1 2 1 3

1- 0 I

4- 1

4- 0, L 5- 1

7- 0

rec . sent ree . sent rec .


0 L 2 1 3

3 6 L 5 0 4 1 2 L 3 1 2

-I_ 3 1 2

0- 0


L 2- 4 j

2- 4 1

3- 3 L 3- 0 3- 0

0- 0

5- 0 1- 3 1- 1 0-13 2- 0 2- 0

Pos .

Intro .


Intro .



Extro .




Pos .

Intro .




Pos .

Intro .




Pos .


Pos .


Extro .



Neg .




r O


O tai


H k

O C)

7J O ro


Pos .

Extro .





Extro .








Pos .

Intro .




N W v



Without considering in detail the motivations behind these attractions and repulsions, fear, dissatisfaction or whatever, a study of these cases, without a knowledge of anything about their history or conduct, intelligence or abilities, except the knowledge that these positions continued during the period of one year, indicates that five, TL, UQ, LS, RU, AI, of the twelve cases are unadjusted within their living group . But the sociometrist should never rely upon the sociogram alone ; he may read into it more than is there, he may project into it some biases of our culture . The classification of Elsa TL as isolated, rejected and rejecting, is comprehensively corroborated by an intensive study of her conduct. See p . 342 . The negative and isolated situation of RU in the community is verified by her lack of sociability . In each case the classification was sustained by clinical evidence and further testing . See p . 344. Any change in conduct was found also to be traced immediately through the sociometric test . When the sociometric test showed a change in classification, a change in conduct was evidenced. When there is identical sociometric classification of two different individuals this does not indicate that the same motivations have necessarily led to it ; it indicates only the same social setting in the home group (L) . Yet even in these cases of identical classification further analysis leads to further differentiation of the formulas showing that the social setting of two individuals which appeared identical at the start may look very different from a microscopic point of view . This can be illustrated in the cases of AA and BA . A comparison of the social setting of these two individuals who appear sociometrically equated show sharp contrasts . AA is attracted to and attracts individuals who seem well adjusted . In the sociometric test she received a 3rd and a 5th choice from two girls who command a great influence in the community . The I.Q .'s of the individuals in the social atom of AA are : AA, 114 ; BT, 116 ; SA, 103 ; TT, 75 ; and MT, 87 . In all but one case (TT) the girls are doing high school work . On the other hand, in the sociometric test of BA the choices she receives come from individuals who are practically cut off from the rest of the community. In addition, the I .Q.'s of the individuals in the social atom of BA are : BA, 53 ; AE, 68 ; CT, 58 ; YA, 70 . In all but one


2 39

instance (YA), they are failing to progress appreciably either in school work or vocational training . Nevertheless the actual position in the respective home group of AA and BA corroborates the precision of the sociometric classification . The contrast shows that AA is placed in an upgrade social setting which may mature her best potentialities, whereas BA is in a downgrade social setting with individuals among whom she herself has the best classification . We may state here our observation that if two individuals have the same or similar sociometric classification, the social setting around them indicates a favorable or unfavorable prognosis in their problem of social adjustment . This supports my claim that the sociometric position of the individual is not sufficiently defined unless the sociometric test is given to the whole community to which that individual belongs . The surrounding structures may throw new light upon the position of that individual and revise premature interpretations . A further differentiation between two individuals was ascertained through study of the relation to their respective housemother and their classification in their respective work group . Such analysis of the social setting of individuals indicates that the classification status in a social atom is relative, that it changes in significance depending upon the social atoms with which it is interrelated . This also brings up the question of the relative influence of one or the other choice or attraction between two individuals (not only in respect to themselves) in respect to their home group and to the community . We have seen that the influence of one choice differs widely from the influence of another if the network of the whole community is taken into consideration . From this point of view the individual BL, who is, according to her classification, a popular individual, being chosen by 18 persons inside and 2 outside her group, compares poorly with an individual like LP, who is chosen by only 4 individuals . But LP is the first choice of these 4, however, and 3 of these 4 command directly or by indirection about 100 choices, whereas in the case of BL the choices come from individuals who are poorly adjusted in the main and are singly almost cut off from the chief currents of the community . If it comes to estimating, therefore, which individual wields more power in the community, the number of attractions and rejections an individual has does not alone figure,



but who are the choosing and rejecting ones and what expansion range their networks have . In other words, we arrive here to the problem of classifying leadership . The sociogram on p . 322 illustrates the social setting of a very popular individual in the given community and the one on page 323 that of a very powerful individual in this community . DIMENSIONS OF RESEARCH AND THE VALIDITY OF FINDINGS The objective was to test a community as a whole and to reconstruct it purely on the basis of findings yielded by the test . Our

guiding principle in the research has been from the start, after we had decided on working in an unexplored territory, to let the direction and the expansion of the research grow out of the situation . Therefore our procedure was not fixed in advance .

However, this is not to say that I worked without a well calculated blueprint, in fact, I had more than one . But I did not permit them to hold me down rigidly to a preordained path . I changed my blueprint several times as the building went up . I felt that I could not err as long as I had a clear goal and the genuine cooperation of the inhabitants . Before we started I visualized five dimensions of research : 1) the dimension of acquaintances and of simplest social contacts ; 2) the dimension of choices and refusals of contact, which I thought to be due to the like-dislike-indifference or the attraction-repulsion-indifference patterns . I defined an attraction or repulsion as the resultant of a "parallelogram of forces" which binds individuals or separates them ; the forces may be physical, psychological, social or cultural ; 3) the dimension of motivations ; 4) the dimension of social interaction, and 5) the dimension of role playing and role reversal . I assumed that the depth productivity of a group required a depth analysis of it along these five levels of research . Accordingly, I constructed several instruments to accomplish the deed : the acquaintance test, the sociometric test, the test of emotional expansiveness, the spontaneity test and the role playing test . After the test was given each time we analyzed the findings and developed out of them the next logical move in the sense of the inquiry . The first step in the test was so simply constructed in order that we might get an immediate foothold into the spon-


24 1

taneous evolution of community machinery : we let every member choose his associates in respect to the criterion of living in the same home, irrespective of age, nationality, or whatever . But in the course of analyzing these choices we found the outcome so contradicting that we could not reconstruct the home groups in the community upon their basis . A minority only "clicked," that is, chose each other mutually, and a still smaller minority clicked by first choice . The large majority "passed by" or neglected each other for unknown reasons . At the same time the choices "broke" all the racial, religious and I .Q . lines, colored choosing white, white choosing colored, Catholics choosing Protestants, high I .Q. choosing low I.Q., and vice versa . Further, we had discovered that instead of the 2,525 choices expected (on the basis of 505 persons choosing at a rate of 5 choices each), only 2,285 choices were actually made . The fact of 240 choices being missing had compelled us to make a special investigation. (See chapters, Limit of Emotional Interest and Sociodynamic Effect .) But the discovery of choices being missing brought about another critical speculation regarding our procedure . Besides the two factors, limit of emotional interest and sociodynamic effect, whether or not any individual has made her 5 choices in full, may have a relation to the number of acquaintances she has had the opportunity to make and a relation to the period of time she has spent in the given community up to the moment of the test . As the Hudson school is a closed community, we had the possibility of tracing these factors accurately as every individual who arrived into it faced the population equally strange to her with the exception of rare instances wherein a new girl had previously met one or two of the population outside . After having treated these two side problems we returned to the primary stage of our research . The great number of unreciprocated choices suggested to us the idea that perhaps an inquiry at the other end, from the unresponding individuals, may adjust many one-sided situations and transform them into reciprocated ones. Also, as we had found in certain cases that the mutual choice was undesirable for one or the other party, we considered more information about both ends of the relationship necessary . Therefore we began an investigation into the motivations underlying these choices .



It is the place, here, perhaps, to ponder upon methodical errors which we may have made up to the present point . First comes the validity of subjective choice . Subjective choice to be valid requires the total absence of such factors as threat and fear and the operation of such factors as confidence in the realization of their choices . It is obvious that the girls in Hudson, if they wanted a desire to be carried out, would try to make their choices as sincere as they were able . Furthermore, the meaning of the test was explained to the girls by the superintendent in person, whom the girls realized had full authority and whose great desire to aid each girl was often experienced by them . The recklessness of the choices made, as presented in the sociograms, is evidence that no doubt need exist as to the sincerity of the choices except in occasional cases . They knew that they would not be punished for being honest, but rewarded, if in any way possible, by being moved into the cottage in which they liked to live . It came out in the interviews that the choice was at times not only directed towards an individual but towards the cottage as a whole . Second, after the validity or invalidity of subjective choice was considered, we estimated the validity of choice and response for the purpose of classification . The range of choices and responses fell between 5 and 41 . Every single statement about an individual was thus checked by 5 to 41 other statements and hence appeared well supported. Third we considered the fluctuation of opinions, the problem that the opinions of individuals, especially of adolescents, might be found to change rapidly . Therefore the girls were allowed a period of 90 days in which to change their choices or responses . However, they maintained their original choices and responses to the extent of 95% . Fourth came the accuracy of the girls' statements and motivations for their choices . These are, indeed, frequently inaccurate . Notwithstanding comprehensive study of each child's statements of motivations, they are sometimes, as in the cases of backward children, little more than naive utterances . Yet in one respect the most inarticulate motivation does not differ one iota from the most articulate one . It expresses this or that individual's desire or protest regarding living in the same cottage with this or that other individual at the time of interrogation . The fact that the more intelligent person motivates her



likes, dislikes and indifferences more fully does not change the fact that she also only expresses a preference . Thus the real test of the situation is not how accurate statements are, but again, how spontaneous and subjectively true they are . A further restrictive argument is that the preference of 5 persons outside your group does not exclude your liking the persons of your own group, if only in lesser degree . But to resign from being together with persons whom you know to be of greater inspirational value for you and your progress is difficult .

Last not least, it was hard to determine the "weight" of a choice and the difference between a first and a second choice . This is why I later introduced the time index, measuring the intensity o f choice by the amount o f time individuals spend together . Our attempt to revaluate the accuracy of the far-reaching conclusions concerning the limit of emotional interest of individuals in respect to different criteria and the sociodynamic effect which results from the psychological pressure bearing upon each individual in large populations suggested to us to consider another source of possible error in our calculation . The members of the Hudson population, before they became a part of it, had been members of a community outside . Many of their emotional interests may reside, and certainly must have at one time resided, in the community from which they came . However, the girls have not been asked to choose for living in proximity individuals who lived at the time of the interrogation in some outside community . It is possible that such emotional attachments to parents, siblings, friends, men or women, do not decrease in intensity even after a long stay in the training school . This may account for the indifference some individuals have demonstrated in making use of the five allotted choices . If the test had been carried out in a manner not limiting the choices to the population within the Hudson school and had allowed the girls to choose any acquaintance anywhere, the result of the test might have been, and we can assume it almost to a certainty, far more prolific than the picture we have obtained . Many more communities than Hudson would have become subject to our test . Each of these communities may have appeared in our "Psychological Geography" map as a cottage now appears . An inclusion of individuals outside of the school would have made the whole procedure ridiculous, as it would have been



apparent to the girls that the test was not sincerely meant but purely academic . This might have interfered gravely with the prospect of releasing from them spontaneous and sincere expressions . Further, the fact that no individual outside of Hudson was available for the girls made the conditions equal for all . Still further, we have found that with the exception of men friends, most of the purely social acquaintances the girls have made outside are replaced by girls whose friendship they have won in Hudson . But we realize that the ideal conditions for this experimental study should provide for "unrestrained" exercise o f choice .

The question also can be raised if the sociometric test is a necessary procedure in the determining of group and community organization. Is it nct possible to determine the organization of a group through careful observation of each member, through interrogating one about the other, finding the indifferences, attractions and repulsions existing and the motivations underlying them? Would classification made upon this basis and the sociogram charted approximate classification and sociograms as arrived at by the sociometric test itself ? Such a "sociometrically oriented observational method" is of considerable value whenever the real test cannot be carried out ; with the aid of an "observer" sociogram it may give a rough picture of the situation . But such a procedure is still inadequate and its classification would be false, however accurate the gathered information may be, because it limits the investigation to the individuals of which the group actually consists . This group is not fully isolated from the rest of the community. The individuals of this group are in contact with many other persons in the community : the field of investigation has necessarily to be expanded to all individuals who may have been in contact with any member of this group . To ascertain these we should have to engage a great number of field workers watching every member of the given cottage over a sufficient period of time, and, to be accurate, every member of the community, because it is just as significant to know how many other individuals feel indifferent, attracted or repulsed towards some individual of the community being investigated . This would mean unsurmountable labor . But even then we would get a confusing picture of the situation, little more than an acquaintance



index subjectively undifferentiated,-imitating piecemeal the sociometric test . In fact, what such a point of view fails to convey is an understanding of two important items the test has brought to clarity . One is that the actual setting in which an individual lives and

which is imposed upon him by whatever authority and the setting which he would like to have need not be and seldom are identical .

It does not recognize the social atom of an individual, that configuration of emotional currents running from this individual to others in various localities of the community and that of the emotional currents running from each of them back to him . The second factor which this point of view fails to take into recognition is that every collective is organized more or less successfully around a definite criterion . This holds however inarticulate it may be in the mind of its members . It may, for instance, be the criterion of wanting to live in proximity with certain individuals which produces a configuration of emotional currents between one and a number of persons. Without this criterion we would have a configuration of likes and dislikes between one individual and a number of others without knowing to which criterion these likes and dislikes are related. A further investigation always reveals, as we ourselves have found through experimenting with the test in this indefinite fashion, that various criteria mingle and condition this configuration,-the wanting to work in proximity, to study in proximity, sexual criteria, cultural criteria, or whatever . Therefore, the observational procedure has from a sociometric point of view the value of an auxiliary . The sociometric test, instead, is a useful methodical guide. It helps to draw, organically and progressively, information from every possible source bearing upon the social atoms of which the community consists . COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION TYPES OF GROUP ORGANIZATION

Electrons have the same weight and quantity of electricity when they are alone, but if they are attached together to make up an atom they begin to exhibit individuality . Similarly with



men. If they are attached together to make up a group they begin to exhibit individual "differences" which did not seem to exist before. It is one thing to ask what causes brought about these differences and the forming of a group . This question has been asked and many answers offered . But it is another thing to ask how is a group or a society organized . The former question is hypothetic and deals with causes ; the latter is descriptive and analytical and deals with facts . The soci.ometric approach of group organization is free from preconception o f the contrast between individualism and collectives or corporate bodies . It takes the attitude that beyond this contrast there is a common plane, as no individual is entirely unrelated to some other individuals and no individual is entirely absorbed by a collective . The position of each individual within his kind, however apparently isolated, is one thing and cooperative acts of such individuals at certain times is another. We have learned that groups of individuals have a tendency to develop definite organization which can be accurately ascertained and that the patterns of this organization change . (a) According to the age level of its members. (See pp . 150-152.) (b) According to the interest of the members for one another . (See p. 249) . If the group is a home group and if the majority of its members prefers to remain within it, this organization tends to be introverted (see p. 270) ; but if the majority of its members wants to live with outsiders, this organization tends to be extroverted (see p . 265) . An introverted group organization tends to be warm, overfilled with emotion . An extroverted group organization tends to be cold, as little emotion is spent within it. When the members are not interested in with whom they live, either with each other or with outsiders, the organization is one of solitaires (see p. 139, Fig . 1) . I f the introverted and extroverted tendencies reach an equilibrium, the organization is balanced. "Extroverted" and "introverted" are psychological concepts introduced by Carl Jung which are widely used to connote specific individual reaction patterns . But extroverted and introverted group organization are sociometric concepts and have no relation to introverted and extroverted as used in the psychological sense . For instance, many members of an introverted group organization



may be extroverts and many members of an extroverted group organization may be introverts. Further, they are not subjective notions but exactly measurable expressions . The sociometric notions which correspond to extrovert and introvert in the psychological sense are emotional expansiveness and emotional shrinkage . But they, too, have been developed in regard to the functioning of the individual within a group and can be presented in a metric fashion .

A similar problem arises when we consider the theory of instincts . The dichotomy of instinct in the form of the sexual and the aggressive components may satisfy the psychoanalyst and the needs of individualistically oriented psychiatry . From their point of view it may appear that we should identify all emotions expressing attraction with the sexual component and all emotions expressing repulsion with the aggressive component . But this division, even if considered true for the individual organism, meets with methodological difficulties when applied to groups . The origin of a certain emotion, love or hate, rising from an individual, whatever the analytic definition of the end-product may be, is in its psychogeographical unfoldment interlocked with emotions rising from other individuals . Often we can see how they grow together, in symbiosis, dependent upon one another . When we say attraction, we indicate that a certain emotion spreads through a certain geographical area in respect to a certain criterion to join with a certain individual . When we say repulsion, we indicate that a certain emotion spreads through a geographical area in respect to a certain criterion to separate from a certain individual . A sexual current is not necessarily the accumulation of sexual impulses ; it is often the product of many contrasting and even contradicting factors . If we should say, instead of attraction, love or libido, we would say more than we can say ; we would confuse the sexual component which has an individual origin with the sexual current which has a sociometric origin. It appears, therefore, more useful to consider the sociometric area of investigation as having laws of its own and not to mix its interpretations with those coming from other fields . (c) If the group as a whole-or the majority of its members(sometimes through the influence of a key-individual) develops a hostile attitude towards one or more outside groups, its organiza-



tion can be called outward aggressive. (See sociogram of C7, p. 271) . On the other hand, if this tendency is dominant inside the group, as in C12, the organization can be called inward aggressive . (See sociogram of C12, p. 274) . (d) According to the function or the criterion of the group, as a home group, a work group, or whatever, a different organization may result in each instance, even if the members are the same in both instances . The work group may be harmonious, the home group disharmonious, in both groups the same girls function . Later we will come also to consider complex organization differences due to (e) conflicting functions withrin the same group . An example is the natural family where the conflict arises between the function of the sexual grouping, the man and woman, and the function of the social grouping between father, mother, and children . Group organization changes are also found to be due to (f) overlapping of functions. An example is the primitive family association such as the Chinese, which includes functions which otherwise would be exercised by other units, as a school unit, a work unit, etc . Organization and function of a group appear to be closely related. If a home group has an organization which is extremely extroverted, that is, a majority of its members would prefer to live in other groups, the functioning of this home group suffers in its different aspects proportionately and characteristically . We studied the various types of disturbances developing in home groups and ascertained to what definite form of group organization a definite aberration in function is potentially related . The same function in a cottage group, for instance, the executing of the necessary housework, is performed with differing efficiency according to the organization of the group, besides other factors . If the majority of the members attach their emotional interest mainly to individuals outside their group, this extroverted organization is a potential condition which may easily release disturbances of this function through lack of precision in work, superficiality of performance, tardiness, etc . If the organization is of the reverse type, introverted, and in addition many of the members reject each other, the same function may show a disturbance of a different nature, as friction and conflict between the members over its execution . On the other hand, an organization in which many members reject the housemother and at the same



time attract one another, forming a network against the housemother, may release a different disturbance of the given function . As the accepting of directions from the housemother is essential to the work, out of this last mentioned type of organization regression in the work executed frequently results, accompanied by open rebellion . QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Or GROUP ORGANIZATION

The first problem which we faced in the quantitative analysis of home groups was to ascertain the amount of interest its members showed for their own group . This is what we call, briefly, Ratio of Interest for Home Group . We used the following technique . Cottage 10 has 33 members . Each member is allowed 5 choices . If every member of C10 used her 5 choices within the group, 165 choices would be distributed within it, or 100% . But the members of C10 have attached only 53 choices to their own group. Computing the ratio of 53 choices to 165 possible choices, we have 32.12%, the Ratio of Interest for Home Group in C10 . TABLE 11 RANKING OF COTTAGES ACCORDING TO RATIO OP INTEREST FOR OWN GROUP C 6 -------- • . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 71 .20% 013 71 .03% C15 ----------- 69 .63% . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . -- 59 .000/, 012 --- ------------------- 56 .36 0/, C 8 . . . 56 .10% C 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 .45% C11 . .-- 53 .57 47 .00% C 1 ------------------------------------------------------- 46 .67% 016 46 .000/, C 7 44.57% C 3 ------- 39 .17 ------------- 37 .93% . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 32 .12% 31 .00 -lo 0 5 -----------------------------------------------------

Subsequent comparison of these ratios with the conduct of the respective cottage group revealed that with the trend of the ratios towards lower percentages, as below 357o (C10 and C5), the standard of conduct of the groups in this category was lower



than the average standard in various repects : lack of interest of the majority of members to raise the standard of house morale, greater interest in members of other cottages, an almost total lack of esprit de corps in respect to forms of malbehavior which are related to lack of unity in the house group, as runaways, and a high number of members who apply for assignment to other cottages . With the trend of the ratios of interest towards the higher percentages, 35% and over, cottages appear on the table which have shown a comparatively better standard of conduct . Eleven of these cottages (all except C7, C11, and C12) had no runaways for a period of nine months, while those cottages with percentages below 357o' had several . However, a high ratio of interest was not always correlated to a high standard of conduct if other factors existed in the organization of the group to counter this . For instance, in the case of C12 (a colored group) the high ratio of interest shown for its own group was a disadvantage : the members did not look for other outlets and at the same time there were numerous rejections among themselves. The amount of interest members of a family group or of any together-living group have for it cannot go below a certain minimum if this group is to be considered a moral force in the shaping of the personalities belonging to it . What is this minimum? It seems to us axiomatic to assume that if out of 2 at least 1, out of 4 at least 2, out of 6 at least 3, if at least 50% of a cottage group do not want to keep the group up and desire its continuation, then this group has to be ranked as below the minimum standard . Of course, 50% is an arbitrary estimate . We see that frequently a family or a business is held together by one dominant individual ; as soon as that individual dies, it collapses. It may one day be found that the minimum is higher than 50% and not lower. But it can be speculated that the minimum of interest for the group, if the group is to continue as a constructive unit, can probably be lower the larger the group is . It is obvious that a pair relation is difficult if one of the partners is more interested in a relation to a third person . But if a group consists, for instance, of 2,000 persons, and if 500 of them want to preserve the group, this group may have a better prognosis than a pair relation in which one-half is disinterested . In large groups



the factor of function has greater opportunities for flexibility and specialization . For instance, in a pair relation one cannot have towards the other person but one function at a time and exchange of function is only possible at different times . But in large groups one person may have a number of different functions at the same time towards a number of different persons . Yet another factor is significant : the influence which leader-individuals are able to exert in large groups . The distribution of power in large groups depends upon the intricate distribution of emotional currents . An individual who is in control and can steer the course of one of these currents can wield an immense potential influence out of all proportion to his immediate following. The love and hatred which members of the same home group have for each other will have an effect upon the organization and conduct of the group as a whole. We attempted to follow up this factor technically through ascertaining the distribution of attractions and rejections among the members of each cottage group separately. We followed the technique of summing up the number of attractions and repulsions in the same group and calculated the respective percentages . If the members of a group expressed 75 attractions and 25 repulsions, the ratio of attractions would be 75% and the ratio of repulsions 25% . Table 12 presents the percentages of attractions and rejections within each cottage group . TABLE 12 RANKING OF COTTAGES ACCORDING TO THE SUM OF ATTRACTIONS AND REPULSIONS IN PERCENTAGES

C 2 . . C13 0 1 0 7 ------------------ ---- C15 0 6 --. 011 -----------------------------C16 -------------------------------------C12 . .-. C 9 C14 0 8 ... . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. C 3 ------------------- 010 C 4

Attractions 85 .36% 84 .43% 83 .93% 78 .79% 76 .23% 75 .420/, 668 .47% .30% 66 .67% 65 .49'% 59 .14% 58 .48% 55 .81 01o 49 .20% 48 .41%

Repulsions 14.64% 15 .57% 16 .07% 21 .21% 23 .77% 24.58 0/, 31 .53% 32 .70 0/, 33 .33 34.51 0/, 40 .86% 41 .52%a 44.19% 50 .80% 51 .59 0/,

25 2


The percentage of attraction among the members of C10 is and the percentage of repulsion is 50.80. The percentage of attraction among members of C6 is 75.42 and the percentage of repulsion is 24.58 . In C10 it is not only the ratio of interest which is low but the number of repulsions exceeds the number of attractions and indicates a low standard of group organization . In C6 the ratio of interest is 71 .2% ; in Cl0 it is 32.12% . This illustrates how widely two home groups can differ . Besides the summing up of the number of attractions and rejections we considered another aspect, a qualitative factor : that often a single affection of one individual for another may have in its repercussions an effect upon the group or upon the community which exceeds by far the small part it contributes quantitatively . It is a sociodynamic growth of affection, not only a numerical one . We have tried to find for this qualitative factor a quantitative expression (see p . 324) . In estimating the popularity of a cottage group within the community compared to all the other cottage groups, we hypothecated that the greater the number of individuals in the community who desire to live in a specific cottage the greater is that cottage's ratio of attraction . To secure this ratio of attraction we used the following technique. We divided the number of choices its members actually received by the maximum number of choices they might have received if all the girls in the various other cottage groups at the time of choosing had sent all their choices into that cottage . An example is C5 . The total population of the community at the time of the test was 505 . The total population of the 16 cottages was 435 . The 70 individuals unaccounted for were at that time residing chiefly in the hospital or on the farm attached to the school . As both these groups were formed on criteria other than living in proximity-as was the case of the cottage groups-(in the one instance, the criterion to be treated for illness, in the other a vocational criterion) we excluded the findings in reference to these groups from those relating to the 16 cottage groups . At the time of the test the population of C5 was 17 . Hence the number of girls in other cottages was 435 less 17, or 418 . The maximum number of choices these 418 girls might have sent into C5 is 418 multiplied by 5, the number of choices allowed, or 2,090 choices . The number of choices C5 49 .20

180 253


actually received from other cottage groups was 25 . Dividing 25 by 2,090, C5's ratio of attraction is found to be 1 .2%. The ranking of the cottage groups according to their respective ratio of group attraction is presented in Table 13 . TABLE 13 RANKING OF THE COTT"AGEs ACCORDING TO RATIO OF GROUP ATTRACTION (Au Index of Relative Popularity)

Cottages Ratio of Attraction C 2 ------------------------------------------------- ------.0 % C 1 3 .8% C 7 3 .3% 3 .0% C 6 C 4 --------- --------- --------------- 3 .0 0/, 013 ------------------ --------------------------------

C14 -------------- ----------- ------- - C10 011 .--- ---------- ---------------------- ----------------016 . . . .. . . . . . . ... C15 C 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

3 .0% 3 .0%,

C12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 5 -------------------------- ---------------- ------ -- ------------------------------

2 .9%, 2 .6 % 2 .5%, 2 .5% 2 .001o 1 .7% 1 .6% 1 .20/, 0 .9%

Total -----------------

41 .0%

C 3

It appears, therefore, that the sum of all the ratios of attraction is 41% . We had found that the desire to remain in the present cottages, the ratio of interest summed up for all the cottagesarrived at by adding all the percentages listed in Table 11 and dividing by 16-is 51% . Hence it is evident that the cohesive forces at work in this community were stronger than the forces drawing the girls away from their cottage groupings . The differindicates that the introence between these two ratios, or verted trend is still greater than the extroverted and offers objective evidence of the balance existing in the groups of the Hudson community . The percentage unaccounted for when the ratio of interest, 517o, and the ratio of attraction, 417o, are added together, is 8% . This 8% represents the number of unused choices among the population, 435, of the 16 cottage groups at that time . The percentage of unused choices previously mentioned, 9Y270 (see Limits of Emotional Interest, p . 224) was reduced to when the population charted was reduced from 505 to 435 .



On the basis of the ratios of interest for their own and for outside groups, of the distribution of attraction and repulsion within a group and toward outside groups, of the ratio of attraction, a group has for other groups, and other statistical calculations, a social quotient of a group can be developed . STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF GROUP ORGANIZATION In Greek mythology Eros is the god of love and Eris is the god of discord . Less well known is the interesting brother of Eros, Anteros, the god of mutual love . That is how the Greeks accounted for the forces of attraction and repulsion among men . It is most beautiful Greek poetry which states that when love begins an arrow flies to the chosen . The symbol of the arrow has its counterpart in our symbol for attraction, the "red line ." The Greeks held that all the red lines are projected by Eros, all the black lines by Eris, and all the mutual red ones by Anteros, and that men had nothing to say about them . Instead of searching with a torch into the labyrinth of love and hatred, they had a mythical formula . We have tried to analyze this network . The forms taken by the interrelation of individuals is a structure and the complete pattern of these structures within a group is its organization . The expression of an individual position can be better visualized through a sociogram than through a sociometric equation . A minute research of sociograms C1 to C16, pp . 265-278, has opened the way towards a quantitative study of home (cottage) organization and their relation to behavior . One of the microscopic techniques to estimate the status of a group in regard to structure consists in calculating the number of each specific structure, as isolated structures, pair structures of mutual attraction or of mutual rejection, triangle structures of attraction, etc . See Table 14, Classification of Cottage Groups According to Structural Analysis, p. 258. Cottages 10 and 6, whose quantitative analyses of forms of isolation are given in Table 14, showed the following contrasts in structure : Cottage 6 has no isolated individuals against 14 in C10 ; it has 28 pairs of mutual attraction against 10 in C10 ; it has no pairs of mutual rejection against 6 in C10 ; it has 8 red-black or incom-



patible pairs against 9 in C10 ; it has 5 chains of mutual attraction against 2 in C10 ; it has 4 triangles of mutual attraction against 0 in C10 ; it has 5 squares of mutual attraction against 0 in C10 ; it has 6 circles of mutual attraction against 0 in C10 ; it has 1 star of rejection against 2 in C 10 . From the point of view of structure, C6 is better integrated than C10 . Whether the isolated position of the 14 individuals in C10 is beneficial for them or not does not alter the fact that it is detrimental for the group as a whole if 14 out of a population of 33 are not wanted in that home . Also, a high standard of integration within a group does not by any means imply that that group itself is well integrated within the community . The structural position of a group in the community is a different aspect and problem . It can be concluded that the larger the number of isolated structures in a group organization, the lower is the standard of its integration ; that the larger the number of mutual attractions, the higher is the standard of the group's integration ; that a large number of mutual attractions is a soil for the finer harmonies ; that these harmonies become evident as more complex structures, as chains, triangles, squares, etc . ; that, on the other hand, disorganization and disharmony are indicated by a great number of mutual repulsions and of attractions which are rejected . READING OF SOCIOGRAr4S

In the course of reading sociograms it became evident that certain structures recur with regularity. We have lifted some of the most characteristic structures from the sociograms and present them on pp . 137-139 . Typical Structures in Groups, I A . Red Pair . Two individuals form a mutual attraction, a red pair . B . Black Pair . Two individuals reject each other ; they mutually desire to live apart . C. Incompatible Pair . Two individuals are not compatible . One sends a red line which is answered by a black line ; one sends a red line which is answered to by a dotted line ; two individuals send dotted lines to each other .



D . Black Chain. This structure is formed if two individuals mutually reject each other, and one of them forms a mutual rejection with a third, the third forming a mutual rejection with a fourth, the fourth with a fifth, etc . The incompatible chain mirrors the number of persons in a group who are sensitized to find fault with others ; the longer the black chain the more are they so sensitized . The emotional attitude of those who enter into a black chain is in danger of becoming more and more absorbed by critical, suspicious, and hostile interests, especially if they are isolated in the group. The newcomer into a group, particularly into the groups which have a highly disintegrated organization, develops often a reputation which is unmerited and reflects the interrelation with a group which is itself maladjusted . E . Red Chain . This structure results when two are mutually attracted and one of them forms a mutual attraction with a third, the third forming a mutual attraction with a fourth, the fourth with a fifth, etc . The compatible chain represents an uninterrupted flow of emotional contacts within the group . It is the natural route for indirect imitation, suggestion, gossip, etc ., and is influential in the forming of group attitudes . It is the social telephone wire . F. Black Triangle. Three individuals incompatible with each other form a black triangle . This structure at times accompanies widely different conduct. In one instance, the black lines each of the three sent to the other two persons were found to be due largely to jealousy and protest against the other two, as each sought to dominate the group, unrestricted and single-handed . G. Red Triangle . Three individuals compatible with each other form through mutual attraction a red triangle . H. Black Square. A black square (and also a black circle) are structures which are so rare that we have not encountered any in this research . This is probably due to their being reflections of such concentrated rejection that the situation in the group in which they develop has to be relieved soon after they come into formation. I. Red Square . Four individuals who are mutually attracted to at least two of the four form a red square . Every closed structure as this has to be looked upon suspiciously as it may signify the beginning of a gang cut off from the larger group . But when the



four persons are interrelated by attractions to others in the group, it is an offshoot of a superstructure well integrated into the organization of the group . J. Red Circle. A red circle is formed similarly as a red chain except that in addition the structure is closed . K . Red Star . This structure is formed if 5 or more individuals are attracted to the same individual ; the latter is the center of the red star . Many such structures can be noted in the sociograms. L . Black Star . This structure is formed if 5 'or more individuals reject the same individual ; the latter is the center of the black star . Many such structures can be noted in the sociograms . M. Red Star rejecting the Group . This structure is formed if the center of the red star rejects the majority of those who are attracted to her . Typical Structures in Groups, II . Forms of Isolation .*

A. Simple Isolation . This structure represents isolation of an individual not only within her own group but within the community . The individual is not chosen or rejected and does not choose or reject . No one is anxious to live with her and she in turn does not care with whom she lives . It is a structure of simple isolation. B. In the second type of isolation represented, the individual chooses individuals outside her group but is not chosen by them or by individuals within her group . C. In the third type of isolation represented, the individual is chosen by individuals outside her group, but herself chooses individuals other than those who choose her . She neither chooses nor is she chosen within her group ; or she may be chosen by individuals within her group but makes no choices either within or outside of her group . D . In the fourth type of isolation represented, the individual chooses only individuals within her group but these individuals are indifferent to her. E . Isolated Triangle . In the fifth type of isolation represented, the three individuals form a mutually compatible triangle but each of the three individuals receive black lines from the group . It is a structure of an isolated and rejected triangle . * See charts on p . 139 .



F. In the sixth type of isolation represented, five individuals, each isolated and rejected in their group, reject one or another of these five . This structure, it was found, developed from a rejected gang which was breaking up . G. Isolated Pair. Two individuals form a mutually compatible pair but both of them are unchosen . In this instance, one of the pair rejects the group and the other is attracted to members within it. H . Isolated, Rejected and Rejecting. The individual is not only unchosen but rejected and she in return rejects the group . TABLE 14 CLASSIFICATION OF COTTAGE GROUPS ACCORDING TO STRUCTURAL FORMS OF ISOLATION

C 1

C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5* C 6 C 7 C 8 C 9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16

Unchosen, Isolated Unchosen and/or No . o f Unand Rejected and and Persons chosen Rejected Rejecting Isolated Rejected 20 22 24 26 17 25 35 31 28 33 28 33 29 29 27 30


1 2

3 2 1

2 1 2

4 3

3 2 3 6 1 1 2 3 2 6

3 2

2 1

7 1 4 2




Chosen but not Choosing 2 3 1

3 1 2

2 3 2


2 1 2 1

Total : 437** 34 34 3 14 4 19 Similar tables of classification can be made for all categories of social structures found in a community ; they are not included here . * The analysis of 05 is made only in respect to the first phase, the choices . ** Total population at the time of this counting of the population was 435 plus 2 new admissions .

Organization of Social Atom (page 302) Fig . 1, Person 1, HT . HT is the center of 16 attractions . Six girls are attracted to her from outside cottage groups and 10 are



attracted to her from her own cottage . She rejects 3 of those attracted to her within her group and one other within her group who is neutral towards her . To another she is indifferent . Of those from outside groups she rejects 3 . The clinical picture of those whom she rejects reveals that they lower the general conduct level of the community . She is selective in her friendship and definite in her rejections . Fig . 2, Person 2, EM . EM is the center of 22 attractions, 3 from girls within her group and 19 from girls outside her group . She has enough followers to occupy with them a whole cottage and to be treated like a queen bee, but she is indifferent to all but two (MM and CO), one of whom is her sister . She rejects 3 others . EM is an artistic, self-centered child whose emotional energy is largely absorbed by creative endeavor . Fig. 3, Person 3, LE . LE is the center of 14 rejections and 1 attraction . The 1 attraction is from a colored girl (HL) but the colored girl whom LE is attracted to (MS) rejects her, as do the three others to whom LE is drawn . The remaining two chosen by LE do not respond . This structure reflects the position of a rejected individual who still endeavors to find a reciprocating attraction . Such a status did not develop at once . It is an end phase of a long process . Fig. 4, Person 4, BU . BU is the center of 6 attractions, all of which are reciprocated, 5 from girls within her group and 1 from a girl in an outside group . BU rejects 3 individuals within the group . BU is in the position of a leader-individual within her group and in a position to reject . She can afford to be independent . ORGANIZATION OF WORK GROUPS

Up to this point the research was concerned with home groups . It gave attention only to the relations between persons . But when we applied the sociometric test to the work groups in the community an additional factor had to be considered : materials, tools, machines . Therefore two aspects entered the test : (a) the relations of the workers to each other and the foreman and (b) the relation of the workers to the particular technological process . A . third aspect, the economic, was not evaluated in the test as in Hudson monetary compensation is excluded . It was an advan-



tage to approach simpler, less differentiated work units before more highly differentiated ones . The machine devices were primitive and the factor of wages was discounted . The sociometric test was varied to fit the new situation and given in the following manner . The tester entered the workroom and tried to get into rapport with the group by explaining that sincere answering of the questions about to be put to them might lead to a better adjustment of their work situation to their wishes . Each individual was asked : 1 . Did you choose the work you are doing now? If not, name the work you would prefer to do . 2 . Choose five girls from the whole community whom you would like best of all as coworkers and name them in order of preference, first choice, second choice, third, fourth, and fifth . The individuals you choose may at present be in your home group or in this work group or in other groups . Choose without restraint whomever you prefer to work with . 3 . Choose three coworkers from this group in which you are now participating whom you prefer to work with . Name them in order of preference : first choice, second choice, and third choice . Consider in choosing that some parts of the work are done by you in association with a second or third person and you may wish other associates instead of the ones you have now .

The test was given to all the work groups in the community . See p . 281 Steam Laundry . A second example is one of the handicraft groups herewith presented . Handicraft Group . The group consisted of nine members . Its organization was considered frorn two angles : the members as individuals and the members as workers . The work process consisted in renovating household furniture . The materials used were : paint, varnish, sandpaper, cane, etc . The first process consists of removing old paint from furniture ; the second, repairing and painting . The work could be carried on so that each girl could execute a process alone . But it was found by experience that to break the monotony of the work the girls conversed aloud to make themselves heard over the noise made by the scraping of the wood . Therefore they were put at the task in pairs, which had the effect that the partners talked to each other instead of to girls at a distance .



Sociometric test findings were : 6 of the 9 workers (or 66%) gave as first choice the same girls in the community choice as in their choice from the immediate work group . Three workers (or 337o) preferred a girl outside the work group but named one of their coworkers as second choice . One worker, May (L), was rejected by 4 of the 9 ; another worker, Ella (GR) by 3 of the 9, among whom May and Ella rejected each other . Only 1, May, said she did not choose the work and did not like it . Analysis . As indicated by the sociogram, p . 279, G and R are mutual first choices ; likewise are P and T . GR and B are mutual choices, first choice from B and second choice from GR . L is rejected by G and also by three other workers, including GR-whom she rejects in turn-i .e., she is a "black" star of the group . S, C and L are isolated . The latter two send their first choice outside the group. S sends her choice to G and is unreciprocated . Comparison of the work choices with the home choices of the same individuals disclosed that 22 work choices are identical with the living choices, that is, 50% . (The number of possible choices in the work test and in the home test is the same, 5 choices for 9 persons, 45 .) On the basis of first choices, the percentage is still higher, 66% . There is evident a trend to differentiate between the choices of the girls in respect to the collective and its function, i.e ., between those with whom an individual prefers to live and those with whom she prefers to work .

The importance of interaction between groups and the countereffect the position of an individual in one group has upon his position within another group became apparent . T, who is isolated in her home group, is chosen by 2 in her work group . Thus her position within one group is compensated for or counter-balanced by her position within another group . L is isolated and rejected in both her work group and her home group . C is also isolated in both groups . Their positions in both collectives are equally unsatisfactory . S is isolated in her work group but chosen by two in her home group . B is the center of 4 attractions in her home group and receives 2 choices in the handicraft unit . Thus the position of this individual is strengthened in each group by her adjustment within the other group . On the other hand, we see the dynamic interplay of relationships developed in one group affecting the position of the indi-



vidual within a different group . When the testing of the home groups began G was found to be isolated, rejecting R and the group ; R was found to be isolated, rejected and rejecting . One month later, when the test was extended to the work units, G and R were isolated and rejected each other in their work group . But when the sociometric test of the handicraft unit was repeated three months later, it disclosed G in a leader-position and mutual first choice with R, whereas they were still isolated within their home group . Figures 1 and 2 on pp . 279-280 of A Handicraft Group, show this stage in the development of the work group structure . Five months later retesting of the cottage revealed mutual attraction between G and R and the favorably adjusted position of both within the cottage group . According to the ratings of the instructor, the two mutually attracted pairs, R-G and P-T, are the most efficient of the workers . L received the lowest rating because of unsatisfactory work and wasting of materials . It appeared that if an operation required the working in pairs, two persons should, for the proper execution of the work be sufficiently compatible to respect each other's work efficiency.

HOME AND WORK GROUPS DIFFERENTIATED The organization of a group and the function allied with it are closely related, as we have shown previously . Definite disturbance of a function within a household is accompanied by a characteristic pattern of organization . The functions in a household are largely social, behaving according to a certain standard, dining together, exchanging innumerable little courtesies, tolerating one another in intimate group life . But in a work group these functions are to a large extent absent . They are reduced to a minimum . It is from technological changes that new functions develop and are imposed upon the group . The same group of persons with a certain family organization placed into a technological situation develop a different type of organization . A structure occurring in the organization of a home group which may express little or no disturbance in the functions of this group can express a very severe disturbance in the functioning of



a work group, even if the same individuals are concerned in both instances. Such an instance is the relationship between DR and LR . See sociograms of a Steam Laundry, pp . 281-282 . In the home group, C12, they reject each other, but this structure had no appreciable effect upon the group as a whole as far as could be observed for over nine months . They reject each other also in the steam laundry, their work assignment . But in this situation their hostile interaction towards each other had the most upsetting effect upon the work process and the cooperation of the group as a whole, a few times bringing the work to a standstill . This has a simple explanation . DR and LR were the feeders of the steam roller . If they quarreled with each other they failed to feed the machine evenly or delayed the feeding . A delay or disturbance in the feeding disturbed or delayed the catchers who temporarily had no work to do . At other times, when the two enemies did not want even to look at each other, one fed the machine too hastily, the other too slowly . One catcher was then so overcrowded with work that she could not meet the demand fully and pieces caught in the machine necessitating the forewoman to halt the steam roller in order to remove them . Again, while an extroverted organization in a home group may predispose towards severe disturbances in function, an extroverted organization in a work group may predispose but very slightly towards disturbance . The sociogram of the rug-making group demonstrates an extroverted group organization . The efficiency of the work process was, however, not interfered with to any appreciable degree . The reason for this is apparently related to the technological process itself . Each worker works with her individual crochet hook at a speed she herself dictates . Her actions do not depend upon the actions of her associates . On the other hand, the workers, although they did not choose or like each other, had chosen the work . Interest in the work to be executed can provide compensation for lack o f interest in coworkers . The test had also been given to mentally retarded groups as well as to groups in the community outside . It appeared that the trend of differentiation between home and work choices as observed for many groups in Hudson decreases in groups of mentally retarded individuals . The same group for home and work was chosen more often . Attachment to the same persons for all



social needs may have psychologically an economic advantage . Overlapping of the two functions in one group may be less demanding than their specialization into two groups for performance . It appears like a regression to forms which were prevalent in more primitive societies (Chinese family association) . The trend towards differentiation seemed to increase for mentally superior groups in the community outside . But there were exceptions : there were a small number of groups consisting of mentally retarded individuals who favored the differentiation of groups and there were a small number of groups consisting of mentally superior individuals who favored the one group set-up . But the general trend as found is another demonstration of the sociogenetic law that social groups grow through a process of differentiation from simpler to more complex units .


STRUCTURE OF A COTTAGE FAMILY-Cl Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections . 20 girls . Isolated 3, VD, LW, FN ; Unchosen and Rejected 3, DC, BE, LA ; Pairs (of attraction) 18 ; Incompatible Pairs 11 ; Chains 5 ; Triangles 2, EM-MM-GO, EM-GO-LP ; Squares 3, DF-WL-GO-LP-DF, EM-MM-GO-LP-EM, EM-GO-WL-BS-EM ; Circles 2, BS-EM-MM-GO-WL-BS, EM-GO-MM-AT-BSEM ; Stars (of attraction) 3, DF, GO, EM . The chains are the local links of the psychosocial networks of the entire community. Triangles, quadrangles, circles, provide the basis for subgroup formation. Classification : Extroverted Group Organization. Clues for Group Psychotherapy in Situ : Of the 100 choices, 47 go inside, 25 are not used, and 28 go outside the group . The problem is 1) how to draw the emotions of the members back to their own group ; 2) working with the isolates ; 3) probing into the rejections ; note that they come from the stars, DF, GO, EM .

2 66




Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections . 22 girls . Isolated 2 ; Not Choosing 2 ; Pairs 23 ; Mutual Rejections 1 ; Incompatible Pairs 9 ; Chains 2 ; Triangles 2 ; Squares 2 ; Stars (of attraction) 2 ; Stars (of rejection) 1 . Note : Star of attraction MA is also a star of rejection. Classification : Extroverted Group Organization. Note for the Group Psychotherapist : The star MA is rejected by four individuals who are, next to her, in the most powerful sociometric positions of the group . Note the close relation between the individuals who reject MA . Watch the newcomers in the cottage as to the camp with which they associate .





0 STRUCTURE OF A COTTAGE FAMILY-C3 Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; rejections not included at this stage of investigation . This chart illustrates a method of ascertaining the psychological organization of a home group . The choices from members of this cottage to other members within it are plotted . The choices as they may have come from the outside to members of this cottage, or from the latter to persons outside are not plotted here . The organization resulting is : 23 girls . Isolated 5, BA, GM, RA, LY, TS ; Unchosen 5, CM, JM, GL, RC, BN ; Not Choosing 4 ; Mutual Attractions (pairs) 6, AE-HF, AE-PC, PC-PP, PC-YA PC-KR, UT-SY ; Chains 1, HF-AEPC-KR-PP ; Triangles 0 ; Stars 1, LT (Note, LT is an "Isolated Star" as she chooses no one in return) . Classification : Extroverted Group Organization . Special Features-Large Number of Non Participating Individuals, Isolates and Unchosen, Low Cohesion and Low Differentiation . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : A psychodrama around LT as protagonist might disclose the forces producing the strange structure of the group .


sc a


STRUCTURE OF A COTTAGE FAMILY-C3, BEFORE RECONSTRUCTION 24 girls . Isolated 1 ; Unchosen 2 ; Unchosen and Rejecting 1 ; Unchosen and

Rejected 4 ; Not Choosing 3 ; Pairs 15 ; Mutual Rejections 5 ; Incompatible Pairs 4 ; Chains 2 ; Triangles 2 ; Squares 1 ; Circles 1 ; Stars (of attractions) 1 ; Stars (of rejections) 1 . Classification : Extroverted Group Organization ; Inward Aggressive . Since the first test was given the population changed from 23 to 24. Note that 4 girls do not use their choices at all, they only express rejections . The struc-

ture has changed considerably since the entrance of the 24th girl, CT . LT, for instance, who was an Isolated Star before, now has mutual relations with all those who choose her and a mutual rejection with GL who formerly chose her . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : A psychodrama around the star of re-

jection CM might disclose the forces producing the inward aggressive organization of the group .




Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices including the housemother ; no limit placed on rejections . 26 girls and housemother . Unchosen 1, RU ; Unchosen and Rejected 3, BW (rejected by ten), LS (rejected by nine), RF (rejected by three) ; Unchosen, Rejected and Rejecting 2, VG, DN ;Not Choosing 1, HA ; Pairs 9, CD-OP, CRBI, CR-SA, LU-BI, GO-DA, PP-LK, MN-RT, LU-CR, YD-TB ; Mutual Rejections 3, BI-GO, LU-RF, HA-DN ; Incompatible Pairs 2 ; Chains 1, SA-CR-LUBI-LK ; Triangles 1, CR-LU-BI ; Stars 3,LK, PL, BI ; Housemother, 13 attractions, 10 rejections, 3 indifferent . Classification : Extroverted Group Organization ; Inward Aggressive . Clues for Group Psychotherapy in Situ : The high rejection of the mother figure suggests her replacement or working through the three stars LK, PL and BI, who are chosen by 19 of the 26 members of the group, and two of whom choose the housemother, while the third is indifferent towards her .



STRUCTURE OF A COTTAGE FAMILY-C6 Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections . 25 girls . Pairs 28 ; Not Choosing 2 ; Mutual Rejections 0 ; Incompatible Pairs 8 ; Chains 5 ; Triangles 4 ; Squares 5 ; Circles 6 ; Stars (of attraction) 6, ES, WR, SV, HT, BU, BR ; Stars (of rejection) 1, ET. (Note "Isolated Star" WR.) Classification : Introverted . In comparison with Cottages 1, 2, 3 and 4 which are classified as Extroverted, as more than 50% of the choices given either are not used or go outside of the cottage to members of other groups, in the cottage above more than 50% of the choices given go to members inside of the group . This group behavior is classified, according to sociometric convention, as an Introverted Group Organization. Special Feature-High Degree of Differentiation. Note near-isolated individual GU at bottom of chart ; her transfer to another cottage is described on p . 505-507 . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : A psychodrama placing the isolated star WR versus the integrated star SV may reveal two different value systems.


STRUCTURE OF A COTTAGE FAMILY-C7 Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections . 35 girls . Isolated 2 ; Unchosen and Rejected 3 ; Isolated and Rejected 1 ; Unchosen 3 ; Not Choosing 6 ; Pairs 19 ; Mutual Rejections 3 ; Incompatible Pairs 9 ; Chains 5 ; Triangles 1 ; Squares 0 ; Circles 0 ; Stars (of attraction) 4 . Classification : Extroverted Group Organization ; Outward Aggressive . Special Feature-Large Number of Isolated and Unchosen . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : Approximately 20% of the group members do not choose ; a special group session of the non-choosers is indicated . Is it due to indifference or are there latent choices?



Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections. 33 girls . Isolated 1 ; Unchosen 6 ; TJnchosen and Rejected 7 ; Not Choosing 2 ; Pairs 10 ; Mutual Rejections 6 ; Incompatible Pairs 9 ; Chains 2 ; Triangles 0 ; Squares 0 ; Circles 0 ; Stars (of attraction) 3 ; Stars (of rejection) 2 . Classification : Extroverted Group Organization ; Inward Aggressive . Special

Features-Low Cohesion and Low Differentiation . Also, individual SL is rejected by 17 of the 33, that is, almost 50% . Thus she is practically pushed out of the group in which she is supposed to make an adjustment . On the other hand, there is an individual, MK, who rejects 10 individuals or about 1/a of the members of the group, although she is chosen by 7, a "Rejector" or "Rejecting Star." What makes this chart still more interesting is the existence of the individual LR, who is chosen by 7 members of the group but who does not choose any member of the group, an "Isolated Star ." The girls of this cottage who were instructed to make a minimum of 165 choices did not make use of but 53 choices, less than % . Although they were asked to express rejections without special instructions they rejected 55 times, nearly twice as much as there are individuals within the group and, as if to top this pattern of mutual self destruction, there is a cleavage between the girls who are inclined to choose and the group of girls who are inclined to reject . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : The cleavage is produced by loyalties for opposed ethnic groups ; the rejected individuals are friendly with Negroes, the rejecting individuals prefer the company of whites . A sociodrama by means of which the grievances of the two groups are clarified and desensitized, is indicated .



. A


Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections. 28 girls . Unchosen 1 ; Unchosen and Rejected 1 ; Pairs 24 ; Mutual Rejections 1 ; Incompatible Pairs 4 ; Chains 12 ; Triangles 1 ; Squares 2 ; Circles 2 ; Stars (of attraction) 2 ; Stars (of rejection) 2 . Classification : Introverted Group Organization ; Inward Aggressive . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : Expose the entire group to a sociodrama and explore whether the large amount of aggression has a cohesive or a dissociative effect . Is rejection sent into a group preferable to indifference?



Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections . 33 girls. Unchosen 1 ; Unchosen and Rejected 4 ; Mutual Pairs 31 ; Mutual Rejections 7 ; Incompatible Pairs 21 ; Chains 2 ; Triangles 2 ; Stars (of attraction) 4 ; Stars (of rejection) 1 . Classification : Introverted Group Organization ; Inward Aggressive. Special Feature-Out of 33 individuals there are 31 who are either rejected or who reject some member of the group ; only two are free from this pattern of aggression . It is interesting that this cottage is one of the two colored houses within the community, which is overwhelmingly white . The girls project most of their attractions as well as rejections upon the girls of their own race, producing an excess of love as well as of hate within a small social area . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : Start a sociodrama and break the group into two opposing camps, the one unit consisting of individuals who indicate self preference, the other consisting of individuals who indicate self rejection . The problem to be explored will be whether self preference means here love for one's own race and self rejection hostility against one's own race .



Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections . 29 girls . Unchosen 2 ; Unchosen and Rejected 2 ; Not Choosing 2 ; Pairs 40 ; Mutual Rejections 1 ; Incompatible Pairs 5 ; Chains 6 ; Triangles 8 ; Squares 6 ; Circles 3 ; Stars 8 . The Housemother is not represented on the chart . All 29 girls are attracted to her . Classification : Introverted Group Organization . Special Feature-High Degree of Differentiation and High Cohesion . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : How many newcomers can the group absorb and integrate without losing its present level of cohesion? This question can be answered by testing the emotional expansiveness of the stars in roleplaying situations in which the newcomers participate .





Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections . 29 girls. Isolated and Rejected 1 ; Unchosen 3 ; Not Choosing 1 ; Pairs 13 ; Mutual Rejections 1 ; Incompatible Pairs 2 ; Chains 1 ; Triangles 0 ; Stars (of attraction) 1 ; Stars (of rejection) 1 . Classification : Extroverted, Inward Aggressive. Compare the pair SR-LS above with their Runaway Sociogram, p . 396, and text on p. 398-400 . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : When potential runaways are indicated by the sociogram as above, a sociodrama can be set up in which the runaway plans are acted out, thus "preventing" them from occurring in actuality .



Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections. 27 girls . Unchosen 2 ; Not Choosing 2 ; Pairs 27 ; Mutual Rejections 1 ; Incompatible Pairs 18 ; Chains 5 ; Triangles 6 ; Squares 4 ; Circles 1 ; Stars (of attraction) 5 ; Stars (of rejection) 2 . Classification : Introverted, Inward Aggressive . Special Feature-High Degree of Differentiation . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : The triangle DA-MS-MK has been found to recur in a successive number of tests. A sociodrama may explore whether it represents a constructive or a destructive element to the entire group .


STRUCTURE OF A COTTAGE FAMILY-C16 Criterion : Living in proximity, sharing the same house ; 5 choices ; no limit placed on rejections. 30 girls. Isolated 1 ; Unchosen 6 ; Unchosen and Rejected 5 ; Not Choosing 1 ; Pairs 18 ; Mutual Rejections 2 ; Incompatible Pairs 7 ; Chains 6 ; Triangles 2 ; Squares 0 ; Circles 0 ; Stars (of attraction) 5 ; Stars (of rejeetion)1 . Classification : Extroverted. Special Feature-Large Number of Unchosen and Rejected .

Note for the Group Psychotherapist : In a sociodrama let the pro-group (the 19 members who choose and are chosen) face the con-group (the 13 members who neglect the group or are themselves neglected) .



Fig . 1 . R and G attract each other (mutual first choice) . T and P attract each other (mutual first choice) . B and GR attract each other (first choice vs. second choice) . C, S and L are unchosen in the group . But whereas C and S are simply unchosen, L is rejected by four, C, T, P and GR . Two of these form a strong pair relation ; L further rejects GR in turn ; GR is also rejected by R and S . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : In a work situation impersonal factors determine choice as interpersonal affinity, competency for the job and teamproductivity . A technically skilled partner is often preferred to an emotionally attractive partner who is less skilled .


H A HANDICRAFT GROUP Fig . 2 . indicates that the 9 workers from Fig . 1 work in pairs and that they have been paired in accordance with their emotional relations and their workproductivity as dyads : G-R, T-P, B-GR, S with C and L alone .




Fig . 1 . 7 workers and 1 white forewoman . DR and LR, the feeders, reject each o ther . G R and WL, the catchers, reject each other. WL rejects also the feeder opposite her, LR. FR and CV, the two folders, attract each other. FR and CV reject WL . GM, the shaker, is attracted to CV and rejects GR . GM, DR, GR and FR reject the forewoman (FM) but only DR is rejected by her . LR, WL and CV are attracted to the forewoman . The seven workers live in C12, but only WL is plotted on the sociogram of C12 because most of them came to the community at a later date . WL can be located on the sociogram of C12 on p . 274 at the top left hand corner . It may be noted here that she is a star of considerable attraction (5) in her home group . However, her sociometric position in the steam laundry is of a different order . Here she is rejected by 3 of the workers ; the mutual attraction to the white forewoman is a carryover from the home group in which she represents one of the few stabilizing forces and where she has an affectionate relationship with the white housemother . Note for the Group Psychotherapist : A sociodrama at the psychological moment in which all workers of the laundry and the white management would participate, might have prevented the racial riot which took place a few weeks after this sociogram was made .



Fig . 2 . DR has gained a position of greater influence . In Fig . 1 she is the object of one attraction, GR ; now she is the center of five attractions : GR, WL, FR, CV, GM and forms a pair with GR . She is rejected by LR whom she rejects in return . In Fig . 1 the forewoman is rejected by four workers, now she is rejected by all but LR . The influence of DR is apparent in the concentrated opposition against the forewoman . (See Chapter on Race .) The pressure within the work situation has changed the sociometric picture . The growing hostility against the white forewoman has also involved WL . (One must remember that the authority in one of the colored cottages is a colored person, whereas here the authority is a white person . One should also bear in mind that the racial riot in the community started in the steam laundry .)

SOCIAL MICROSCOPY THE EMOTIONAL EXPANSIVENESS OF MAN The community of Hudson at the time of testing had a population of 505 persons . If each person should express like or dislike towards every other of the remaining 504 persons, the community would be filled with about 250,000 (precisely, 254,016) feelings of love or hatred . The 250,000 feelings of love or hatred consist of 125,000 pair-relations . Theoretically, at least, every person in Hudson could enjoy so many contacts . Of course, the possibilities of a person in Hudson are still limited compared with those of a person in a city such as New York . A New Yorker living in a community of about seven million inhabitants would have the opportunity to produce about 49 billion different attitudes or 24/ billion pair-relations . Fortunately, perhaps, our emotions are far more thinly spread and distributed and the quantity of their expansion, as we have proved at Hudson, can be easily measured . We say fortunately because if the expansive power of our emotional life should be so incredibly large as to enable us to produce and sustain billions of friendships or hostilities our social universe would burst from the unendurable heat of too much affection and passion . We have given every person in Hudson the opportunity to choose 5 persons with whom she would like to live . This means that instead of expecting from each person an extent of interest up to 125,000 pairs of relations, we gave each an opportunity up to a maximum of 505 times 5 choices, that is, 2,525 relations, and i f we counted the responses, many more . Incredible as it may appear, a great number of the individuals in Hudson could not make use of the 5 choices . For many girls 3 or 4 choices were fully sufficient to express their needs in respect to the home criterion . A small number did not choose at all . There were also a 283



number who could have used more than 5 choices to express their interest . No other social institution is more responsible for man's sociability and the shaping of his emotional expansiveness than the family . The plasticity of the newborn infant is probably far larger than that of the adult man, perhaps potentially infinite . Not only the quality but perhaps also the quantity, the expansiveness of emotional interest has been molded by the family group . A family being a group of few persons forces the growing child to limit his attention to the development of few relationships, to parents and to siblings . His thirst to expand is thus early cut and channeled ; he gets used to being content with a small number of relations . When grown up he feels that he cannot absorb more than a small number of relations . Indeed, the quantum of his active acquaintances will rarely rise or fall above or below the average . If he makes a number of new friends or enemies an equal number of former friends or enemies will fade out of his attention . He cannot go beyond a certain limit, it seems, to keep a balance. Many questions can be raised . Why is the emotional expansiveness of some persons so much larger than that of others? Is it constitutional? Does increased expansiveness go together with increased spontaneity? Does reduced expansiveness go together with decreased spontaneity? Is the course of man's development towards restraint and rigidity? Is the retraining of man's social spontaneity desirable, will the future society develop a species of man whose social spontaneity will be infinitely larger than ours? If so, a natural power is here given to man full of potentialities which may enable him to win in the race against the machine through the expansion of his spontaneous social energy to an extent unknown heretofore . There is one to whom we always have ascribed the power of infinite expansiveness . It is God . In our religions it is perfectly natural to think that God has a private relation to each person of the universe separately . He has no relationships en masse, he does not know us altogether, he knows us each separately . We have figured out before that a New Yorker could have 24/ billion relationships within his commonwealth alone . For God this is not only possible but necessary and true . Will the man of the future be more similar to our image of God?




According to plan we moved from the first dimension of research-the attraction-repulsion-indifference patterns-to the second dimension of research, the range of acquaintances, social contacts and emotional expansiveness . The reader will notice that we reversed the order designated in the book : I did not start with the logically first step, the acquaintances and contacts, but with a step which seemed to be ethically more appropriate for the sociometric research-the choices and decisions of the inhabitants . Had I started with the collection of data which may have appeared insignificant to the inhabitants, they may have felt like guinea pigs of a sort and the social experiment might have been blocked before its inception . After the community was "warmed up" by means of the sociometric test to a fair degree of cooperation, we could afford, without fear of arousing suspicion, to return to the first step and explore their range of contacts and expansiveness .


The test o f emotional expansiveness measures the emotional energy o f an individual which enables him to "hold" the affection o f other individuals for a given period o f time, in difference from social expansiveness which is merely the number of individuals with whom he is in social contact regardless of whether he is able to hold them or not . An illustration is the mother who is able to understand, hold and guide three children, with security and poise ; when she has a fourth child she begins to have fits of anxiety and agitation from time to time . If the family should increase to seven children, for instance, it would be difficult for her to divide the amount of emotional expansiveness between all the seven. Three would be too much for her and escape her attention. Another illustration is a physician who can hold and counsel within his three office hours ten patients . Should the load increase to twelve or fifteen, his emotional expansiveness begins to decline, fatigue sets in and his judgment becomes poor . The same may be said about social workers, lawyers, clergymen, sales people, indeed, about every type of social service in which the emotional productivity in a task is linked to other individuals,



simultaneously or in succession . The emotional expansiveness is more directly related to behavior and action than the more inclusive sociometric test . It does not matter here how many are chosen, but how many an individual can hold and satisfy in his immediate needs . In the sociometric analysis of behavior it stands between the sociometric test and the spontaneity test . The Parent Test (see p . 463) and the Family Test (see page 471) are tests of emotional expansiveness . In the course of Parent Tests we observed, aside from the manner a housemother reacted towards the different children around her, that one housemother was able to attract the attention of more children than another, and also that some housemothers fatigued more rapidly in their interviews. After a few tests we could already rank the housemothers roughly according to their emotional expansiveness . We followed the matter up in the respective cottage settings where we found our estimates corroborated by the behavioral responses . A housemother can embrace with her given emotional energy only a certain number of children . If the number of girls she embraces surpasses a certain limit a process of selectivity sets in . She will develop a one-sided interest towards those to whom she is spontaneously "drawn". the rest will fall on the sideline . This limit of expansiveness has, thus, an effect upon the organization of the group through producing a number of girls isolated from the housemother either because there are too many in the cottage or because of "faulty" assignments . One factor in a "faulty" assignment is that the girl assigned to a certain cottage does not appeal to the housemother . The effort the latter has to make to reach the child is out of proportion to what she has available for her. And if two or three such individuals are assigned to the housemother, problems to her but easily reachable to others, she becomes, if she takes her duty seriously, more exhausted through dealing with them than through efforts made for a dozen other children . Eventually she becomes indifferent and she tries to mask her undoing . But her difficulties can be treated in roleplaying situations. Emotional expansiveness is subjectible to training . No individual can be pushed beyond what appears to be his organic limit. But in most of the cases we have studied this limitation has been due to a functional inability to make full use of its range within



the organic limit . The housemothers can be taught through an analysis of their volume of emotional expansiveness, by showing them, that it is far larger than it appears ; frequently it is consumed by many other individuals and objectives outside her actual job . Through the study of this volume and the range of its "consumers" we arrived at the problem of the volume of all acquaintances an individual has in the community in which he lives . ACQUAINTANCE TEST

The acquaintance test measures the volume of "social" expansion of an individual, the range of his social contacts. Every individual draws his significant relations from his volume of acquaintances . Acquaintances in the larger sense of the word are all the people whom he knows face to face or people whom he knows indirectly, for instance, via another individual or through correspondence . As already pointed out, theoretically at least, the place for an acquaintance test is at the very beginning of an investigation, even ahead of the sociometric test . We began to study the acquaintance volumes of individuals, and for this purpose Hudson offered an excellent opportunity . The incoming girl arrives into a community in which she is totally without acquaintances, and from the moment of entrance her new acquaintances are limited to the given population . Because of these two conditions it was possible to gauge the relative growth in volume of acquaintances of each individual in Hudson . We used the following technique : (a) The test was given to unselected groups, to every incoming girl as she arrived . (b) The conditions were the same for every individual tested. (c) The test was repeated every 30 days . (d) The instructions were as follows : "Write the names of all the girls whom you can recall at this moment to have spoken to at any time since you came to Hudson. It does not matter how long ago you made an acquaintance, nor if you spoke to her only once or many times. If you do not recall an acquaintance's full name, write her nickname or her first name or identify the person in some way . Do not include girls with whom you live in your cottage ." In Table 15 is presented an acquaintance index secured through the Acquaintance Test administered over a period of 6 months to 16 girls.



TABLE 15 INDEX OF THE VOLUME OF ACQUAINTANCES OF 16 INDIVIDUALS After After After After After After Name I .Q . Cottage 80 days 60 days 90 days 120 days 150 days 180 days 41 42 JN 100 C16 13 18 33 39 63 65 42 26 29 28 GU 121 0 1 7 8 12 9 9 8 RD 62 C 6 42 46 73 72 DB 85 0 8 30 43 ML 80 C 6 24 27 30 33 27 28 10 12 25 38 29 30 MK 86 C 4 50 62 74 SO 112 C 6 30 44 37 101 131 KN 87 C11 21 32 33 52 61 50 28 46 43 IL 116 C 1 42 32 34 31 DN 85 C 8 22 42 29 12 24 31 51 46 HY 102 C 2 15 14 13 HR 65 C16 9 9 10 11 14 22 25 25 26 RZ 88 C16 33 44 84 75 82 HP 91 C10 30 79 32 32 33 FA 77 C10 14 16 15 NI 82 C11 13 25 41 42 47 49


The acquaintance volume of the 16 girls after 30 days ranged between 7, the lowest, and 63, the highest number of acquaintances ; after 60 days, between 8 and 65 acquaintances ; after 90 days, 10 and 79 ; after 120 days, 9 and 84 ; after 150 days, 9 and 101 ; and after 180 days, 8 and 131 . We recognize from a reading of Tables 15 and 16 that the growth in volume of acquaintances varies from individual to individual and from time to time . In 9 instances, it can be noted, the acquaintance volume increased in general progressively from month to month (JN, DB, MK, SO, KN, HY, HF, FA, and NI) ; in 2 instances the acquaintance volume regressed in general from month to month (IL and GU) ; in 5 instances it neither increased nor decreased appreciably but remained practically stationary (RD, ML, DN, HR, and RZ) . Analysis of the progressive cases shows that the number of new acquaintances made from month to month was in general greater than the number of acquaintances "lost" ; in the stationary cases, the new acquaintances are more or less balanced by the number of acquaintances lost ; and in the regressive cases the number of new acquaintances is smaller than the number of acquaintances lost ; once case appeared uneven (IL) but with a regressive trend . The acquaintance volume varies from individual to individual to such an extent that 180 days after entering the community of



Hudson, living under the same conditions, and having the same opportunity to meet others, one individual, RD, had an index of 8, while another, KN, had an index of more than sixteen times larger, 131 ; and RD, who lives in C6, showed her acquaintances to be distributed among 5 units, whereas KN, who lives in C11, had hers distributed among 16 units of the community . A comparison of the acquaintance indices of these 16 persons with the findings of their sociometric testing after 150 days indicated that the number of individuals any one of the 16 knows is several times larger than the social atom, the number of those who release in her a definite emotional reaction upon any criteria . For instance, RD with an acquaintance index of 9 chose only 2 individuals with whom she preferred to live and to work ; KN with an acquaintance index of 101 chose 14 different individuals on several criteria . Of the 16 individuals, after 180 days 5 are definitely stationary in their volume of acquaintances ; 2 are regressive ; and 3 of the 9 progressive instances show a tendency towards a halt. This may suggest that after a certain period a person in a closed community reaches his individual average acquaintance level . Numerous factors have apparently a bearing upon the volume of acquaintances . GU, who has an I .Q. of 121, reaches after 150 days an acquaintance index of 29 ; IL, who has an I .Q. of 116, reaches after 150 days an acquaintance index of 46 . GU and IL are the 2 individuals who have the highest intelligence quotients among the 16 girls. But KN, who has an I .Q. of 87 after the same period of time has elapsed, has an acquaintance volume of 101 . Many similar cases have been found although our findings do not suggest any definite conclusions yet as to the relation of the I .Q. to the acquaintance index .

TABLE 16 ANALYSIS OF ACQUAINTANCE INDEX OF Two INDIVIDUAL CASES, RD AND KN After After After After After Acquaintance After 60 days 90 days 120 days 150 days 180 days Volume 30 days

RD KN RD KN RD KN RD KN RD KN RD KN 1 3 2 10 5 6 3 11 0 12 Lost 6 18 6 22 7 24 6 42 7 75 Maintained 1 56 21 2 14 6 11 2 28 3 59 Acquired new 7 Total volume 7








9 101

8 131



Distribution of Volume : 03, C4, C7, 015, C16 After 30 days RD { gN RC, Hosp ., C1, C'2, C4, C6, C10, C14, C16

A fter 60 days

C4, C7, C15, C16 RC, Hosp ., 01, C2, C3, 04, C6, C7, 08, C10, 015, C16


03, 04, C7, 011, 015, C16 Hosp ., Cl, C2, 03, C4, 05, C6, C7, C10, C14, C15, C16


RD I KN : 0 days RD I gN

After 120 days

RD : C4, 07, C11, 016 KN : RC, Farm, Ho .sp., C1, 02, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C10, C13, C14, C15, C16

After 150 days

RD : C4, 07, C11, C15, C16 KN : RC, Farm, Hosp ., C1, C2, C3, 04, C5, C6, C7, CS, C10, 013, C14, 015, C16

It can be speculated, however, that an individual whose intelligence is approximately on the same level as that of the major portion of the population in his community will usually have a larger acquaintance volume than an individual whose intelligence is far superior or far inferior to that of the major portion . RD and HR, with I .Q.'s of 62 and 65 respectively, reach after 180 days acquaintance indices of 8 and 13 respectively . The I .Q.'s of the individuals with whom RD and HR are acquainted are in the majority of instances on a similarly low level . It may be that in a population the majority of which are of a similar intelligence as RD and HR, RD and HR might reach a large acquaintance volume during the same period of time ; and that in a population the majority of which are of a similar or higher intelligence level than GU and IL, GU and IL might reach a larger acquaintance volume during the same period of time . However, the emotional and social differentiation of the group to which the individual belongs seems also to have a bearing upon the acquaintance index of any member of that group . The sociometric position GU and IL have in their respective cottages discloses that both are best adjusted to individuals who are far below their level of intelligence . On the other hand, KN, who has a far lower I .Q. than GU and IL, appears in a leader-position with followers, four of whom are superior to her in I .Q. The superior social and emotional equipment of KN seems to be largely responsible for her large acquaintance volume and for her position within her group .




When Democritos developed the theory of the atom he opened up the modern conception of the physical universr . 'I'o claim the atom as the smallest living particle of which the universe consists he had to close his eyes to the actual configurations of platter and claim impudently that they are composed of other infinitely small units, themselves indivisible, the atoms . Perhaps in an approach of the social universe we can learn from Democritos and close our eyes to the actual configurations social "matter" presents to us families, factories, schools, nations, etc . Perhaps a mind not distracted by the gross facts in society will be able to discover the smallest living social unit, itself not further divisible, the social atom .

When we look at a community without considering its actual structure and whether good or bad, we first become aware of numerous collectives which swim on its surface : families, work groups, racial groups, religious groups, etc . And we recognize that these groupings are not wild formations but that they center around a definite criterion : living in proximity, working in proximity, etc . We recognize also that the position which an individual has in these collectives is often in contradiction with his aspirations . If more than one individual is necessary to realize and satisfy human desires a social situation develops, a social relation, a social need. The sexual desire, the desire for shelter and the desire for nourishment partaken with others are such desires . More than one person is necessary if the aim is to bring about the realization of a home or work group. But, similar to individual A, also individual B, C, D, E and millions of others are in the same position : they need other persons with whom to establish a home relation, a sexual relation, a work relation or a cultural relation . Those interests are shared by millions but differ in detail and degree from individual to individual and from group to group. The differences in detail and degree make the process very complicated . A person needs a number of other persons to accomplish his ends and the other persons need him to help them accomplish theirs . The problem would have a simple solution, then, if all the persons concerned mutually reciprocated . But they do not unanimously "click ." One would like to live with this person but this person is attracted to somebody else . One wants to work with this



person but this person rejects him, and so forth . Men differ in the amount of interest they have and in the amount of attention they receive . The same is true of the groups they form and of their relations to other groups . A mass of feelings, attractions, repulsions and indifferences run into every possible direction and from every possible direction, sometimes meeting, often crossing and separating from each other . But the question is how to ascertain the true position of an individual in the criss-cross of psychological and cultural currents which mold but also transgress the groups in which he lives . Just as the physical atom, also the social atom has no visible outline on the surface of things . It must be uncovered. Through the sociometric test a method for the discovery of the social atom was obtained. (See p. 230) . An illustration of a social atom is the following : Person A is attracted to six persons : B, C, D, E, F and G . B, C and D reject A ; F is indifferent to A and G is attracted to A . On the other hand, the persons M, N, 0, P and Q feel attracted to A but A rejects M, N and 0 and is indifferent to P and Q . This constellation of forces, attractions, repulsions and indifferences, whatever their motives may be, in which persons A, B, C, D, E, F, G, M, N, 0, P and Q are involved in reference to a definite criterion we call a social atom, the social atom of A . Concrete samples of social atoms are presented in sociograms, p. 299-307. These are social atoms depicting a home complex in each of the four instances . For the sexual complex, the work complex, the racial complex, etc ., a different social atom in each case can be ascertained through the sociometric test . These social atoms are not constructions : they are actual, living, energyfilled networks, revolving around every man and between men in myriads of forms, different in size, constellation and duration . Presented below is the classification of the complex of social atoms of an individual, Charles M . It gives a picture of the coteries in which he lives . L

Classification of Charles M.


1 2-1 0-3 0-3

3-4 8-0 2-5 1 7-1

S 3-0 1 0-1 1-2 0-1

C 30-4 1 6-0 34-0 1 6-0




These four parts of a social atom are the living (L) (home), working (W), sexual (S) and cultural (C) atoms of Charles M ., comprising in all 65 persons . His highest range of expansiveness is in the "cultural (C) atom" ; here he mixes with 40 persons . His lowest range of expansiveness is in the sexual (S) atom ; there he is attracted to three persons . He is isolated and rejected in his home (L) atom and he is discordant in his work relations . We were able to determine through the sociometric test with which individuals a person wants to be in proximity and how many individuals want to be in proximity with him in respect to a given criterion and thus the outer delineation of a particular social atom was ascertained . (Classification Formula I, see p . 236 .) Following the directions pointed out in Formula I, we were able to determine through group interview and analysis of motivations the attractions, repulsions and indifferences from the centerindividual to each of the individuals of his circle and from each of these individuals back to him . And so a first idea of the inner constitution of this social atom was ascertained . (Classification Formula II, see p . 236 .) Following the directions pointed out in Formula II we could add the intensity of these attractions, repulsions and indifferences in five degree as expressed by the subject . (Classification Formula III, see p . 236 .) Following the directions pointed out in Formula II and Formula III, we attempted, through the spontaneity test, to determine the emotions of which the various attractions, repulsions and indifferences actually consist, to record also which emotions direct the currents and which are secondary . A wider comprehension of the sociodynamic organization of an atom came through the acquaintance test . The acquaintance volume of a person is the first, crude indicator of the expansiveness of an individual in making and retaining contacts in a given community . We secured a finer appreciation of the emotional expansiveness of an individual through the sociometric test . We found, for instance, that individual JN involves, in respect to the home criterion 11 individuals ; in respect to the work criterion, 8 individuals ; in respect to the recreational criterion, 3 individuals ; and in respect to the cultural criterion, 5 individuals . Her acquaintance volume at the time of the test was 102 .


\\T HO


Through the acquaintance test we learned if a social atom has a rhythmic growth, reaches a high point, and then sinks to a more or less average level ; if it is in a phase of expansion or of shrinkage ; if it spreads according to the geographical location of the individual's cottage, from his cottage to the next, within his work groups on to other collectives, or if it grows inconsistently with these and erratically over the entire community ; if it becomes stationary after a few weeks ; if it becomes regressive after a considerable rise ; and finally, with which groups of the community the individual becomes acquainted and whom he can recall when the test is given . It also further advances our knowledge of a social atom if we determine a) the emotional expansiveness of each individual who appears related to the center-individual of the social atom in reference to the criterion of that social atom ; b) the emotional expansiveness of the center-individual in reference to different criteria. If the emotional expansiveness related to one criterion only is calculated for the center-individual, we receive a false picture of the total range of his interest . An individual may have a low expansiveness in relation to one criterion and compensate this through a high expansivenesss in relation to another . Furthermore, if the emotional expansiveness of the individuals

in his social atom is high, this indicates that the center-individual is related to individuals who are in contact with many others ; i f their expansiveness is low, that the center-individual is o f relatively greater neeed to "them."

One can look at a social atom from two directions, from an individual towards the community and from the community towards an individual. In the first case, the "individual-centered" social atom, one can see how the feelings radiate from him into many directions towards individuals who respond to him by likes, dislikes or indifference and of whom he is aware, or who chose, reject or are neutral towards him without that he is aware of their participation in his social atom . This may be called the psychological aspect of the social atom . In the second case, the "collective-centered" social atom, one can look at socioatomic formations from the point of view of the community and it is this way that it has actually been discovered . When one moves from the community into the realm of a particular social atom he is again con-



fronted, as in the psychological version, with the same individuals who are interlocked with a particular, central individual . But he sees now that these individuals are also interlocked with one another and that their feelings also radiate towards individuals who are not directly a part of this particular socioatomic configuration . He is here face to face with a phenomenon which may easily be overlooked in the course of describing an individual-centered social atom . He sees in the new version that the individuals who are interlocked with the central individual A, enter with fragments and portions of their own social atoms, not only into the circle around A, but also into each other's circles . The central social atom appears surrounded with planetary social configurations but each of these planetary social atoms themselves are like the central suns, each surrounded with numerous planetary social atoms, and so forth, ad infinitum. Thus, instead of centering our attention upon a key individual with a number of individuals revolving around him, we see an interpenetration of various social atoms, of varying sizes and varying configurations, a visual demonstration that they, which represent the smallest social units of human society, are themselves involved in more and more complex social configurations yet to be studied . (See Map III, "Sociometric Geography of a Community" .) The classification of the social atom illustrates in a dramatic fashion that we live in an ambiguous world, half real and half fiction ; that we rarely live with persons with whom we would like to live ; that we work with persons who are not chosen by us ; that we isolate and reject persons whom we need most and that we throw our lives away for unworthy people and principles . The atom concept gives us an opportunity to bring the immense complexity of forms within the social universe under one common denominator . It is as if a director of a great theater has evolved a succession of most colorful and attractive settings and scenes, masks of heroes and dialogues of eternity to distract our minds from the facts beneath . Similarly, on the stage of the social universe, millions of kinds and varieties of collectives, families, schools, factories, churches, nations, are spread before our eye in most fascinating patterns ; we are ourselves actors on this stage and as if by blind necessity, we ceaselessly and indeterminately



continue to bring forth ever new collectives to reign as others fade . Because we are ourselves enmeshed in this network it has been so hard to break the door to the actual world beneath, to recognize the human universe in all its forms as a summation, interpenetration and dynamic multiplication of social atoms . TELE STRUCTURE

Tele Chart I

Simple Tele


Simple Tele (Congruous)


Simple Tele (Incongruous)


Symbolic Tele

0 A

Object Tele







Infra Tele for persons (Unreciprocated but positive attractions toward a real ego or a real role) Infra Tele for an object

0 q

Transference to persons


Transference to objects

0 A



O : Q }-+Projeefad '~ Syabo!

+ •

~--__ ._.+



Who Shall Survive - J. L. Moreno M.D. - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2024)


Who shall survive book written by? ›

Who Shall Survive?: Foundations of Sociometry, Group Psychotherapy and ... - Jacob Levy Moreno - Google Books.

Who is the father of psychodrama? ›

The Romanian–American psychiatrist Jacob Levy Moreno (1889–1974), the father of modern psychodrama, conducted the earliest experiments on this subject in Vienna in 1911, working with children in the Stegreiftheater (Theatre of Spontaneity).

Who is the father of sociometry? ›

(1992) Jacob Levy Moreno 1889-1974: father of psychodrama, sociometry and group psychotherapy.

Who gave psychodrama? ›

Psychotherapist Jacob Moreno originated the concept of psychodrama therapy in the 1920s. Moreno was also an early advocate of group therapy. During psychodrama therapy, a person works through conflicts and trauma of the past by acting out parts of these experiences.

What is the book If We Survive about? ›

Members of a church-group mission to rebuild a school in a Central American nation find their flight home delayed by a violent revolution sweeping the countryside.

Who wrote the book in his own write? ›

In His Own Write is a 1964 nonsense book by English musician John Lennon. His first book, it consists of poems and short stories ranging from eight lines to three pages, as well as illustrations.

What is Moreno's psychodrama? ›

Moreno's psychodrama is a technique of training and of group therapy which obeys the laws of sociometry. At the beginning of his career, Moreno as Freud, found himself in a transcultural position which allowed him to better observe the "classical occidental individual" captive of his stereotypal "Tinned culture".

What are the 4 stages of personality development according to Moreno? ›

Moreno suggested that child development is divided into four stages: finding personal identity (the double), recognizing oneself (the mirror stage), the auxiliary ego (finding the need to fit in), and recognizing the other person (the role-reversal stage).

What is an example of psychodrama therapy? ›

Examples of Psychodrama Therapy

Someone with adoption trauma might utilize psychodrama to work through their emotions relating to their adoption. Other participants could play the role of their birth parents, adoptive parents, other support people, or any professionals involved in their adoption.

What is sociometry according to Moreno? ›

Moreno defined sociometry as “the inquiry into the evolution and organization of groups and the position of individuals within them.” He goes on to write. The … science of group organization -it attacks the problem not from the outer structure of the group, the group surface, but from the inner structure.

Who is often called the father of modern social psychology? ›

Kurt Tsadek Lewin, who is often called the father of social psychology and is considered to be one of the most important psychologists of the twentieth century, was born on September 9, 1890, in Mogilno.

What is the meaning of sociometry? ›

Sociometry is a quantitative method for measuring social relationships. It was developed by psychotherapist Jacob L. Moreno and Helen Hall Jennings in their studies of the relationship between social structures and psychological well-being, and used during Remedial Teaching.

What is the role theory of J. L. Moreno? ›

Moreno's role theory emphasizes the importance of social interaction and group dynamics in shaping individual behavior and identity. According to Moreno, individuals perform their roles within a social context, and their behavior is influenced by the expectations and feedback of others.

What is the power of psychodrama? ›

Using experiential methods, sociometry, role theory, and group dynamics, psychodrama facilitates insight, personal growth, and integration on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels. It clarifies issues, increases physical and emotional well being, enhances learning and develops new skills.

Who is psychodrama good for? ›

Psychodrama has become a widely recognized and respected therapeutic modality. It has been shown to effectively treat eating disorders, other kinds of addiction and compulsions and many other psychological issues and difficulties.

Who writes Dewey Andreas books? ›

Former Army Ranger turned elite operative Dewey Andreas is America's best line of defense in the War on Terror in New York Times bestselling author Ben Coes's action-packed thriller series, the Dewey Andreas Novels.

Who writes the I Survived books? ›

Lauren Tarshis is the author of the New York Times bestselling I SURVIVED series which tells stories of young people and their resilience and strength in the midst of unimaginable disasters.

Who wrote the book Armageddon? ›

Armageddon, or Armageddon: A Novel of Berlin, is a 1963 novel by Leon Uris about post-World War II Berlin and Germany. The novel starts in London during World War II, and goes through to the Four Power occupation of Berlin and the Soviet blockade by land of the city's western boroughs.

Who is the author of the novel Martin Eden? ›

Martin Eden, semiautobiographical novel by Jack London, published in 1909. The title character becomes a writer, hoping to acquire the respectability sought by his society-girl sweetheart.

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